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2.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 750016, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859068

RESUMO

Aims: Left ventricular ejection fraction is the conventional measure used to guide heart failure management, regardless of underlying etiology. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a more sensitive measure of intrinsic myocardial function. We aim to establish LV-GLS as a marker of replacement myocardial fibrosis on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and validate the prognostic value of LV-GLS thresholds associated with fibrosis. Methods and results: LV-GLS thresholds of replacement fibrosis were established in the derivation cohort: 151 patients (57 ± 10 years; 58% males) with hypertension who underwent STE to measure LV-GLS and CMR. Prognostic value of the thresholds was validated in a separate outcome cohort: 261 patients with moderate-severe aortic stenosis (AS; 71 ± 12 years; 58% males; NYHA functional class I-II) and preserved LVEF ≥50%. Primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and myocardial infarction. In the derivation cohort, LV-GLS demonstrated good discrimination (c-statistics 0.74 [0.66-0.83]; P < 0.001) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 = 6.37; P = 0.605) for replacement fibrosis. In the outcome cohort, 47 events occurred over 16 [3.3, 42.2] months. Patients with LV-GLS > -15.0% (corresponding to 95% specificity to rule-in myocardial fibrosis) had the worst outcomes compared to patients with LV-GLS < -21.0% (corresponding to 95% sensitivity to rule-out myocardial fibrosis) and those between -21.0 and -15.0% (log-rank P < 0.001). LV-GLS offered independent prognostic value over clinical variables, AS severity and echocardiographic LV mass and E/e'. Conclusion: LV-GLS thresholds associated with replacement myocardial fibrosis is a novel approach to risk-stratify patients with AS and preserved LVEF.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864942

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study is to investigate the independent determinants of survival in patients with moderate aortic stenosis (AS), stratified by severity of symptoms and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with a first diagnosis of moderate AS (aortic valve area >1.0 and ≤1.5 cm2) were identified. Patients were stratified by New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (NYHA I, NYHA II, or NYHA III-IV) and LVEF (LVEF ≥60%, LVEF 50-59%, or LVEF <50%) at the time of moderate AS diagnosis. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality, while the secondary endpoint included all-cause mortality and aortic valve replacement. Of 1961 patients with moderate AS (mean age 73 ± 10 years, 51% men), 1108 (57%) patients were in NYHA class I, while 527 (27%) and 326 (17%) patients had symptoms of NYHA class II and III-IV, respectively. Regarding LVEF, 1032 (53%) had LVEF ≥60%, 544 (28%) LVEF 50-59%, and 385 (20%) LVEF <50%. During a median follow-up of 50 (23-82) months, 868 (44%) patients died. On multivariable analysis, NYHA class II [hazard ratio (HR): 1.633; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.431-1.864; P < 0.001], NYHA class III-IV (HR: 2.084; 95% CI: 1.797-2.417; P < 0.001), LVEF 50-59% (HR: 1.194; 95% CI: 1.013-1.406; P = 0.034), and LVEF <50% (HR: 1.694; 95% CI: 1.417-2.026; P < 0.001) were independently associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION: Moderate AS is associated with poor long-term survival. Baseline symptom severity and LVEF are associated with worse outcomes in these patients. Patients with low-normal LVEF (<60%) and mild symptoms (NYHA II) already have an increased risk of adverse events.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent complication of rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) and is associated with worse outcomes. Prediction of new-onset AF by assessing left atrial (LA) mechanics with speckle-tracking echocardiography might be useful for risk stratification and guiding therapeutic strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association of LA reservoir strain (LASr) and strain rate (LASRr) with AF at follow-up in patients with rheumatic MS. METHODS: Left atrial reservoir strain and LASRr measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography were assessed in 125 patients (mean age, 50 ± 15 years; 80.8% female) with rheumatic MS and without a history of AF. Patients were followed up for the occurrence of a first episode of AF after the index echocardiogram. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 32 (9.5-70) months, 41 patients (32.8%) developed new-onset AF. Patients who developed AF had significantly more impaired LASr (13.4% ± 5.2% vs 18.9% ± 8.2%; P < .001) and LASRr (0.72 ± 0.26 s-1 vs 0.98 ± 0.36 s-1;P < .001) compared with patients who remained in sinus rhythm. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, LASr < 21% and LASRr < 0.8 s-1 were independently associated with the development of AF at follow-up (hazard ratio = 7.03, 95% CI, 2.08-23.77, P = .002; and hazard ratio = 3.42, 95% CI, 1.59-7.34, P = .002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: LASr and LASRr are impaired in patients with rheumatic MS, and the degree of impairment is associated with new-onset AF at follow-up.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(24): e023300, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913362

