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1.
Circulation ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510787

RESUMO

Background: Valvular heart disease (VHD) is an important cause of mortality and morbidity and has been subject to important changes in management. The VHD II survey was designed by the EURObservational Research Programme of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) to analyze actual management of VHD and compare practice with guidelines. Methods: Patients with severe native VHD or previous valvular intervention were enrolled prospectively across 28 countries over a 3-month period in 2017. Indications for intervention were considered concordant if the intervention was performed or scheduled in symptomatic patients, corresponding to Class I recommendations specified in the 2012 ESC and in the 2014 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology VHD guidelines. Results: 7247 patients (4483 hospitalized, 2764 out-patients) were included in 222 centers. Median age was 71 years (interquartile range 62-80); 1917 patients (26.5%) were aged ≥80 years and 3416 were female (47.1%). Severe native VHD was present in 5219 patients (72.0%): aortic stenosis (AS) in 2152 patients (41.2% of native VHD), aortic regurgitation (AR) in 279 (5.3%), mitral stenosis (MS) in 234 (4.5%), mitral regurgitation (MR) in 1114 (21.3%, primary in 746 and secondary in 368) multiple left-sided VHD in 1297 (24.9%) and right-sided VHD in 143 (2.7%). 2028 patients (28.0%) had undergone previous valvular intervention. Intervention was performed in 37.0% and scheduled in 26.8% of patients with native VHD. The decision for intervention was concordant with Class I recommendations in symptomatic patients with severe single left-sided native VHD in 79.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 77.1-81.6%) for AS, 77.6% (95% CI 69.9-84.0%) for AR, 68.5% (95% CI 60.8-75.4%) for MS, and 71.0% (95% CI 66.4-75.3%) for primary MR. Valvular interventions were performed in 2150 patients during the survey; of them, 47.8% of patients with single left-sided native VHD were in New York Heart Association class III or IV. Transcatheter procedures were performed in 38.7% of patients with AS and 16.7% of those with MR. Conclusions: Despite good concordance between Class I recommendations and practice in patients with aortic VHD, the suboptimal figure in mitral VHD and late referral for valvular interventions suggest the need to improve further guideline implementation.

2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319874148, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Initial studies have suggested the familial clustering of mitral valve prolapse, but most of them were either community based among unselected individuals or applied non-specific diagnostic criteria. Therefore little is known about the familial distribution of mitral regurgitation in a referral-type population with a more severe mitral valve prolapse phenotype. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of familial mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing surgery for mitral valve prolapse, differentiating patients with Barlow's disease, Barlow forme fruste and fibro-elastic deficiency. METHODS: A total of 385 patients (62 ± 12 years, 63% men) who underwent surgery for mitral valve prolapse were contacted to assess cardiac family history systematically. Only the documented presence of mitral regurgitation was considered to define 'familial mitral regurgitation'. In the probands, the aetiology of mitral valve prolapse was defined by surgical observations. RESULTS: A total of 107 (28%) probands were classified as having Barlow's disease, 85 (22%) as Barlow forme fruste and 193 (50%) patients as fibro-elastic deficiency. In total, 51 patients (13%) reported a clear family history for mitral regurgitation; these patients were significantly younger, more often diagnosed with Barlow's disease and also reported more sudden death in their family as compared with 'sporadic mitral regurgitation'. In particular, 'familial mitral regurgitation' was reported in 28 patients with Barlow's disease (26%), 15 patients (8%) with fibro-elastic deficiency and eight (9%) with Barlow forme fruste (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients operated for mitral valve prolapse, the self-reported prevalence of familial mitral regurgitation was 26% in patients with Barlow's disease and still 8% in patients with fibro-elastic deficiency, highlighting the importance of familial anamnesis and echocardiographic screening in all mitral valve prolapse patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504368

RESUMO

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined by the presence of left ventricular or biventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction in the absence of abnormal loading conditions or coronary artery disease sufficient to explain these changes. This is a heterogeneous disease frequently having a genetic background. Imaging is important for the diagnosis, the prognostic assessment and for guiding therapy. A multimodality imaging approach provides a comprehensive evaluation of all the issues related to this disease. The present document aims to provide recommendations for the use of multimodality imaging according to the clinical question. Selection of one or another imaging technique should be based on the clinical condition and context. Techniques are presented with the aim to underscore what is 'clinically relevant' and what are the tools that 'can be used'. There remain some gaps in evidence on the impact of multimodality imaging on the management and the treatment of DCM patients where ongoing research is important.

