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1.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(4): 797-817, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771064

RESUMO

The present study focuses on the development of Spanish pronominal processing. We investigate whether the pronoun interpretation problem (i.e., reflexive pronouns comprehension is resolved at an earlier age than that of personal pronouns, also known as the Delay of the Principle B Effect), which has been documented in other languages, also occurs in Spanish. For this purpose, we conducted two experiments including pronoun resolution tasks. In Experiment 1, a task adapted from the experimental paradigm proposed by Love et al. (J Psycholinguist Res 38:285-304, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-009-9103-9 ) was used, which examines the off-line processing of the Spanish pronouns se and le. In Experiment 2, on-line processing of the same pronouns was evaluated with eye-tracking, using a paradigm developed by Thompson and Choy (J Psycholinguist Res 38:255-283, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-009-9105-7 ). Forty-three participants aged 4-16 years completed both experiments. Results indicated that there is no developmental asymmetry in the acquisition of successful resolution of the two types of anaphora in Spanish: from age 4, reflexive and clitic pronouns are processed with the same degree of accuracy.


Assuntos
Idioma , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
2.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 32(3): 666-677, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young people with intellectual disability (ID) are becoming frequent Internet users, but they present difficulties selecting reliable Internet sources. METHODS: The present authors tested an instructional programme aimed at increasing skills to evaluate information from the Internet of 33 young adult students with intellectual disability enrolled in special needs education (19.4 years). The programme was composed of different web pages that provided conflicting views on a controversial topic. Students participated in small group discussions supported with Wh-question graphic organizers and contrasting cases during seven sessions. RESULTS: Differences between pre- and post-tests indicated that the programme is effective in increasing students' ability to select trustworthy web pages, and to use source characteristics to justify such selection by means of supervised instruction. CONCLUSION: Promoting Internet use in a safe way might increase the opportunities of young people with intellectual disability to make choices and self-determined decisions about their life (Handbook of research-based practices for educating students with intellectual disability, 2016, New York, NY: Taylor & Francis).


Assuntos
Educação Especial/métodos , Deficiência Intelectual/reabilitação , Internet , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 8(2): 171-176, set. 2014. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-722883

RESUMO

Dado los altos índices de obesidad es necesario recopilar información actualizada para orientar nuevos programas preventivos, según el nivel de riesgo, en etapas más temprana del desarrollo humano y adolescencia, siendo éstos capaces de captar e integrar nuevos estilos de vida saludables. El objetivo fue evaluar el estado nutricional en adolescentes de 17 años de establecimientos educacionales de Florida y ver su relación con el índice COPD. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de diseño transversal. Se examinaron 86 estudiantes mediante una encuesta previamente validada, de recordatorio de ingesta alimenticia de las últimas 24 horas, la cual se aplicó en tres ocasiones, además se cuantificó el peso y la talla individual. Se obtuvieron datos acerca de ruralidad, urbanidad y sexo. Se aplicó un examen buco dentario, bajo las normas dela OMS, para determinar historia de caries (índice COPD). Se encontró un 2% de los jóvenes con bajo peso, 58% normales y 40% obesos, con una tasa de obesidad mayor en las mujeres, con diferencias significativas. En cuanto al origen urbano/rural se observa una distribución homogénea, donde las diferencias observadas no tuvieron significancia estadística. En relación al índice COPD, los hombres obtuvieron un 8,87 y las mujeres 9,28, habiendo diferencias significativas entre ellos. No se encontró asociación estadística entre COPD y estado nutricional. Los jóvenes de 17 años de los establecimientos educacionales de Florida presentan un mal estado nutricional, reflejado en el alto porcentaje de obesos y un muy alto nivel de historia de caries, según la OMS.


Given the high rates of childhood obesity, it is necessary to collect current information to guide new prevention programs in earlier stages of adolescent development. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the nutritional status of 17-year-old adolescents of educational establishments in Florida, eighth region, Chile, and its relation with dental caries prevalence in permanent dentition (COPD). A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a sample of 86 students, using a previously validated survey, about the dietary intake of the last 24 hours, which was applied three times; weight and height were also considered. During an interview information was obtained about sex, rural and urban background. Finally a dental examination of the history of decay was applied (COPD index, in Spanish). Test materials used were masks, latex gloves, and stadiometer calibrated weight and height rod. According to the nutritional status, 2% of adolescents were underweight, 58% had a normal weight and 40% were obese, the rate of obesity is higher in women in proportion to men, where nearly 50% of cases were in obese condition and were statistically significant. Moreover, a homogeneous distribution was observed, regardless of where they came from (rural or urban conditions). In relation to COPD index, an 8.87 in male and 9.28 in female were obtained with no significant differences between men and women. In addition, there was no statistical significance on COPD in relation to the nutritional status. It was observed that 17-year-old adolescents from Florida´s educational establishments present a nutritional deficit status reflected in high obese percentages, which according to WHO, was also related to a significant history of decay.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 98(4): 1718-25, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23463658

