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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532862

RESUMO

AIMS: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1ß (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.

3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated leukocyte counts are associated with cardiovascular disease. Smoking induces inflammation and alters levels of leukocyte subtypes. Our aim was to investigate the effect of smoking on circulating immune cells and their association with mortality. METHODS: Lymphocyte subtypes were identified by flow cytometry of fluorescent-labeled cells. We analysed the association of leukocytes with mortality using Cox regression and assessed their effect on risk prediction based on principle components (PCs) using area-under-the-ROC-curve and net-reclassification in 2173 participants from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study, a prospective case-control study in patients who underwent coronary angiography. RESULTS: Numbers of T cells, monocytes and neutrophils were higher and natural killer cells were lower in smokers compared with never-smokers. In never-smokers, lymphocyte counts were inversely associated with mortality while a positive association was observed for neutrophils. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR) had the strongest association in never-smokers with a HR (95% CI) of 1.43 (1.26-1.61). No associations were found in smokers. Adding the first five PCs or the NLR to a risk prediction model based on conventional risk factors did not improve risk prediction in smokers, but significantly increased the AUC from 0.777 to 0.801 and 0.791, respectively, in never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphocyte counts were inversely associated with mortality in never-smokers but not in active smokers. Markers of innate immunity, namely total neutrophils and CD11b+/CD18+ and CD31+/CD40- granulocytes, were directly associated with mortality. Adding markers of immune function like PCs or the NLR to basic risk models improved risk prediction in never-smokers only.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517400

RESUMO

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery, and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed-effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on Chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035393

RESUMO

Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are risk factors for cardiovascular mortality (CVM). Pulse pressure (PP) is considered as an easily available marker of vascular stiffness and the double product (DP) as a marker of cardiac workload. Therefore, we have examined the predictive value of PP and DP in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study, a monocentric cohort study of 3316 patients referred to coronary angiography. An increase of SBP or PP by 1mmHg increased the risk of CVM with hazard ratios of 1.009 (95% CI, 1.005-1.012) and 1.016 (1.012-1.020), respectively. Increasing DP by 100 mm Hg/min was associated with a 1.010 (1.007-1.013) higher risk of CVM. In patient subgroups with coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), PP and DP predicted CVM better than SBP or MAP. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for sex, BMI, diabetes, eGFR, hazard ratios for CVM for z-standardized PP, DP, SBP, and HR were 1.20, 1.16, 1.12, and 1.14. After adding age to the multivariate analysis, only DP and HR remained significant. We provide evidence that PP and DP are powerful predictors of CVM and all-cause mortality in a CV medium- to high-risk population, especially in patients with CAD and HF. While DP proved to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality also in multivariate analysis, PP was no independent predictor in our cohort with widespread antihypertensive treatment (>85%). PP is associated with age, presence of diabetes, obesity, and impaired renal function.

6.
Circulation ; 142(6): 546-555, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies examining the role of factor V Leiden among patients at higher risk of atherothrombotic events, such as those with established coronary heart disease (CHD), are lacking. Given that coagulation is involved in the thrombus formation stage on atherosclerotic plaque rupture, we hypothesized that factor V Leiden may be a stronger risk factor for atherothrombotic events in patients with established CHD. METHODS: We performed an individual-level meta-analysis including 25 prospective studies (18 cohorts, 3 case-cohorts, 4 randomized trials) from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) consortium involving patients with established CHD at baseline. Participating studies genotyped factor V Leiden status and shared risk estimates for the outcomes of interest using a centrally developed statistical code with harmonized definitions across studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain age- and sex-adjusted estimates. The obtained estimates were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. The primary outcome was composite of myocardial infarction and CHD death. Secondary outcomes included any stroke, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The studies included 69 681 individuals of whom 3190 (4.6%) were either heterozygous or homozygous (n=47) carriers of factor V Leiden. Median follow-up per study ranged from 1.0 to 10.6 years. A total of 20 studies with 61 147 participants and 6849 events contributed to analyses of the primary outcome. Factor V Leiden was not associated with the combined outcome of myocardial infarction and CHD death (hazard ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.92-1.16]; I2=28%; P-heterogeneity=0.12). Subgroup analysis according to baseline characteristics or strata of traditional cardiovascular risk factors did not show relevant differences. Similarly, risk estimates for the secondary outcomes including stroke, coronary revascularization, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality were also close to identity. CONCLUSIONS: Factor V Leiden was not associated with increased risk of subsequent atherothrombotic events and mortality in high-risk participants with established and treated CHD. Routine assessment of factor V Leiden status is unlikely to improve atherothrombotic events risk stratification in this population.