RESUMO

Background After renal transplantation, there is a need of immunosuppressive regimens that effectively prevent allograft rejection while minimizing cardiovascular complications. This substudy of the TRITON trial evaluated the cardiovascular effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in renal transplant recipients. Methods and Results Renal transplant recipients were randomized to MSC therapy, infused at weeks 6 and 7 after transplantation, with withdrawal at week 8 of tacrolimus or standard tacrolimus dose. Fifty-four patients (MSC group=27; control group=27) underwent transthoracic echocardiography at weeks 4 and 24 after transplantation and were included in this substudy. Changes in clinical and echocardiographic variables were compared. The MSC group showed a benefit in blood pressure control, assessed by a significant interaction between changes in diastolic blood pressure and the treatment group (P=0.005), and a higher proportion of patients achieving the predefined blood pressure target of <140/90 mm Hg compared with the control group (59.3% versus 29.6%, P=0.03). A significant reduction in left ventricular mass index was observed in the MSC group, whereas there were no changes in the control group (P=0.002). The proportion of patients with left ventricular hypertrophy decreased at 24 weeks in the MSC group (33.3% versus 70.4%, P=0.006), whereas no changes were noted in the control group (63.0% versus 48.1%, P=0.29). Additionally, MSC therapy prevented progressive left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, as demonstrated by changes in mitral deceleration time and tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity. Conclusions MSC strategy is associated with improved blood pressure control, regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, and prevention of progressive diastolic dysfunction at 24 weeks after transplantation. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03398681.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966913

RESUMO

AIMS: Characterization of left ventricular (LV) geometric pattern and LV mass could provide an important insight into the pathophysiological adaptations of the LV to pressure and/or volume overload in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and significant (≥moderate) aortic valve (AV) disease. This study aimed to characterize LV remodelling and its prognostic impact in patients with BAV according to the predominant type of valvular dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this international, multicentre BAV registry, 1345 patients [51.0 (37.0-63.0) years, 71% male] with significant AV disease were identified. Patients were classified as having isolated aortic stenosis (AS) (n = 669), isolated aortic regurgitation (AR) (n = 499) or mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD) (n = 177). LV hypertrophy was defined as a LV mass index >115 g/m2 in males and >95 g/m2 in females. LV geometric pattern was classified as (i) normal geometry: no LV hypertrophy, relative wall thickness (RWT) ≤0.42, (ii) concentric remodelling: no LV hypertrophy, RWT >0.42, (iii) concentric hypertrophy: LV hypertrophy, RWT >0.42, and (iv) eccentric hypertrophy: LV hypertrophy, RWT ≤0.42. Patients were followed-up for the endpoints of event-free survival (defined as a composite of AV repair/replacement and all-cause mortality) and all-cause mortality. Type of AV dysfunction was related to significant variations in LV remodelling. Higher LV mass index, i.e. LV hypertrophy, was independently associated with the composite endpoint for patients with isolated AS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.08 per 25 g/m2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.17, P = 0.046] and AR (HR 1.19 per 25 g/m2, 95% CI 1.11-1.29, P < 0.001), but not for those with MAVD. The presence of concentric remodelling, concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy were independently related to the composite endpoint in patients with isolated AS (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.06-2.23, P = 0.024; HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.17-2.42, P = 0.005; HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.03-2.45, P = 0.038, respectively), while concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy were independently associated with the combined endpoint for those with isolated AR (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.35-4.60, P = 0.004 and HR 3.05, 95% CI 1.71-5.45, P < 0.001, respectively). There was no independent association observed between LV remodelling and the combined endpoint for patients with MAVD. CONCLUSIONS: LV hypertrophy or remodelling were independently associated with the composite endpoint of AV repair/replacement and all-cause mortality for patients with isolated AS and isolated AR, although not for patients with MAVD.

8.
EuroIntervention ; 17(10): 791-808, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796878

RESUMO

Approximately 4% of subjects aged 75 years or more have clinically relevant tricuspid regurgitation (TR). Primary TR results from anatomical abnormality of the tricuspid valve apparatus and is observed in only 8-10% of the patients with tricuspid valve disease. Secondary TR is more common and arises as a result of annular dilation caused by right ventricular enlargement and dysfunction as a consequence of pulmonary hypertension, often caused by left-sided heart disease or atrial fibrillation. Irrespective of its aetiology, TR leads to volume overload and increased wall stress, both of which negatively contribute to detrimental remodelling and worsening TR. This vicious circle translates into impaired survival and increased heart failure symptoms in patients with and without reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Interventions to correct TR are underutilised in daily clinical practice owing to increased surgical risk and late patient presentation. The recently introduced transcatheter tricuspid valve interventions aim to address this unmet need. Dedicated expertise and an interdisciplinary Heart Team evaluation are essential to integrate these new techniques successfully and select patients. The present article proposes a standardised approach to evaluate patients with TR who may be candidates for transcatheter interventions. In addition, a state-of-the-art review of the available transcatheter therapies, the main criteria for patient and device selection, and information concerning the remaining uncertainties are provided.


Assuntos
Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751391

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with a high socioeconomic impact.(1) Non-invasive imaging modalities play a fundamental role in the evaluation and management of patients with known or suspected CAD. Imaging end-points have served as surrogate markers in many observational studies and randomized clinical trials that evaluated the benefits of specific therapies for CAD.(2) A number of guidelines and recommendations have been published about coronary syndromes by cardiology societies and associations, but have not focused on the excellent opportunities with cardiac imaging. The recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2019 guideline on chronic coronary syndromes (CCS) and 2020 guideline on acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE-ACS) highlight the importance of non-invasive imaging in the diagnosis, treatment, and risk assessment of the disease.(3)(4) The purpose of the current recommendations is to present the significant role of non-invasive imaging in coronary syndromes in more detail. These recommendations have been developed by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE), in collaboration with the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, all of which have approved the final document.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729586

RESUMO

Nearly half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and the condition is termed heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). It is assumed that in these patients HF is due primarily to LV diastolic dysfunction. The prognosis in HFpEF is almost as severe as in HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). In contrast to HFrEF where drugs and devices are proven to reduce mortality, in HFpEF there has been limited therapy available with documented effects on prognosis. This may reflect that HFpEF encompasses a wide range of different pathological processes, which multimodality imaging is well placed to differentiate. Progress in developing therapies for HFpEF has been hampered by a lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. The present expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) provides recommendations regarding how to determine elevated LV filling pressure in the setting of suspected HFpEF and how to use multimodality imaging to determine specific aetiologies in patients with HFpEF.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739054

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is among the most important and frequent complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The detection of subclinical dysfunction is a marker of HF risk and presents a potential target for reducing incident HF in DM. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction secondary to DM is heterogeneous, with phenotypes including predominantly systolic, predominantly diastolic, and mixed dysfunction. Indeed, the pathogenesis of HF in this setting is heterogeneous. Effective management of this problem will require detailed phenotyping of the contributions of fibrosis, microcirculatory disturbance, abnormal metabolism, and sympathetic innervation, among other mechanisms. For this reason, an imaging strategy for the detection of HF risk needs to not only detect subclinical LV dysfunction (LVD) but also characterize its pathogenesis. At present, it is possible to identify individuals with DM at increased risk HF, and there is evidence that cardioprotection may be of benefit. However, there is insufficient justification for HF screening, because we need stronger evidence of the links between the detection of LVD, treatment, and improved outcome. This review discusses the options for screening for LVD, the potential means of identifying the underlying mechanisms, and the pathways to treatment.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655348

RESUMO

Hypo-attenuated leaflet thickening (HALT) of transcatheter aortic valves is detected on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and reflects leaflet thrombosis. Whether HALT affects left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling, a favorable effect of LV afterload reduction after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association of HALT after TAVI with LV reverse remodeling. In this multicenter case-control study, patients with HALT on MDCT were identified, and patients without HALT were propensity matched for valve type and size, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), sex, age and time of scan. LV dimensions and function were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography before and 12 months after TAVI. Clinical outcomes (stroke or transient ischemic attack, heart failure hospitalization, new-onset atrial fibrillation, all-cause mortality) were recorded. 106 patients (age 81 ± 7 years, 55% male) with MDCT performed 37 days [IQR 32-52] after TAVI were analyzed (53 patients with HALT and 53 matched controls). Before TAVI, all echocardiographic parameters were similar between the groups. At 12 months follow-up, patients with and without HALT showed a significant reduction in LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume and LV mass index (from 125 ± 37 to 105 ± 46 g/m2, p = 0.001 and from 127 ± 35 to 101 ± 27 g/m2, p < 0.001, respectively, p for interaction = 0.48). Moreover, LVEF improved significantly in both groups. In addition, clinical outcomes were not statistically different. Improvement in LVEF and LV reverse remodeling at 12 months after TAVI were not limited by HALT.