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cinacalcet induces immediate changes in serum PTH levels, but the pharmacodynamic effect throughout the daily dosing interval in controlled patients is unknown. Also, in patients with reduced PTH, it is unknown what happens in the first 24 hours after withdrawal. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the effect over 48 hours of cinacalcet in hemodialysis patients with controlled secondary hyperparathyroidism. DESIGN: This was a phase 4, open-label, single-arm, single-dose, single-center clinical trial. SETTING: The study was conducted at a public hospital (Hospital Perpetuo Socorro, Alicante, Spain). PATIENTS: We included 10 patients on cinacalcet for 6 months or longer with intact PTH (iPTH) levels 100-400 pg/mL [8 men, mean age of 66 years (range 39-82 years)], chronically treated with 30 mg (n = 6), 60 mg (n = 3), or 90 mg (n = 1) of cinacalcet. INTERVENTION: A single dose (30-90 mg) was administered at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: iPTH (Duo Kit Scantibodies and Elecsys Roche), PTH 1-84, ionized calcium, phosphorus (P), and calcitonin were determined at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in iPTH between 1 and 6 hours, and values returned to baseline at 24 hours [maximum mean (95% confidence interval) percent change from baseline: -50%(-34; -66) at 3 hours]. A transient increase in calcitonin and a decrease in P were also observed, with no changes in calcium. At 48 hours, there was a significant increase in iPTH [+51% (26; 76)] and P. Changes in PTH were similar with the 3 determination methods. CONCLUSIONS: In hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism controlled by cinacalcet, a transient (1-6 hours) reduction in PTH and P and an increase in calcitonin are observed after each daily dose, with return to baseline at 24 hours. After calcimimetics discontinuation, PTH was significantly increased at 48 hours. The assay used to measure PTH does not influence relative changes induced by cinacalcet.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/metabolismo , Naftalenos/farmacocinética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Calcimiméticos/administração & dosagem , Calcimiméticos/farmacocinética , Cinacalcete , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/sangue , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Prática Profissional , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Physiol ; 590(17): 4239-53, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22753549

RESUMO

The interaction of either H(+) or Cl(-) ions with the fast gate is the major source of voltage (V(m)) dependence in ClC Cl(-) channels. However, the mechanism by which these ions confer V(m) dependence to the ClC-2 Cl(-) channel remains unclear. By determining the V(m) dependence of normalized conductance (G(norm)(V(m))), an index of open probability, ClC-2 gating was studied at different [H(+)](i), [H(+)](o) and [Cl(-)](i). Changing [H(+)](i) by five orders of magnitude whilst [Cl(-)](i)/[Cl(-)](o) = 140/140 or 10/140 mm slightly shifted G(norm)(V(m)) to negative V(m) without altering the onset kinetics; however, channel closing was slower at acidic pH(i). A similar change in [H(+)](o) with [Cl(-)](i)/[Cl(-)](o) = 140/140 mm enhanced G(norm) in a bell-shaped manner and shifted G(norm)(V(m)) curves to positive V(m). Importantly, G(norm) was >0 with [H(+)](o) = 10(-10) m but channel closing was slower when [H(+)](o) or [Cl(-)](i) increased implying that ClC-2 was opened without protonation and that external H(+) and/or internal Cl(-) ions stabilized the open conformation. The analysis of kinetics and steady-state properties at different [H(+)](o) and [Cl(-)](i) was carried out using a gating Scheme coupled to Cl(-) permeation. Unlike previous results showing V(m)-dependent protonation, our analysis revealed that fast gate protonation was V(m) and Cl(-) independent and the equilibrium constant for closed­open transition of unprotonated channels was facilitated by elevated [Cl(-)](i) in a V(m)-dependent manner. Hence a V(m) dependence of pore occupancy by Cl(-) induces a conformational change in unprotonated closed channels, before the pore opens, and the open conformation is stabilized by Cl(-) occupancy and V(m)-independent protonation.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Animais , Canais de Cloreto/química , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Cloretos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Cinética , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Conformação Proteica , Prótons , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
6.
Clin Nephrol ; 78(2): 93-9, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22735366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) have protein loss through peritoneal membrane (PM) and experience changes in permeability of the membrane. Paricalcitol is a selective vitamin D receptor activator with an effect upon systemic inflammation and an inhibitory effect upon the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). METHODS: This study explores the possible effect of paricalcitol upon the PM in 23 patients on PD with high iPTH levels. Peritoneal kinetic studies were performed before and after paricalcitol, measuring also ultrafiltration/ day, peritoneal protein losses and proteinuria. Results were compared with a control group of 15 patients not receiving any form of vitamin D. RESULTS: With a mean dose of 1.3 µg/day, peritoneal protein loss decreased from 0.91 ± 0.35 to 0.76 ± 0.26 g/l (15.4%) (p = 0.007) and from 7.55 to 6.46 g/d (p < 0.033), and ultrafiltration increased from 844 to 1,002 ml/d (15.8%) (p = 0.037) and from 284 to 323 ml/4 h. (NS), with minimal change in the creatinine dialysate/plasma ratio 0.67 ± 0.12 vs. 0.65 ± 0.11. Proteinuria decreased from 1.65 to 1.25 g/l (21.9%) (p = 0.01) and iPTH decreased from 668 ± 303 to 291 ± 148 pg/ml (p < 0.001). In the control group, no changes in peritoneal membrane permeability and proteinuria were found. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study indicate that paricalcitol is effective in treating hyperparathyroidism in patients on PD, and suggest an effect upon proteinuria and PM permeability (not previously reported), with diminished peritoneal protein loss and increased ultrafiltration. The antiinflammatory, antifibrotic and RAAS-modulating actions described for paricalcitol may be responsible for these findings, and could be important for preserving the peritoneum as a dialyzing membrane.


Assuntos
Ergocalciferóis/uso terapêutico , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/metabolismo , Diálise Peritoneal , Peritônio/metabolismo , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Permeabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Ces med. vet. zootec ; 7(1)ene.-jun. 2012.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-657188

RESUMO

Resistance is the mechanism by which the bacteria can lower the action of the agents antimicrobials of form naturalor acquired; within the most frequent causes is the indiscriminate use of these agents in patients humans and cattleproduction. Since 1990, have been identified news strains of bacteria that cause emerging zoonotic diseases. Inside of these zoonosis, the salmonellosis is considered the disease more diffused at word level, the wide distribution innature between wildlife, domestics animals and the environment has generated a quick propagation of their more than 2500 serotypes in humans. However, the great preoccupation for infection with this enteropathogen is due to the increasingly in treatment failures with conventional antimicrobials, caused by the high bacterial resistance to thesedrugs. The present article is a review of the problems that it has developed resistance to Salmonella in humans andanimals; further contains strategies for prevention and control of this phenomenon, which although is far from over, allow strengthen the public health.


La resistencia es el mecanismo mediante el cual la bacteria puede disminuir la acción de los agentes antimicrobianos de forma natural o adquirida; dentro de las causas más frecuentes está la utilización indiscriminada de estos agentesen pacientes humanos y producciones pecuarias. Desde 1990 se han identificado nuevas cepas resistentes de bacterias que han originado enfermedades zoonóticas emergentes. Dentro de estas zoonosis, la salmonelosis es consideradala enfermedad más difundida a nivel mundial, la amplia distribución en la naturaleza entre animales silvestres,domésticos y el medio ambiente, produce una rápida propagación de sus más de 2500 serotipos en el hombre.Sin embargo, la gran preocupación por la infección con este entero patógeno se debe a los cada vez más elevadosfracasos en los tratamientos con antimicrobianos convencionales, ocasionados por la alta resistencia bacteriana a estos fármacos. El presente artículo es una revisión sobre la problemática que ha generado la resistencia de Salmonellaen el hombre y los animales, contiene además estrategias de prevención y control de este fenómeno, que si bien está lejos de terminar permiten el fortalecimiento de la salud pública.


