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5.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359195

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine differences in left- and right atrial characteristics between atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For this, 420 patients (mean age 68 ± 10 years, 73% female) with first diagnosis of AF and baseline echocardiography were included. Of these, 143 COPD patients were compared with 277 patients without COPD matched by age, gender and body surface area. Additionally 38 healthy controls without cardiovascular risk factors, matched for age, were included. For all 3 groups, left atrial (LA) volumes and diameter, LA reservoir strain (LASr), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), right atrial (RA) area and diameter, RA reservoir strain (RASr) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were evaluated on transthoracic echocardiography. Baseline characteristics were similar in patients with and without COPD except for smoking and a history of heart failure (42% vs 11%, p < 0.001 and 48% vs 37%, p = 0.036 for COPD and non-COPD patients, respectively). Also, COPD patients less often used ß-blockers (63% vs 75%, p = 0.017). There were no significant differences in LVEF, LA volume and RA area between COPD and non-COPD patients. Compared to the controls, AF patients had impaired LVEF, LASr and RASr. Only RASr was significantly worse in COPD patients as compared to non-COPD patients (15.3% [9.0 to 25.1] vs 19.6% [11.8 to 28.5], p = 0.013). Additionally, a trend towards worse RASr was observed with increasing COPD severity. In conclusion, AF patients with concomitant COPD have more impaired RA function compared to patients without COPD but with similar atrial size and LA function.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Barlow's disease (BD) is characterized by thick, redundant mitral valve (MV) leaflets, which can lead to prolapse and significant mitral regurgitation (MR). MV annular abnormalities are also commonly observed and increasingly recognized as possible primary pathology, with leaflet thickening being secondary to increased stress on the MV apparatus. To provide more insights into this hypothesis, the evolution of MV abnormalities over time in patients with BD was assessed. METHODS: A total of 64 patients (54 ± 12 years, 72% male) with BD who underwent MV surgery and had multiple transthoracic echocardiograms (TTE) before surgery were included. In total, 186 TTE were analysed (median time interval 4.2, interquartile range 2.2-6.5 years) including specific MV characteristics. RESULTS: At baseline, MV leaflet length, thickness, billowing height and annular diameter were larger in patients with BD compared to 59 healthy subjects. Systolic outward motion (curling) of the annulus was observed in 77% and severe mitral annular disjunction (≥5 mm) in 38% of patients with BD. Forty (63%) patients had MR grade I-II and 24 (37%) MR grade III-IV; at baseline, the 2 groups only differed in left atrial volume and in thickness and billowing height of the posterior leaflet, showing comparable MV annular abnormalities and dilatation despite different grades of MR. Over time, MV annulus diameter, leaflet length and billowing height increased significantly along with MR grade. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with BD, MV annulus abnormalities are present at an early stage and precede the development of significant MR, suggesting their substantial role in the pathophysiology of this disease and as an important target for surgical treatment.

9.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 7(4)2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33139640

RESUMO

The development of transcatheter mitral valve replacement therapies requires accurate post-processing analysis tools to provide D-shaped mitral annulus dimensions from 3-dimensional (3D) data. The agreement between two semi-automated, software packages to process 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) data for the measurement of the mitral valve annulus dimensions was evaluated. 3DTEE data of patients with moderate-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were postprocessed with semi-automated, vendor-independent (VI) software and vendor-specific (VS) software. Both post-processing software provided key measurements for the selection of transcatheter valve prosthesis size: annulus area, annulus circumference and the septal-to-lateral distance of the annulus. The intertrigonal distance was provided only by the VS software. The inter- and intra-observer agreements were assessed with Bland-Altman analysis. Of 105 patients (63.8 ± 11 years, 66% male) with MR, 28 had secondary MR, 45 fibroelastic deficiency, and 32 Barlow's disease. Using VS software, the dimensions for the overall population were 16.1 ± 4.6 cm2 for annulus area, for circumference 14.4 ± 1.9 cm, intertrigonal distance 3.4 ± 0.5 cm and septal-to-lateral distance 3.8 ± 0.6 cm. Similar dimensions were obtained using VI software: 15.7 ± 4.6 cm2 for annulus area, 14.5 ± 2.0 cm for circumference, and 4.1 ± 0.6 cm for septal-to-lateral distance. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for both software programs was excellent. In conclusion, current post-processing software programs for 3DTEE data of the mitral valve annulus provide good reproducibility of key measurements to select the transcatheter prosthesis size.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular myocardial work (LVMW) is a novel method to assess LV function utilizing pressure-strain loops that takes into consideration LV afterload. The estimation of LV afterload in severe aortic stenosis (AS) may be challenging and no study so far has investigated LVMW in this setting. The aim of this study was to develop a method to calculate LVMW in severe AS and to analyze its relationship with heart failure (HF) symptoms. METHODS: Indices of LVMW were calculated in 120 patients with severe AS who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement and invasive LV and aortic pressure measurements. LV systolic pressure was also derived by adding the mean aortic valve gradient to the aortic systolic pressure. LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and echocardiography-derived LV systolic pressure were then incorporated to construct pressure-strain loops of the LV. RESULTS: An excellent correlation was observed between LVMW indices calculated with the invasive and echocardiography-derived LV systolic pressure. Patients in NYHA class III-IV (n=97, 73%) had lower LV GLS, LV global work index (GWI), LV global constructive work (GCW), and right ventricular free-wall strain compared to those in NYHA class I-II. In contrast to LV GLS, LVGWI (OR per-100mmHg%-increase 0.91; 95%CI 0.85-0.98; P=0.012) and LVGCW showed an independent association with NYHA class III-IV HF symptoms. CONCLUSION: The calculation of echocardiography-based LVMW indices is feasible in patients with severe AS. In particular, LVGWI and GCW showed an independent association with HF symptoms and may provide additional information on myocardial remodeling and function in severe AS.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184656

RESUMO

AIMS: Right ventricular myocardial work (RVMW) is a novel method for non-invasive assessment of right ventricular (RV) function utilizing RV pressure-strain loops. This study aimed to explore the relationship between RVMW and invasive indices of right heart catheterization (RHC) in a cohort of patients with heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), and to compare values of RVMW with those of a group of patients without cardiovascular disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Non-invasive analysis of RVMW was performed in 22 HFrEF patients [median age 63 (59-67) years] who underwent echocardiography and invasive RHC within 48 h. Conventional RV functional measurements, RV global constructive work (RVGCW), RV global work index (RVGWI), RV global wasted work (RVGWW), and RV global work efficiency (RVGWE) were analysed and compared with invasively measured stroke volume and stroke volume index. Non-invasive analysis of RVMW was also performed in 22 patients without cardiovascular disease to allow for comparison between groups. None of the conventional echocardiographic parameters of RV systolic function were significantly correlated with stroke volume or stroke volume index. In contrast, one of the novel indices derived non-invasively by pressure-strain loops, RVGCW, demonstrated a moderate correlation with invasively measured stroke volume and stroke volume index (r = 0.63, P = 0.002 and r = 0.59, P = 0.004, respectively). RVGWI, RVGCW, and RVGWE were significantly lower in patients with HFrEF compared to a healthy cohort, while values of RVGWW were significantly higher. CONCLUSION: RVGCW is a novel parameter that provides an integrative analysis of RV systolic function and correlates more closely with invasively measured stroke volume and stroke volume index than other standard echocardiographic parameters.

13.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(1): 4, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245510

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article reviews the pathophysiology of cardiac sympathetic denervation, the principles of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the sympathetic innervation of the heart and its potential clinical role, based on current and expected future evidence. RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging of cardiac sympathetic denervation can be performed with radiolabeled noradrenaline analogues, e.g., 11C-hydroxyephedrine. A greater burden of sympathetic denervation carries prognostic significance, e.g., in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, who are more likely to experience sudden cardiac death. Abnormalities of sympathetic cardiac innervation have been demonstrated in hypertrophic, dilated, and arrhythmic right ventricular cardiomyopathies, and may be helpful in better phenotyping patients who will benefit from device therapy, e.g., cardiac resynchronization and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. The results of future trials, e.g., the Prediction of Arrhythmic Events with Positron Emission Tomography (PAREPET) II study, are awaited to inform on the role of PET cardiac sympathetic imaging in the selection of device therapy. PET cardiac sympathetic innervation imaging allows visualization and quantification of autonomic denervation secondary to various cardiac diseases, and has significant potential to influence clinical decision-making, e.g., the titration of pharmacotherapy and more directed selection of candidates for device implantation.

14.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 21(12): 1305-1319, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245758

RESUMO

The primary mission of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) is 'to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging'. Echocardiography is a key component in the evaluation of patients with known or suspected cardiovascular disease and is essential for the high quality and effective practice of clinical cardiology. The EACVI aims to update the previously published recommendations for training, competence, and quality improvement in echocardiography since these activities are increasingly recognized by patients, physicians, and payers. The purpose of this document is to provide the general requirements for training and competence in echocardiography, to outline the principles of quality evaluation, and to recommend a set of measures for improvement, with the ultimate goal of raising the standards of echocardiographic practice. Moreover, the document aims to provide specific guidance for advanced echo techniques, which have dramatically evolved since the previous publication in 2009.