5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497851

RESUMO

AIMS: In mitral valve prolapse (MVP), leaflet thickening has recently been suggested to be due, in addition to a myxomatous degeneration, to the presence of a superimposed tissue (SIT), defined as an additional fibrous layer on top of the original leaflet. The mechanisms of SIT formation are currently unknown. We hypothesized that SIT formation would result from excessive leaflet stress and we used a unique ex vivo model to assess the correlation between leaflet remodelling and the type and location of mechanical stress and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying SIT formation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human diseased mitral valves (MVs; n = 21) were histologically analysed for SIT formation and original leaflet thickening. The SIT comprised of various compositions of extracellular matrix and could reach more than 50% of total leaflet thickness. Original leaflet and SIT thickness did not show significant correlation (r = -0.27, P = 0.23), suggesting different regulatory mechanisms. To study the role of the mechanical environment on MV remodelling, mouse MV were cultured in their natural position in the heart and subjected to various haemodynamic conditions representing specific phases of the cardiac cycle and the MVP configuration. SIT formation was induced in the ex vivo model, mostly present on the atrial side, and clearly dependent on the duration, type, and extent of mechanical stress. Specific stainings and lineage tracing experiments showed that SIT comprises of macrophages and myofibroblasts and is associated with the activation of the transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signalling pathways. Migration of valvular interstitial cells and macrophages through breakages of the endothelial cell lining contributed to SIT formation. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical stresses induce specific cellular and molecular changes in the MV that result in SIT formation. These observations provide the first insights in the mechanism of SIT formation and represent an initial step to identify potential novel and early treatment for MVP.

7.
Am J Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439281

RESUMO

Long-term evolution of new-onset conduction abnormalities and need of permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) have not been extensively evaluated. We describe the incidence and time course of new conduction abnormalities and the rate of PPI with the new-generation transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis Edwards SAPIEN 3 (S3). In total, 266 patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI were retrospectively analyzed. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms at baseline, after TAVI, at discharge, at 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up were evaluated to identify conduction abnormalities and PPI requirements to investigate the correlates of PPI. After TAVI, a significant increase in PR interval duration and in QRS complex width was observed. New-onset left bundle branch block was observed in 65 patients (24%) after TAVI. The number of patients with left bundle branch block was maximum at hospital discharge and decreased at 12-month follow-up (39% and 32%, respectively). Thirty-five patients (13%) required PPI during the follow-up. However, paced rhythm was only observed in 7% of the patients with a complete 12-month follow-up. Patients who underwent PPI had a higher prevalence of first-degree atrioventricular block, complete right bundle branch block, and wider QRS complex at baseline. Baseline right bundle branch block and QRS width immediately after TAVI were the only variables independently associated with PPI. In conclusion, conduction disorders have a temporary nature after TAVI and showed a trend toward stabilization during the following months. With this new-generation device, the incidence of new conduction abnormalities requiring PPI is relatively low.

8.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 892-898, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375242

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) can detect subclinical myocardial systolic dysfunction in individuals with diabetes. The present study investigates the clinical usefulness and incremental net benefit of identifying subclinical myocardial systolic dysfunction in individuals with diabetes. A cohort of 397 type 2 diabetic individuals was followed up for the occurrence of all-cause mortality. Clinical and echocardiographic data of diabetic patients were assessed retrospectively. LV GLS was evaluated on transthoracic echocardiography using speckle tracking imaging. Subclinical LV systolic dysfunction was defined as LV GLS > -17.0% from 104 healthy volunteers recruited from the community. A total of 178 (44.8%) diabetic individuals had evidence of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction and 46 (11.6%) died during follow-up. The presence of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction was independently associated with all-cause mortality on follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40 to 5.71, p = 0.004). Diabetic individuals without subclinical LV systolic dysfunction had similar survival as the general population (standardized mortality ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.58). Decision curve analysis showed identification of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction and quantification of LV GLS provided an incremental net clinical benefit at risk stratifying patients for risk of death at 5 years. In conclusion, subclinical LV systolic dysfunction is independently associated with all-cause mortality in diabetic patients. Decision curve analyses suggest use of LV GLS and identification of subclinical LV systolic dysfunction is clinically useful, and provided incremental net clinical benefit for diabetic individuals.

