Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135398, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836228

RESUMO

The differences of PBDE absorption, accumulation, and metabolism in different cultivars of the same crop are rarely explored. This study used 14C tracing to fully demonstrate the uptake and transformation of soil-borne BDE209 in three rice cultivars, including two indica (HHZ and YD1) and one japonica cultivars (NJ3). Results showed that about 6.9, 17.2, and 17.4% of the applied 14C-BDE209 were transformed to 14C-metabolites in soils planted with HHZ, YD1, and NJ3, respectively. The 14C-BDE209 and its 14C-metabolites in soil could be absorbed by the rice and gradually transported to its root, stem, leaf, and grain, with the total whole-plant uptake of 8.52, 4.55 and 3.43 nmol for HHZ, YD1, and NJ3, respectively. The cultivar of HHZ had the greatest whole-plant 14C absorption but the lowest ΣPBDEs residues in its grain, with the ΣPBDEs of 421.8, 454.2 and 967.0 ng g-1 for HHZ, YD1, and NJ3, respectively. BDE-209 accounted for 90%, 31% and 50% of the ΣPBDEs in the grain from HHZ, YD1, and NJ3, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) amounts of ΣPBDEs were 928, 1056, and 2675 ng kg-1 bw d-1 via consuming rice grains from HHZ, YD1, and NJ3, respectively, which were below the safe threshold limits for human consumption. This study proved the different BDE-209 absorption, accumulation and transformation in different rice cultivars, which potentially suggests the need of considering cultivar differences in assessing the dietary risks of PBDEs.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Grão Comestível , Humanos , Folhas de Planta , Solo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 134468, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839299

RESUMO

Reuse of wastewater (WW) as an agricultural irrigation source is being considered with increasing interest, mainly in arid and semiarid zones. However, due to the complex nature of WW its reuse can have an impact on the fate of the pesticides added to the soils and crops for pest control. This review provides a detailed insight about the main processes involved in pesticide-soil-WW interactions (adsorption/desorption, degradation, transport, plant uptake and field assays) focusing on the role of dissolved organic matter and salt content in the mentioned processes. The influence of pesticide and soil properties in these processes is also discussed. The review explores current research gaps in the pesticide-soil-WW interactions and identifies areas that merit further research, providing a perspective for further scientific exploration.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 375: 255-263, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078061

RESUMO

Macrolides are widely used antibiotics with ubiquitous occurrence in aquatic environments. Unlike many emerging contaminants, macrolides are positively charged on their amine groups and are likely to interact with negative charge groups of dissolved organic matters (DOMs), which may alter macrolide bioaccumulation but yet to be explored. Here we evaluated the effects of different DOM (LeHA, PPHA, SRHA and SRFA) on erythromycin (an important macrolide) bioaccumulation into aquatic biota with 14C tracing. Results showed that ERY uptake in organisms was significantly inhibited by DOM (P < 0.05). In the presence of DOM at 20 mg L-1, the averaged equilibrium concentration (Ce) decreased by 28.1-40.6% for zebrafish and 10.9-25.8% for duckweed, corresponding to reductions in the bioconcentration factor (BCF) by 15.9-32.8% and 10.9-18.5%, respectively. Likely due to their higher carboxyl group content, SRHA and SRFA exhibited stronger inhibitory effects than LeHA or PPHA. The possible interactions between ERY and DOM were explored and results suggested that DOM inhibited ERY bioavailability by forming DOM-ERY complexes via ionic bonding of -COO- and ERY+, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic partitioning. This study was the first to report on inhibitory effects of DOM on erythromycin bioavailability and has important implications for better understanding risks of macrolides.

4.
Environ Int ; 129: 194-207, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129496

RESUMO

Pyrethroids are a class of commonly used insecticides and are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment in various regions. Aquatic toxicity of pyrethroids was often overestimated when using conventional bulk chemical concentrations because of their strong hydrophobicity. Over the last two decades, bioavailability has been recognized and applied to refine the assessment of ecotoxicological effects of pyrethroids. This review focuses on recent advances in the bioavailability of pyrethroids, specifically in the aquatic environment. We summarize the development of passive sampling and Tenax extraction methods for assessing the bioavailability of pyrethroids. Factors affecting the bioavailability of pyrethroids, including physicochemical properties of pyrethroids, and quality and quantity of organic matter, were overviewed. Various applications of bioavailability on the assessment of bioaccumulation and acute toxicity of pyrethroids were also discussed. The final section of this review highlights future directions of research, including development of standardized protocols for measurement of bioavailability, establishment of bioavailability-based toxicity benchmarks and water/sediment quality criteria, and incorporation of bioavailability into future risk assessment and management actions.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/química , Piretrinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Piretrinas/metabolismo
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 1221-1229, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801215