15.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188304

RESUMO

Diabesity is a term used to describe the combined adverse health effects of obesity and diabetes mellitus. The worldwide dual epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is an important public health issue. Projections estimate a sixfold increase in the number of adults with obesity in 40 years and an increase in the number of individuals with diabetes to 642 million by 2040. Increased adiposity is the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes. Early detection of the effects of diabesity on the cardiovascular system would enable the optimal implementation of effective therapies that prevent atherosclerosis progression, cardiac remodelling, and the resulting ischaemic heart disease and heart failure. Beyond conventional imaging techniques, such as echocardiography, CT and cardiac magnetic resonance, novel post-processing tools and techniques provide information on the biological processes that underlie metabolic heart disease. In this Review, we summarize the effects of obesity and diabetes on myocardial structure and function and illustrate the use of state-of-the-art multimodality cardiac imaging to elucidate the pathophysiology of myocardial dysfunction, prognosticate long-term clinical outcomes and potentially guide treatment strategies.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129743

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the mitral valve (MV) total leaflet area (TLA)-to-mitral annular area (MAA) (TLA/MAA) ratio measured using 3-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was associated with residual mitral regurgitation (MR) after MitraClip implantation in patients with secondary MR. BACKGROUND: The factors influencing the results of MitraClip implantation for secondary MR are controversial. This study hypothesized that insufficient remodeling of the mitral leaflets relative to the annular dilation may be associated with significant MR after MitraClip implantation. METHODS: This study included patients with secondary MR treated with MitraClips. Using 3D TEE dataset, the TLA in diastole and MAA in systole were measured with dedicated software. RESULTS: In a total cohort of 119 patients (mean age 74 ± 9 years; 61% male), significant residual MR (≥2+) was present in 43 patients (36%). In patients with significant residual MR, MAA was greater than in patients without residual MR (10.7 ± 2.4 cm2 vs. 9.0 ± 2.1 cm2; p < 0.001) whereas no significant difference was observed in TLA (12.2 ± 2.6 cm2 vs. 12.0 ± 2.9 cm2; p = 0.836). TLA/MAA ratio was lower in patients with significant residual MR as compared to their counterparts (1.14 ± 0.15 vs. 1.34 ± 0.16; p < 0.001), suggesting insufficient leaflet remodeling relative to annular dilation. On receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the TLA/MAA ratio had better discriminative power to identify patients who will have significant residual MR compared to MAA alone (area under the curve [AUC]: 0.830 vs. 0.723; p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with secondary MR, insufficient mitral leaflet remodeling relative to the annulus dilation, as reflected by a lower TLA/MAA ratio, is associated with significant residual MR after MitraClip implantation.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136300

RESUMO

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is one of the most effective therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and leads to improved quality of life, reductions in heart failure hospitalization rates and reduces all-cause mortality. Nevertheless, up to two-thirds of eligible patients are not referred for CRT. Furthermore, post implantation follow-up is often fragmented and suboptimal, hampering the potential maximal treatment effect. This joint position statement from three ESC Associations, HFA, EHRA and EACVI focuses on optimized implementation of CRT. We offer theoretical and practical strategies to achieve more comprehensive CRT referral and post-procedural care by focusing on four actionable domains; (I) overcoming CRT under-utilization, (II) better understanding of pre-implant characteristics, (III) abandoning the term 'non-response' and replacing this by the concept of disease modification, and (IV) implementing a dedicated post-implant CRT care pathway.

20.
Heart ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias (VA), but little is known about VA in patients with significant primary mitral regurgitation (MR). Our aim was to describe the prevalence of symptomatic VA in patients with MVP (fibro-elastic deficiency or Barlow's disease) referred for mitral valve (MV) surgery because of moderate-to-severe MR, and to identify clinical, electrocardiographic, standard and advanced echocardiographic parameters associated with VA. METHODS: 610 consecutive patients (64±12 years, 36% female) were included. Symptomatic VA was defined as symptomatic and frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVC, Lown grade ≥2), non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) without ischaemic aetiology. RESULTS: A total of 67 (11%) patients showed symptomatic VA, of which 3 (4%) had VF, 3 (4%) sustained VT, 27 (40%) non-sustained VT and 34 (51%) frequent PVCs. Patients with VA were significantly younger, more often female and showed T-wave inversions; furthermore, they showed significant MV morphofunctional abnormalities, such as mitral annular disjunction (39% vs 20%, p<0.001), and dilatation (annular diameter 37±5 mm vs 33±6 mm, p<0.001), lower global longitudinal strain (GLS 20.9±3.1% vs 22.0±3.6%, p=0.032) and prolonged mechanical dispersion (45±12 ms vs 38±14 ms, p=0.003) as compared with patients without VA. Female sex, increased MV annular diameter, lower GLS and prolonged mechanical dispersion were identified as independent associates of symptomatic VA. CONCLUSION: In patients with MVP with moderate-to-severe MR, symptomatic VA are relatively frequent and associated with significant MV annular abnormalities, subtle left ventricular function impairment and heterogeneous contraction. Assessment of these parameters might help decision-making over further diagnostic analyses and improve risk-stratification.

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