11.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(9): 1120-1127, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global left ventricular (LV) myocardial work efficiency, the ratio of constructive to wasted work in all LV segments, reflects the efficiency by which mechanical energy is expended during the cardiac cycle. Global LV myocardial work efficiency can be derived from LV pressure-strain loop analysis incorporating both noninvasively estimated blood pressure recordings and echocardiographic strain data. The aim of this study was to characterize global LV myocardial work efficiency in healthy individuals and patients with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors or overt cardiac disease. METHODS: We retrospectively included healthy individuals without structural heart disease or CV risk factors, who were selected from an ongoing database of normal individuals, and matched for age and sex with (1) individuals without structural heart disease but with CV risk factors, (2) postinfarct patients without heart failure, and (3) heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Global LV myocardial work efficiency was estimated with a proprietary algorithm from speckle-tracking strain analyses, as well as noninvasive blood pressure measurements. RESULTS: In total, 120 individuals (44% male, 53 ± 13 years) were included (n = 30 per group). In healthy individuals without structural heart disease or CV risk factors, global LV myocardial work efficiency was 96.0% (interquartile range, 95.0%-96.3%). Myocardial efficiency of the LV did not differ significantly between individuals without structural heart disease and those with CV risk factors (96.0% vs 96.0%; P = .589). Global LV myocardial work efficiency, however, was significantly decreased in postinfarct patients (96.0% vs 93.0%, P < .001) and in those with HFrEF (96.0% vs 69.0%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: While global LV myocardial work efficiency was similar in normal individuals and in those with CV risk factors, it was decreased in postinfarct and HFrEF patients. The global LV myocardial work efficiency values presented here show distinct patterns in different cardiac pathologies.

12.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 32(9): 1058-1066.e2, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), changes in left ventricular (LV) function are partly influenced by the vascular afterload. The burden of thoracic aorta calcification is a component of vascular afterload. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in LV systolic function measured with global longitudinal strain (GLS) in relation to the burden of thoracic aorta calcification in patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with TAVR. METHODS: Calcification of the thoracic aorta was estimated on noncontrast computed tomography in 210 patients (50% male, 80 ± 7 years) undergoing TAVR. Conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography were performed at baseline (prior to TAVR) and 3-6 months and 12 months after TAVR. Patients were divided according to tertiles of calcification burden of the thoracic aorta. RESULTS: At baseline, patients within the first tertile of thoracic aorta calcification (0-1,395 Hounsfield Units, HU) had better LV systolic function (LV ejection fraction [LVEF], 47% ± 9%; and LV GLS, -15% ± 5%) as compared with the second tertile (1,396-4,634 HU; LVEF, 46% ± 10%; and LV GLS, -14% ± 4%), and the third tertile (>4,634 HU; LVEF, 44% ± 10%; and LV GLS, -12% ± 4%). During follow-up, patients within tertile 1 of calcification of thoracic aorta achieved significantly better LV systolic function and larger regression of LV mass at 12 months of follow-up than patients within the other tertiles. This pattern was more pronounced in patients with reduced LVEF at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: After TAVR, LVEF and GLS improves and LV mass index is reduced significantly at 3-6 and 12 months of follow-up. Patients within the lowest burden of thoracic aorta calcification achieved the best values of LVEF and LV GLS at 1-year follow-up.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 550-563, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of intervention in patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: This multicenter study sought to test and validate the prognostic value of the staging of cardiac damage in patients with asymptomatic moderate to severe AS. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed the clinical, Doppler echocardiographic, and outcome data that were prospectively collected in 735 asymptomatic patients (71 ± 14 years of age; 60% men) with at least moderate AS (aortic valve area <1.5 cm2) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (≥50%) followed in the heart valve clinics of 4 high-volume centers. Patients were classified according to the following staging classification: no cardiac damage associated with the valve stenosis (Stage 0), left ventricular damage (Stage 1), left atrial or mitral valve damage (Stage 2), pulmonary vasculature or tricuspid valve damage (Stage 3), or right ventricular damage or subclinical heart failure (Stage 4). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: At baseline, 89 (12%) patients were classified in Stage 0, 200 (27%) in Stage 1, 341 (46%) in Stage 2, and 105 (14%) in Stage 3 or 4. Median follow-up was 2.6 years (interquartile range: 1.1 to 5.2 years). There was a stepwise increase in mortality rates according to staging: 13% in Stage 0, 25% in Stage 1, 44% in Stage 2, and 58% in Stages 3 to 4 (p < 0.0001). The staging was significantly associated with excess mortality in multivariable analysis adjusted for aortic valve replacement as a time-dependent variable (hazard ratio: 1.31 per each increase in stage; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.61; p = 0.01), and showed incremental value to several clinical variables (net reclassification index = 0.34; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The new staging system characterizing the extra-aortic valve cardiac damage provides incremental prognostic value in patients with asymptomatic moderate to severe AS. This staging classification may be helpful to identify asymptomatic AS patients who may benefit from elective aortic valve replacement.

14.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(4): 538-549, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In severe aortic stenosis (AS), patients often show extra-aortic valvular injury. Recently, a new staging system for severe AS has been proposed on the basis of the extent of cardiac damage. OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the prevalence and prognostic impact of these different stages of cardiac damage in a large, real-world, multicenter cohort of symptomatic severe AS patients. METHODS: From the ongoing registries from 2 academic institutions, a total of 1,189 symptomatic severe AS patients were selected and retrospectively analyzed. According to the extent of cardiac damage on echocardiography, patients were classified as Stage 0 (no cardiac damage), Stage 1 (left ventricular damage), Stage 2 (mitral valve or left atrial damage), Stage 3 (tricuspid valve or pulmonary artery vasculature damage), or Stage 4 (right ventricular damage). Patients were followed for all-cause mortality and combined endpoint (all-cause mortality, stroke, and cardiac-related hospitalization). RESULTS: On the basis of the proposed classification, 8% of patients were classified as Stage 0, 24% as Stage 1, 49% as Stage 2, 7% as Stage 3, and 12% as Stage 4. On multivariable analysis, cardiac damage was independently associated with all-cause mortality and combined outcome, although this was mainly determined by Stages 3 and 4. CONCLUSIONS: In this large multicenter cohort of symptomatic severe AS patients, stage of cardiac injury as classified by a novel staging system was independently associated with all-cause mortality and combined endpoint, although this seemed to be predominantly driven by tricuspid valve or pulmonary artery vasculature damage (Stage 3) and right ventricular dysfunction (Stage 4).

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) systolic function in patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its impact on prognosis have not been characterized. The present study aims to compare the prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction in COPD versus non-COPD patients with STEMI and evaluate the prognostic implications. METHODS: One hundred seventeen STEMI patients with COPD with transthoracic echocardiography performed within 48 hours of admission were retrospectively selected. Matched on age, gender, and infarct size (determined by cardiac biomarkers and left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]), 207 non-COPD patients were selected. RV dysfunction was defined based on tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion <17 mm (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity <6 cm/s (S'), RV fractional area change <35% (FAC), and RV longitudinal free wall strain (FWSL) measured with speckle-tracking echocardiography >-20%. Patients were followed for the occurrence of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: RV assessment was feasible in 112 COPD and 199 non-COPD patients (mean age, 69 ± 10; 74% male; mean, LVEF 47% ± 8%). Patients with COPD had significantly lower RV FAC (38% ± 11% vs 40% ± 9%; P = .04), equal TAPSE and S' (17.9 ± 3.7 vs 18.1 ± 3.8 mm, P = .72; and 8.4 ± 2.2 vs 8.5 ± 2.2 cm/sec, P = .605, respectively) and more impaired RV FWSL (-21.1% ± 6.6% vs -23.4% ± 6.5%, P = .005), compared with patients without COPD. RV dysfunction was more prevalent in patients with COPD, particularly when assessed with RV FWSL (46% vs 32%; P = .021). During a median follow-up of 30 (interquartile range 1.5-44) months, 49 patients died (16%). Multivariate models stratified for COPD status showed that RV FWS >-20% was independently associated with 5-year all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.12-3.76; P = .020), after adjusting for age, diabetes, peak troponin level, and LVEF. Interestingly, RV FAC < 35%, S'< 6 cm/sec, and TAPSE < 17 mm were not independently associated with survival. CONCLUSION: In a STEMI population with relatively preserved LVEF, COPD patients had significantly worse RV FWSL compared with patients without COPD. Moreover, RV FWSL > -20% was independently associated with worse survival. In contrast, conventional parameters were not associated with survival.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329827