RESUMO

Benzene kresoxim-methyl (BKM) is an effective strobilurin fungicide for controlling fungal pathogens but limited information is available on its degradation and metabolism. This study explored the degradation and metabolic profiling for BKM in soils by carbon-14 tracing and HPLC-TOF-MS2 analyzing. Results indicated that 88%-98% of 14C-BKM remained as parent or incomplete intermediates after 100 days. Three main radioactive metabolites (M1 to M3, ≥90%) and three subordinate radioactive metabolites (Ma to Mc, ≤2%) were observed, along with a non-radioactive metabolite M4. The main intermediates were further confirmed by self-synthesizing their authentic standards, and BKM was proposed to degrade via pathways including: 1) the oxidative cleavage of the acrylate double bond to give BKM-enol (M1); 2) the hydrolysis of the methyl ester to give BKM acid (M2); 3) the cleavage of M1 and M2 to yield Mc, which could be decarboxylated to give M3; and 4) the ether cleavage between aromatic rings to form M4. This study builds a solid metabolic profiling method for strobilurins and gives a deeper insight into the eventual fate of BKM by demonstrating its transformation pathways for the first time, which may also be beneficial for understanding the risks of other analogous strobilurins.


Assuntos
Benzeno/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Estrobilurinas/análise , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metabolômica
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 214: 234-241, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27136610

RESUMO

In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 165: 129-35, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26037097

RESUMO

Natural waters such as surface water and sediment porewater invariably contain dissolved organic matter (DOM). Association of strongly hydrophobic contaminants (HOCs) with DOM leads to decreased toxicity and bioavailability, but bioavailability of DOM-sorbed HOCs is difficult to measure. Current methods to estimate bioavailability of HOCs in water are based on only the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree). The ignorance of the exchangeable fraction of HOCs sorbed on DOM may result in an underestimation of the toxicity potential of HOCs to aquatic organisms. Here we explore the applicability of an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measuring the desorption fraction of DOM-sorbed pyrene and bifenthrin and determining their exchangeable pool (E) as an approximation of bioavailability. E values, expressed as percentage of the total concentration, ranged between 0.80 and 0.92% for pyrene and 0.74 and 0.85% for bifenthrin, depending primarily on the amount of chemical in the freely dissolved form. However, between 34 and 78% of the DOM-sorbed pyrene was exchangeable. This fraction ranged between 23% and 82% for bifenthrin. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a significant relationship (r(2)>0.72, P<0.0001) between E and bioaccumulation into Daphnia magna. Therefore, IDM may be used to improve the bioavailability measurement and risk assessment of HOCs in aquatic systems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Pirenos/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/química , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Daphnia/metabolismo , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Isótopos/análise , Pirenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 458-460: 614-23, 2013 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23707867

RESUMO

This study evaluated the ability of three unmodified organic residues (composted sewage sludge, RO1; chicken manure, RO2; and a residue from olive oil production called 'orujillo', RO3) and a soil to sorb six pesticides (atrazine, lindane, alachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos and endosulfan sulfate) and thereby explored the potential environmental value of these organic residues for mitigating pesticide pollution in agricultural production and removing contaminants from wastewater. Pesticide determination was carried out using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption approaches. Experimental results showed that the Freundlich isotherm model best described the adsorption process and that Kf values increased with an increase in organic matter (OM) content of the amended soil. The order of adsorption of pesticides on soils was: chlorpyrifos≥endosulfan sulfate>chlorfenvinphos≥lindane>alachlor≥atrazine. The sorption was greater for the most hydrophobic compounds and lower for the most polar ones, as corroborated by a negative correlation between Kf values and solubility. Sorption increased with an increase in organic matter. Sorption capacity was positively correlated with the organic carbon (OC) content. The organic amendment showing the maximum sorption capacity was RO3 in all cases, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2. The order of adsorption capacity of the amendments depended on the pesticide and the organic dosage. In the case of the 10% amendment the order was RO3>RO2>RO1>soil, except for chlorfenvinphos, in which it was RO2>RO3>RO1>soil, and atrazine, where RO2 and RO3 amendments had the same effect on the soil sorption capacity (RO2≥RO3>RO1>soil).