13.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702554

RESUMO

Patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) often have extramitral valve cardiac involvement, which can influence the prognosis. SMR can be defined according to groups of extramitral valve cardiac involvement. The prognostic implications of such groups in patients with moderate and severe SMR (significant SMR) are unknown. A total of 325 patients with significant SMR were classified according to the extent of cardiac involvement on echocardiography: left ventricular involvement (group 1), left atrial involvement (group 2), tricuspid valve and pulmonary artery vasculature involvement (group 3), or right ventricular involvement (group 4). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. The prevalence of each cardiac involvement group was 17% in group 1, 12% in group 2, 23% in group 3%, and 48% in group 4. Group 3 and group 4 were independently associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.794, 95% confidence interval 1.067 to 3.015, p = 0.027 and hazard ratio 1.857, 95% confidence interval 1.145 to 3.012, p = 0.012, respectively). In conclusion, progressive extramitral valve cardiac involvement (group 3 and group 4) was independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients with significant SMR.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468719

RESUMO

AIMS : Women with severe aortic stenosis (AS) have better long-term outcome after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) but worse survival after surgical aortic valve replacement compared with men. Whether this is related to sex differences in left ventricular (LV) remodelling is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in LV remodelling with multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) and outcome in patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI between 2007 and 2018. METHODS AND RESULTS : A total of 289 patients (age 80 ± 6 years, 54% male) were included. LV volumes, mass, and function were analysed on pre-procedural MDCT scans. Women showed smaller LV volumes and mass compared with men. Patients were classified into four LV remodelling patterns: concentric hypertrophy (50%) was the most frequent pattern of LV remodelling followed by eccentric hypertrophy (33%), normal geometry (13%), and concentric remodelling (4%). Men showed more concentric remodelling compared with women (91% vs. 9%, respectively, P = 0.011). However, no differences were observed in the remaining LV remodelling patterns. During a median follow-up of 3.8 (IQR 2.2-5.1) years after TAVI, 87 (30%) patients died. Women demonstrated better outcome after TAVI compared with men (log-rank χ2 = 4.29, P = 0.038). No association was observed between the interaction of the LV remodelling patterns and sex with outcome. CONCLUSION : LV concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy are similarly observed in men and women with severe AS but concentric remodelling was more common in men. Women demonstrated better outcome after TAVI when compared with men. The interaction between the LV remodelling patterns and sex was not associated with survival.

15.
Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging ; 3(4): e200496, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505060

RESUMO

This International Consensus Classification and Nomenclature for the congenital bicuspid aortic valve condition recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valves: 1. The fused type (right-left cusp fusion, right-non-coronary cusp fusion and left-non-coronary cusp fusion phenotypes); 2. The 2-sinus type (latero-lateral and antero-posterior phenotypes); and 3. The partial-fusion (forme fruste) type. The presence of raphe and the symmetry of the fused type phenotypes are critical aspects to describe. The International Consensus also recognizes 3 types of bicuspid valve-associated aortopathy: 1. The ascending phenotype; 2. The root phenotype; and 3. Extended phenotypes. © 2021 Jointly between the RSNA, the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery. The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal's style. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bicuspid Aortic Valve, Aortopathy, Nomenclature, Classification.

16.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 14(9): e012142, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) remains challenging but is an important parameter for risk stratification. The association of LV myocardial work components (work index [GWI], constructive [GCW] and wasted [GWW] work, and work efficiency) derived from pressure-strain loops obtained with speckle tracking echocardiography, and all-cause mortality in patients with SMR was investigated. METHODS: LV myocardial GWI, GCW, GWW, and global work efficiency were measured with speckle tracking strain echocardiography in 373 patients (72% men, median age 68 years) with various grades of SMR. All-cause mortality was the primary end point. RESULTS: Mild SMR was observed in 143 patients, 128 had moderate SMR, and 102 had severe SMR. Patients with severe SMR had the largest LV volumes and the worst LV ejection fraction and LV global longitudinal strain. In patients with severe SMR, LV GWI and GCW were more impaired (500 mm Hg% versus 680 mm Hg% P=0.024 and 678 mm Hg% versus 851 mm Hg% P=0.006, respectively), while GWW was lower (130 mm Hg% versus 260 mm Hg% P<0.001, respectively) and global work efficiency was significantly higher (82% versus 76%, P=0.001) compared with patients with mild SMR. After a median follow-up of 56 months, 161 patients died. LV GWI≤500 mm Hg%, LV GCW≤750 mm Hg%, and LV GWW<300 mm Hg% were independently associated with excess mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe SMR had the worst LV GWI and LV GCW but better LV GWW and global work efficiency reflecting the unloading of the LV in the low-pressure left atrial chamber. These parameters were independently associated with worse long-term survival in patients with SMR.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491334

RESUMO

AIMS: Peak left atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) is a marker of the left atrial (LA) reservoir function. Novel feature tracking (FT) software allows assessment of LA strain from multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data. This study aimed at evaluating the agreement between speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and FT MDCT for the measurement of PALS in patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study included 318 patients (80 ± 7 years, 54% male) with dynamic MDCT data acquired prior to transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PALS was measured by transthoracic echocardiography using STE (PALSecho) and MDCT using dedicated FT software (PALSCT). In the overall population, the median values of PALSecho and PALSCT were 19.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 12.0-25.0] % and 15.3 (IQR 9.2-19.7) %, respectively. High correlation between PALSecho and PALSCT was observed (r = 0.789, P < 0.001) with a mean bias of -3.7%. The correlation between PALSecho and PALSCT was better among patients with SR (N = 258; r = 0.704, P < 0.001) as compared to patients with AF (N = 60; r = 0.622, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: PALSecho and PALSCT showed a good agreement in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) regardless of the cardiac rhythm. FT MDCT may be an important adjuvant modality for assessing LA reservoir function in patients with severe AS.

18.
Am J Cardiol ; 156: 9-15, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344511

RESUMO

Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is described in 5% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Previous studies have shown controversial results regarding the prognostic impact of CAE. The prevalence and prognostic value of CAE in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain unknown. In 4788 patients presenting with AMI referred for coronary angiography the presence of CAE (defined as dilation of a coronary segment with a diameter ≥1.5 times of the adjacent normal segment) was confirmed in 174 (3.6%) patients (age 62 ± 12 years; 81% male), and was present in the culprit vessel in 79.9%. Multivessel CAE was frequent (67%). CAE patients were more frequently male, had high thrombus burden and were treated more often with thrombectomy and less often was stent implantation. Markis I was the most frequent angiographic phenotype (43%). During a median follow-up of 4 years (1-7), 1243 patients (26%) experienced a major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE): 282 (6%) died from a cardiac cause, 358 (8%) had a myocardial infarction, 945 (20%) underwent coronary revascularization and 58 (1%) presented with a stroke. Patients with CAE showed higher rates of MACE as compared to those without CAE (36.8% versus 25.6%; p <0.001). On multivariable analysis, CAE was associated with MACE (HR 1.597; 95% CI 1.238-2.060; p <0.001) after adjusting for risk factors, type of AMI and number of narrowed coronary arteries. In conclusion, the prevalence of CAE in patients presenting with AMI is relatively low but was independently associated with an increased risk of MACE at follow-up.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Coronário/epidemiologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Coronário/complicações , Aneurisma Coronário/diagnóstico , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 157: 15-21, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366114

RESUMO

Global left ventricular (LV) myocardial work (MW) indices (GLVMWI) are derived from speckle tracking echocardiographic strain data in combination with non-invasive blood pressure measurements. Changes in global work index (GWI), global constructive work (GCW), global wasted work (GWW) and global work efficiency (GWE) after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have not been explored. The aim of present study was to assess the evolution of GLVMWI in STEMI patients from baseline (index infarct) to 3 months' follow-up. Three-hundred and fifty patients (265 men; mean age 61 ± 10 years) with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and guideline-based medical therapy were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical variables, conventional echocardiographic measures and GLVMWI were recorded at baseline within 48 hours post-primary PCI and 3 months' follow-up. LV ejection fraction (from 54 ± 10% to 57 ± 10%, p < 0.001), GWI (from 1449 ± 451 mm Hg% to 1953 ± 492 mm Hg%, p < 0.001), GCW (from 1624 ± 519 mm Hg% to 2228 ± 563 mm Hg%, p < 0.001) and GWE (from 93% (interquartile range (IQR) 86%-95%) to 95% (IQR 91%-96%), p < 0.001) improved significantly at 3 months' follow-up with no significant difference in GWW (from 101 mm Hg% (IQR 63-155 mm Hg%) to 96 mm Hg% (IQR 64-155 mm Hg%); p = 0.535). On multivariable linear regression analysis, lower values of troponin T at baseline, increase in systolic blood pressure and improvement in LV global longitudinal strain were independently associated with higher GWI and GCW at 3 months' follow-up. In conclusion, the evolution of GWI, GCW and GWE in STEMI patients may reflect myocardial stunning, whereas the stability in GWW may reflect permanent myocardial damage and the development of non-viable scar tissue.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Miocárdio Atordoado/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio Atordoado/etiologia , Miocárdio Atordoado/fisiopatologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Sístole
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