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can reduce left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), and a decrease of ≥15% is defined as a response. CRT can also improve LV global longitudinal strain (GLS). Changes in LVESV and LV GLS are individually associated with outcome post-CRT. We investigated LVESV and LV GLS changes and prognostic implications of improvement in LVESV and/or LV GLS, compared with no improvement in either parameter. METHODS AND RESULTS: Baseline and 6-month echocardiograms were analysed from CRT recipients with heart failure. LV reverse remodelling was defined as a ≥15% reduction in LVESV at 6 months post-CRT. A ≥5% absolute improvement in LV GLS was defined as a change in LV GLS. A total of 1185 patients were included (mean age 65 ± 10 years, 73% male), and those with an improvement in LVESV and LV GLS (n = 131, 11.1%) had significantly lower mortality compared with other groups. On multivariable analysis, an improvement in both LVESV and LV GLS [hazard ratio (HR): 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.71; P < 0.001] or an improvement in either LVESV or LV GLS (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.47-0.71; P < 0.001) were independently associated with better prognosis, compared with no improvement in either parameter. CONCLUSION: Either a reduction in LVESV and/or an improvement in LV GLS at 6 months post-CRT are independently associated with improved long-term prognosis, compared with no change in both LVESV and LV GLS. This supports the use of LV GLS as a meaningful parameter in defining CRT response.

19.
Circulation ; 140(10): 836-845, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with significant (moderate and severe) tricuspid regurgitation (TR), the decision to intervene is influenced by right ventricular (RV) size and function. RV remodeling in significant secondary TR has been underexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize RV remodeling in patients with significant secondary TR and to investigate its prognostic implications. METHODS: RV remodeling was characterized by transthoracic echocardiography in 1292 patients with significant secondary TR (median age 71 [62-78]; 50% male). Four patterns of RV remodeling were defined according to the presence of RV dilation (tricuspid annulus≥40 mm) and RV systolic dysfunction (tricuspid annulus systolic excursion plane<17 mm): pattern 1, normal RV size and systolic function; pattern 2, dilated RV with preserved systolic function; pattern 3, normal RV size with systolic dysfunction; and pattern 4, dilated RV systolic dysfunction. The primary end point was all-cause mortality and the event rates were compared across the 4 patterns of RV remodeling. RESULTS: A total of 183 (14%) patients showed pattern 1 RV remodeling; 256 (20%) showed pattern 2; 304 (24%) presented with pattern 3; and 549 (43%) had pattern 4 RV remodeling. Patients with pattern 4 RV remodeling were more frequently male; more often had coronary artery disease, worse renal function, and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction; and were more often symptomatic. Only 98 (8%) patients underwent tricuspid valve annuloplasty during follow-up. During a median follow-up of 34 (interquartile range, 0-60) months, 510 (40%) patients died. The 5-year survival rate was significantly worse in patients presenting with patterns 3 and 4 RV remodeling in comparison with pattern 1 (52% and 49% versus 70%; P=0.002 and P<0.001, respectively), and were independently associated with poor outcome on multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with significant secondary TR, patients with RV systolic dysfunction have worse clinical outcome regardless of the presence of RV dilation.

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