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Praguicidas/química , Solo/química , Adsorção/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Esterco/análise , Azeite de Oliva , Praguicidas/análise , Óleos Vegetais , Esgotos/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 176: 171-7, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23434573

RESUMO

Methods for determining bioavailability of organic contaminants suffer various operational limitations. We explored the use of stable isotope labeled references in developing an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measure the exchangeable pool (E) of pyrene and bifenthrin as an approximation of their bioavailability in sediments. The exchange of deuterated bifenthrin or pyrene with its native counterpart was completed within 48 h. The derived E was 38-82% for pyrene and 28-59% for bifenthrin. Regression between E and the sum of rapid and slow desorption fractions obtained from sequential desorption showed a slope close to 1.0. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a strong relationship (r(2) > 0.93) between E and bioaccumulation into Chironomus tentans. Given the abundance of stable isotope labeled references and their relatively easy analysis, the IDM has the potential to become a readily adoptable tool for estimating organic contaminants bioaccessibility in various matrices.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Pirenos/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Chironomidae , Isótopos/análise , Técnica de Diluição de Radioisótopos
10.
Environ Pollut ; 167: 34-40, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22522316

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants (BFRs). The ubiquity and persistence of PBDEs in sediment have raised concerns over their environmental fate and ecological risks. Due to strong affinity for sediment organic matter, environmental fate and bioavailability of PBDEs closely depend on their phase distribution. In this study, disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber was used to derive the freely dissolved concentration (C(free)) of PBDEs in sediment porewater as a measurement of bioavailability. The PDMS-to-water partition coefficient (log K(PDMS)) was 5.46-5.83 for BDE 47, 99, and 153. In sediments, PBDEs were predominantly sorbed to the sediment phase, with C(free) accounting for <0.012% of the total chemical mass. The C(free) of PBDEs decreased as their bromination or sediment organic carbon content increased. The strong association with dissolved organic matter (DOM) implies a potential for facilitated offsite transport and dispersion in the environment that depends closely on the stability of sediment aggregates.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 59(17): 9448-56, 2011 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21819079

RESUMO

The occurrence of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, pyrethroids, and fipronil was investigated in two watersheds along the southern California coast. Paired surface water and sediment samples were collected under dry and wet (after significant rain events) weather conditions. Insecticide concentrations in water and sediment were higher following rain events than during the dry season. Chlorpyrifos was the most frequently detected compound (>88%). Pyrethroids were detected in 74 and 100% of the water and sediment samples, respectively, with bifenthrin detected most frequently. Trans-permethrin was detected at the highest concentration followed by bifenthrin. Bifenthrin and trans-permethrin water concentrations were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with the suspended solid level, suggesting transport facilitated by suspended particles. In 80% of the wet season samples with 100% of Ceriodaphnia dubia mortality, chlorpyrifos concentrations were >100 ng L(-1). Sediment pyrethroid levels (0.5-1100 ng g(-1)) were frequently higher than the respective Hyalella azteca LC(50) values, with bifenthrin as the primary contributor of H. azteca toxicity.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Agroquímicos , Animais , California , Clorpirifos/análise , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Cladóceros/efeitos dos fármacos , Diazinon/análise , Diazinon/toxicidade , Pirazóis/análise , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Piretrinas/análise , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Rios/química , Estações do Ano
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(4): 1521-7, 2011 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21210679

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of widely used brominated flame retardants with strong hydrophobicity. Due to their strong affinity for organic matter, accurate measurement of adsorption coefficients for PBDEs using conventional batch methods can be confounded by biases caused by their sorption to dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In this study, sorption isotherms were constructed for BDE-47 and BDE-99 in sediments by using different methods to measure the aqueous phase concentration Cw. Upon centrifugation, Cw measured by automated solid-phase microextraction (Cw-SPME) was consistently smaller than by liquid-liquid extraction (Cw-LLE), suggesting substantial association of PBDEs with DOC. Significant underestimations (1.2-106-fold) of sediment-water partition coefficient Kd occurred when Cw was measured by LLE. The log KDOC values derived from the SPME measurements ranged from 5.10 to 8.02 for eight congeners from BDE-28 to BDE-183, suggesting a strong tendency for PBDEs to complex with DOC. This study showed that PBDE congeners have larger sorption coefficients than would be measured by the conventional method. The high affinity to DOC also means a potential for DOC-facilitated transport, thus enhancing the environmental mobility of PBDEs.


Assuntos
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 407(5): 1489-95, 2009 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19046758

RESUMO

The use of organic amendments to bioremediate potential organic pollutants of soil and water has become an increasingly relevant issue in the last years. This strategy has been applied to four triazine herbicides in a typical calcareous agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area. The soil was amended with olive cake, compost and vermicompost of olive cake at rates four times higher than the agronomic dose in order to stimulate biodegradation of simazine, terbuthylazine, cyanazine and prometryn, added in a mixture to the soils. Degradation studies were carried out in sterile and microbially active soil to evaluate the effect of the chemical and biological degradation of triazines. The residual herbicide concentrations at the end of the degradation assay showed no significant differences between non amended and amended soil. However, the addition of compost and vermicompost enhanced the biological degradation rate of triazines during the first week of incubation, with half-lives ranging form 5 to 18 days for the amended soils, whilst negligible degradation occurred in non-amended soil during this period. In contrast, olive cake did not significantly modify the degradation of triazines in spite that the addition of this amendment to soil resulted in the highest dehidrogenase activity values. In all the substrates, degradation of cyanazine and prometryn was faster (between 1.5 and two times higher) than those of terbuthylazine and simazine, without significant relationship with sorption parameters. The first order kinetic equation satisfactorily explained the experimental data for all triazines. A biphasic model, such as that proposed by Hoerl, was better to predict the very rapid triazines decay during the first week of incubation in soil amended with compost and vermicompost.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/química , Olea/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo , Triazinas/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Cinética , Olea/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/análise , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Análise de Regressão , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Triazinas/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 55(15): 6213-8, 2007 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17608500