8.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 128(9): 624-630, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-glucans are effective in binding bile acids (BA) thereby lowering cholesterol concentration. This might contribute to the beneficial effects of the consumption of ß-glucan-rich foods like oatmeal on glucose homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: We measured BA serum concentrations in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to investigate the effect of two days of oatmeal treatment on BA concentration as compared to a conventional T2DM-adapted diet. METHODS: The OatMeal And Insulin Resistance study was performed as a randomized, open label crossover dietary intervention study with consecutive inclusion of 15 patients in an inpatient clinical setting. Bile acids were measured by high-resolution mass spectrometry. For statistical analysis, the differences in the concentration of serum BA and laboratory parameters between the fifth day and the third day of each inpatient stay were calculated and the effect compared between both phases by using the Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Whereas there was a mean decrease in total BA following oatmeal treatment (-0.82±1.14 µmol/l), there was no decrease following the control treatment. Glycocholic acid was lower after oatmeal treatment but higher following control treatment (-0.09±0.17 vs. 0.05±0.11 µmol/l). The reduction in total BA was directly correlated with a decrease in proinsulin during the oatmeal phase. Decreases in blood lipids or apolipoproteins were mostly greater after oatmeal treatment, but these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Two days of oatmeal diet led to significant reductions in total BA as compared to a diabetes-adapted control diet. The magnitude of BA reduction was directly correlated with a decrease in proinsulin.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 163, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919418

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Fatores de Risco
10.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 109(1): 103-114, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low individual socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for morbidity and mortality. A related measure is the area-based SES (abSES), which describes the average SES of a region. The association of measures of abSES with morbidity and mortality is less well studied. METHODS: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study consists of 3316 patients hospitalized for coronary angiography between 1997 and 2000 at a tertiary care centre in Germany. Patients were followed up for a median of 10 years. Two measures of abSES were used: the regional purchasing index (PPI, data obtained from IQVIA GmbH) and the German Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation (GISD, developed by the Robert-Koch Institute). The association of abSES with disease and with mortality was analysed using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. RESULTS: Study participants living in regions with higher abSES had lower HbA1c and high-sensitive C-reactive protein. A higher abSES was associated with lower prevalence of active smoking, vitamin D deficiency and diabetes mellitus. We further found significantly increased mortality for participants in the lowest PPI quartile (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.38-0.90) as compared to the first quartile), and in the highest GISD tertile (HR of 1.32 (1.13-1.54) as compared to the first tertile). CONCLUSION: Living in an area with a low abSES was associated with a higher burden of diabetes mellitus, a higher percentage of severe vitamin D deficiency, higher systemic inflammation and a significant increase in mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
11.
Atherosclerosis ; 292: 52-59, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Endothelial dysfunction precedes atherosclerosis and smoking is a well-known risk factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to analyse the effect of smoking on circulating markers of endothelial function and to investigate whether such effects have an influence on the potential use of these markers to estimate cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Stratified for smoking, levels of sE-/sP-/sL-selectin, von Willebrand (vWF), sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, their association with mortality using Cox regression, and their accuracy of risk prediction using area-under-the-ROC-curve and net-reclassification-index were analysed in 1926 participants from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) - a prospective case-control study in patients who underwent coronary angiography with a median mortality follow-up of 10.6 years. RESULTS: In smokers, higher concentrations of sICAM-1, sE-selectin sP-selectin, but lower concentrations of sL-selectin and sVCAM-1, were detected compared to never-smokers. A direct association with mortality was found for levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and vWF regardless of smoking. Low sL-selectin levels were inversely associated with mortality in heavy and light smokers, with hazard ratios of 0.72 and 0.67 per 1-SD increase, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Adding sL-selectin to a model based on traditional risk factors significantly improved AUC from 0.725 to 0.752 (p = 0.034) with an NRI of 43% (16.9%-62.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking alters the concentration of circulating markers of endothelial function. sL-selectin is decreased in smokers, inversely associated with risk, and could be a useful marker to improve risk prediction.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415634

RESUMO

AIMS: The international-normalized-ratio (INR) is typically used to monitor patients on warfarin or related oral anticoagulant therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of the INR with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients not on oral anticoagulant therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 1997 to 2000 the LUdwigshafen RIsk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study enrolled 3316 patients of German ancestry that had been referred for coronary angiography. We excluded patients on coumarin therapy (n = 222) and patients with an INR more than 5 standard deviations (SD) away from the mean (n = 30). During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 884 patients died, 547 patients from cardiovascular causes. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors the INR was associated with all-cause mortality in all patients and the CAD positive group with HRs (95% CI) of 1.14(1.07-1.21) and 1.16(1.09-1.23) per 1-SD increase, respectively. Adjustment for NT-proBNP rendered the association insignificant. CONCLUSION: In LURIC, the INR was positively associated with mortality in patients with prevalent CAD not on oral anticoagulant therapy as well as in patients without CAD. Adjustment for NT-proBNP abolished the association suggesting clinical or subclinical heart failure strongly contributing to increased INR and higher mortality.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2750, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809046

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for onset and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). Discovery of predisposing loci for kidney function in CAD patients was performed using a genome-wide association approach. Inclusion criteria were CAD with ≥50% stenosis (≥1 coronary artery) and a creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-75 ml/min/1.73 m2. An association of rs139401390 located to a region 58.8 kb upstream of renalase (RNLS) with eGFR was detected in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study (n = 499, p = 7.88 × 10-9, mean eGFR 60.7 ml/min/1.73 m2). Direct genotyping of rs139401390A > G suggested increased eGFR by 12.0 ml/min/1.73 m2 per A allele (p = 0.000004). Genome-wide replication of rs139401390A > G in the Coronary Artery Disease and Renal Failure (CAD-REF) registry with a mean eGFR of 47.8 ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 574, p = 0.033) was only nominally significant. Comparison of rs139401390 genotypes for risk of reduced kidney function in the overall LURIC study revealed higher adjusted odds ratios (OR) for eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for CAD patients (n = 1992, OR = 2.36, p = 0.008, G/A + G/G vs A/A) compared to patients with/without CAD (n = 2908, OR = 1.97, p = 0.014, G/A + G/G vs A/A). No significant risk elevation was detected in patients without CAD (n = 948, p = 0.571). rs139401390 may affect kidney function in CAD patients with mild reduction in eGFR.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Blood ; 133(9): 967-977, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642921

RESUMO

Factor VII (FVII) is an important component of the coagulation cascade. Few genetic loci regulating FVII activity and/or levels have been discovered to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies of plasma FVII levels (7 FVII activity and 2 FVII antigen) among 27 495 participants of European and African ancestry. Each study performed ancestry-specific association analyses. Inverse variance weighted meta-analysis was performed within each ancestry group and then combined for a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Our primary analysis included the 7 studies that measured FVII activity, and a secondary analysis included all 9 studies. We provided functional genomic validation for newly identified significant loci by silencing candidate genes in a human liver cell line (HuH7) using small-interfering RNA and then measuring F7 messenger RNA and FVII protein expression. Lastly, we used meta-analysis results to perform Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of FVII activity on coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke (IS), and venous thromboembolism. We identified 2 novel (REEP3 and JAZF1-AS1) and 6 known loci associated with FVII activity, explaining 19.0% of the phenotypic variance. Adding FVII antigen data to the meta-analysis did not result in the discovery of further loci. Silencing REEP3 in HuH7 cells upregulated FVII, whereas silencing JAZF1 downregulated FVII. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest that FVII activity has a positive causal effect on the risk of IS. Variants at REEP3 and JAZF1 contribute to FVII activity by regulating F7 expression levels. FVII activity appears to contribute to the etiology of IS in the general population.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Fator VII/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Proteínas Correpressoras , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Fator VII/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/metabolismo , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 475, 2019 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679668

RESUMO

Soluble urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (suPAR) is risk factor for kidney disease and biomarker for cardiovascular outcomes but long term longitudinal analyses in a large European cohort have not been perfomed. To hus, we studied suPAR in participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study over a very long follow-up time of nearly 10 years. We estimated overall risk of all-cause and cardiovascular death by Cox proportional hazards regression according to quartiles of suPAR, including age, sex, use of lipid-lowering drugs, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, lipids, as well as glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), NT-proBNP, interleukin-6 and high-sensitive CRP as covariates. A total of 2940 participants (age 62.7 ± 10.5years) having a median eGFR of 83.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 were included. The median suPAR concentration was 3010 pg/mL (interquartile range, 2250-3988 pg/mL). Using the lowest quartile of suPAR as the reference, crude hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality were 1.58 (95% CI 1.16-2.16), 1.85 (95% CI 1.37-2.52) and 2.75 (95% CI 2.03-3.71) in the second, third and fourth quartile, respectively. Adjusting for NT-proBNPeGFR or inflammation (interleukin-6 and high-sensitive CRP) confirmed results. suPAR predicts all-cause and cardiovascular death over a period of ten years in persons undergoing coronary angiography, independent of the natriuretic peptide NT-proBNP, kidney function and of markers of systemic inflammation. Future investigation into a potential causal role of suPAR in cardiovascular disease is warranted.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Angiografia Coronária , Receptores de Ativador de Plasminogênio Tipo Uroquinase/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
17.
Circulation ; 139(5): 620-635, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factor VIII (FVIII) and its carrier protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) are associated with risk of arterial and venous thrombosis and with hemorrhagic disorders. We aimed to identify and functionally test novel genetic associations regulating plasma FVIII and VWF. METHODS: We meta-analyzed genome-wide association results from 46 354 individuals of European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestry. All studies performed linear regression analysis using an additive genetic model and associated ≈35 million imputed variants with natural log-transformed phenotype levels. In vitro gene silencing in cultured endothelial cells was performed for candidate genes to provide additional evidence on association and function. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses were applied to test the causal role of FVIII and VWF plasma levels on the risk of arterial and venous thrombotic events. RESULTS: We identified 13 novel genome-wide significant ( P≤2.5×10-8) associations, 7 with FVIII levels ( FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, SOX17/RP1, LINC00583/NFIB, RAB5C-KAT2A, RPL3/TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA) and 11 with VWF levels ( PDHB/PXK/KCTD6, SLC39A8, FCHO2/TMEM171/TNPO1, HLA, GIMAP7/GIMAP4, OR13C5/NIPSNAP, DAB2IP, C2CD4B, RAB5C-KAT2A, TAB1/SYNGR1, and ARSA), beyond 10 previously reported associations with these phenotypes. Functional validation provided further evidence of association for all loci on VWF except ARSA and DAB2IP. Mendelian randomization suggested causal effects of plasma FVIII activity levels on venous thrombosis and coronary artery disease risk and plasma VWF levels on ischemic stroke risk. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis identified 13 novel genetic loci regulating FVIII and VWF plasma levels, 10 of which we validated functionally. We provide some evidence for a causal role of these proteins in thrombotic events.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/genética , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Fator VIII/análise , Loci Gênicos , Trombose Venosa/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/sangue , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etnologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos Herdados da Coagulação Sanguínea/etnologia , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/etnologia
18.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 33(12): 2139-2145, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718335

RESUMO

Background: The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism. It is not clear, however, whether vitamin D influences kidney function. Previous studies have reported conflicting results, which may have been influenced by reverse causation and residual confounding. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to obtain unconfounded estimates of the association between genetically instrumented vitamin D metabolites and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as well as the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (UACR). Methods: We performed a two-sample MR study based on three single nucleotide variants associated with 25(OH)D levels: rs2282679, rs10741657 and rs12785878, related to the genes GC, CYP2R1 and DHCR7, respectively. Estimates of the allele-dependent effects on serum 25(OH)D and eGFR/UACR were obtained from summary statistics of published genome-wide association meta-analyses. Additionally, we performed a one-sample MR analysis for both 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2 D using individual-level data from six cohorts. Results: The combined MR estimate supported a negative causal effect of log transformed 25(OH)D on log transformed eGFR (ß = -0.013, P = 0.003). The analysis of individual-level data confirmed the main findings and also revealed a significant association of 1,25(OH)2 D on eGFR (ß = -0.094, P = 0.008). These results show that a 10% increase in serum 25(OH)D levels causes a 0.3% decrease in eGFR. There was no effect of 25(OH)D on UACR (ß = 0.032, P = 0.265). Conclusion: Our study suggests that circulating vitamin D metabolite levels are negatively associated with eGFR. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiopatologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/sangue , Alelos , Colestanotriol 26-Mono-Oxigenase/genética , Família 2 do Citocromo P450/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Vitaminas/sangue
20.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 33(11): 1984-1991, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474602

RESUMO

Background: Beta-trace protein (BTP) is a low-molecular-weight glycoprotein, which may serve as an endogenous biomarker of kidney function and cardiovascular risk. Methods: We examined cardiovascular and all-cause mortality according to BTP concentrations in 2962 individuals referred for coronary angiography from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study and in 907 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing haemodialysis from the German Diabetes and Dialysis (4D) study. Results: Haemodialysis patients had considerably higher median (interquartile range) BTP concentrations [6.00 (4.49-7.96) mg/L] and experienced a 4-fold increased mortality rate compared with coronary angiography patients [BTP concentration: 0.55 (0.44-0.67) mg/L]. After adjustment for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and creatinine, 4D patients in the highest quartile (>7.96 mg/L) had a 1.6-fold increased rate of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.20] compared with the lowest quartile (<4.49 mg/L) (P = 0.002) In patients undergoing coronary angiography, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 1.23 (1.0-1.51) and 1.27 (0.99-1.63) in the highest (>0.67 mg/L) compared with the lowest (<0.44 mg/L) quartile (P = 0.043 and 0.062). In both cohorts, the BTP/creatinine ratio was a stronger predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with BTP. Conclusion: BTP was associated with all-cause mortality independently of renal function in haemodialysis patients. The BTP/creatinine ratio was more predictive for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in haemodialysis patients and individuals referred for angiography compared with BTP as single marker.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Angiografia Coronária/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Lipocalinas/metabolismo , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Creatinina/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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