A resistência é o mecanismo pelo qual a bactéria pode diminuir a ação dos agentes antimicrobianos de formanatural ou adquirida; dentro das causas mais frequentes está a utilização indiscriminada destes agentes em pacientes humanos e produções pecuárias. Desde 1990 tem identificado novas cepas resistentes de bactérias que originaram doenças zoonóticas emergentes. Dentro destas a zoonose, a salmonelose é considerada a doença mais difundida anível mundial, a ampla distribuição na natureza entre animais silvestres, domésticos e o meio ambiente, produz uma rápida propagação de seus mais de 2500 sorotipos no homem. Contudo, a grande preocupação pela infecção com este inteiro patógeno é devido aos cada vez mais elevados fracassos nos tratamentos com antimicrobianos convencionais,ocasionados pela alta resistência bacteriana a estes fármacos. O presente artigo é uma revisão sobre a problemáticaque gerou a resistência de Salmonella no homem e os animais, contem também estratégias de prevenção e controledeste fenômeno, que está distante de terminar e permitem o fortalecimento da saúde pública.


Assuntos
Animais , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Salmonella , Salmonella , Terapêutica/veterinária , Saúde Pública/ética , Zoonoses/microbiologia
8.
Mo Med ; 102(2): 116-9, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15822359

RESUMO

With the introduction of Multi-Detector Row Computed Tomography we now have the ability to perform true high resolution isotropic imaging. The advantages and uses of Multi-Detector row Computed Tomography will be discussed as it affects the areas of cardio-vascular, pulmonary, renal, and gastro-intestinal radiology.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/tendências , Humanos
9.
Mo Med ; 102(2): 120-3, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15822360

RESUMO

The goal of this review is to provide clinicians with basic information about MRI and its current available uses. Introductory information and updates about MRI for a broad range of topics are presented: mechanics of MRI, selection of MRI for diagnosis; popular uses of MRI (MRA, acute stroke, acute spinal compression fractures, cardiac MR, breast MR); MR spectroscopy, functional MRI, changes in MRI technology; and MRI safety.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos
10.
Crit Rev Comput Tomogr ; 45(5-6): 389-427, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15747577

RESUMO

Intracranial epidermoid tumors or cysts are considered benign lesions. Differentiation of epidermoid tumors from arachnoid cysts is important for appropriate patient care because the treatment is different for each lesion. Arachnoid cysts can appear very similar to epidermoid tumors on computed tomography (CT). Epidermoid tumors can grow in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) cistern, the most common location of these lesions, resulting in trigeminal neuralgia and facial paralysis. Treatment for epidermoid tumors is exclusively surgery. Arachnoid cyst, on the other hand, is a benign condition that rarely produces symptoms. Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have allowed more accurate imaging diagnosis of epidermoid tumors. This article reviews the recent advances in MRI using conventional T1W, post-contrast T1W, T2W, steady-state free precession imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the imaging diagnosis of epidermoid tumors.


Assuntos
Cistos Aracnóideos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Cistos Aracnóideos/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Meios de Contraste , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Prótons , Radiografia
11.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 12(6): 262-265, nov. 2002. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-16197

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conocer la prevalencia de fumadores motivados para dejar de fumar entre la población atendida en el centro de salud (CS), el grado de dependencia a la nicotina y la relación entre motivación y dependencia o presencia de otros factores de riesgo. Material y método: Estudio descriptivo realizado en pacientes fumadores que acudían a la consulta médica del CS Camps Blancs (Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona) que después de ser consultados, aceptaban ser incluidos. Para una prevalencia esperada de motivación del 35 per cent, un error alfa del 5 per cent y una precisión del 10 per cent, el tamaño de la muestra fue de 90 personas. Se administraron los cuestionarios de Richmond y Fargestrom para conocer el grado de dependencia y motivación. A partir de la historia clínica se obtuvo información sobre la existencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (diabetes, hipertensión, dislipemia y obesidad). También se recogió información sobre hábito tabáquico, edad de inicio y consumo. Resultados: No estaban motivados 36 (40 per cent) pacientes. Presentaban motivación moderada 44 (49 per cent) y 10 (11 per cent) sí estaban motivados. No presentaban dependencia a la nicotina 44 (49 per cent), ésta era menor en 35 (39 per cent) y mayor en 11 (12 per cent).Existe relación entre mayor grado de motivación y dependencia mayor (p = 0,002).Presentaba diabetes mellitus el 8 per cent de los pacientes; hipertensión arterial, el 13 per cent; dislipemia, el 19 per cent, y obesidad, el 19 per cent. No se halló relación entre los factores de riesgo y el grado de dependencia y motivación. Conclusiones: Existe un alto porcentaje de pacientes motivados o con motivación moderada para el abandono del hábito tabáquico, relacionado con mayor grado de dependencia. Una intervención adecuada desde atención primaria puede ayudar al abandono del hábito (AU)


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Motivação , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Tabagismo/enfermagem , Tabaco , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Prevalência
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