RESUMO

Amending soil with products rich in organic matter, such as raw olive cake or alperujo and its compost and vermicompost, could be a simple bioremediation strategy for soil pollutants such as pesticides. To investigate this hypothesis in relation to sulfonylurea herbicides, these amendments were applied to a Mediterranean agricultural soil at rates 4 times higher than agronomical dosage to stimulate biodegradation of chlorsulfuron, prosulfuron, and bensulfuron, added in a mixture to the soils. Degradation studies were conducted in microbially active and sterile soils to check the importance of biological and chemical degradation of sulfonylurea herbicides in nonamended and amended soil. The addition of alperujo stimulated soil microbial activity, as determined by dehydrogenase activity measurements, but it did not enhance the degradation of the sulfonylurea herbicides. In contrast, compost and vermicompost slightly favored the biological degradation of bensulfuron during the first week of incubation. Chlorsulfuron and prosulfuron were mainly degraded by chemical pathways in all substrates, which is probably due to a competitive or inhibitory phenomenon observed between chlorsulfuron and bensulfuron. The first-order kinetic equation satisfactorily explained the experimental data for chlorsulfuron and prosulfuron; however, a biphasic model, such as that proposed by Hoerl, better predicted the results obtained for bensulfuron.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Herbicidas/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Olea/química , Solo/análise , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/química , Agricultura/métodos , Azeite de Oliva , Óleos Vegetais , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 378(1-2): 119-23, 2007 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17289120

RESUMO

Organic matter-rich agricultural by-products are being produced in huge quantities and can be applied to soil as a disposal strategy. The application of two different rates (2 and 8% w/w) of olive cake to a Mediterranean calcareous soil resulted in an increased sorption of four triazine herbicides, which was higher for the more hydrophobic compounds (terbuthylazine and prometryn) and lower for the more polar ones (simazine and cyanazine). However, when the sorption coefficients were normalised to the total soil organic carbon (K(oc)), the results did not significantly differ between simazine and cyanazine which is an indication that the olive cake did not exert different sorption capacity for both compounds. On the contrary, K(oc) values for terbuthylazine and prometryn increased in the amended soils. Our results from experiments using mixtures of several pesticides suggest that competition for sorption sites resulted in a decrease of herbicide sorption. Desorption was hysteretical both for the amended and unamended soils, but the addition of olive cake at the highest dose diminished desorption of most of the herbicides. In conclusion, the addition of olive cake behaves as a promising method for reducing the risk of groundwater pollution by pesticides.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Herbicidas/química , Resíduos Industriais , Óleos Vegetais , Triazinas/química , Adsorção , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Azeite de Oliva , Solo , Espanha , Poluição da Água/prevenção & controle
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 55(3): 836-43, 2007 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17263483

RESUMO

Raw olive-mill waste and soil amendments obtained from their traditional composting or vermicomposting were added, at rates equivalent to 200 Mg ha-1, to a calcareous silty clay loam soil in a laboratory test, in order to improve its fertility and physicochemical characteristics. In particular, the effects on the sorption-desorption processes of four triazine herbicides have been examined. We found that comparatively hydrophobic herbicides terbuthylazine and prometryn increased their retention on amended soil whereas the more polar herbicides simazine and cyanazine were less affected. Soil application of olive cake, without transformation, resulted in the highest herbicide retention. Its relatively high content in aliphatic fractions and lipids could explain the increased herbicide retention through hydrophobic bonding and herbicide diffusion favored by poorly condensed macromolecular structures. On the other hand, the condensed aromatic structure of the compost and vermicompost from olive cake could hinder diffusion processes, resulting in lower herbicide sorption. In fact, the progressive humification in soil of olive-mill solid waste led to a decrease of sorption capacity, which suggested important changes in organic matter quality and interactions during the mineralization process. When soil amended with vermicompost was incubated for different periods of time, the enhanced herbicide sorption capacity persisted for 2 months. Pesticide desorption was reduced by the addition of fresh amendments but was enhanced during the transformation process of amendments in soil. Our results indicate the potential of soil amendments based on olive-mill wastes in the controlled, selective release of triazine herbicides, which varies depending on the maturity achieved by their biological transformation.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Herbicidas/química , Olea/química , Solo/análise , Triazinas/química , Adsorção , Resíduos Industriais/análise
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA