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Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 851-854, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403984


A second case of a novel rabies variant described once in a capuchin monkey from Mato Grosso, Brazil, was discovered in a rabid wild kinkajou from the same region, indicating a public health risk following exposure to either of the two animals.

Cebus/virologia , Procyonidae/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/transmissão , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genes Virais , Filogenia , Saúde Pública , Vírus da Raiva/genética
Neuroimmunomodulation ; 26(6): 285-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935743


OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed an attenuation of body temperature in lactating rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) compared with virgin saline-treated females. We proposed that high levels of prolactin (PRL) during lactation may induce this attenuation because PRL has a suppressive effect on inflammation. In the present study, we induced hyperprolactinemia in female virgin rats to investigate the effects of PRL on body temperature and sickness behavior induced by LPS. METHODS: To induce hyperprolactinemia, female rats in the estrous phase received domperidone 3 times/day for 5 days and an LPS injection (D + LPS group). Two other groups were treated with saline solution for 5 days, and one of them received a saline injection (S + S group) and the other LPS (S + LPS group). Tympanic temperature was assessed 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after treatment. Body weight gain and food and water consumption were observed 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after treatment. RESULTS: Hyperprolactinemia impaired LPS-induced hypothermia and hyperthermia phases of body temperature. Body weight gains in the S + LPS group and the D + LPS group were similar. A decrease in food consumption was observed in the D + LPS rats at 72 and 96 h compared to the S + LPS group. CONCLUSION: Hyperprolactinemia impaired the body temperature increase induced by LPS and several signs of sickness behavior, suggesting that febrile responses to LPS can be modulated by the physiological state. These phenomena may have adaptive value for reproduction.

Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperprolactinemia , Comportamento de Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamento de Doença/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
Microbes Infect ; 20(3): 196-204, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29203270


Microsporidia are intracellular pathogens that cause severe disease in immunocompromised humans and animals. We recently demonstrated that XID mice are more susceptible to Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection by intraperitoneal route, evidencing the role of B-1 cells in resistance against infection. The present study investigated the resistance and susceptibility against E. cuniculi oral infection, including the role of B-1 cells. BALB/c and BALB/c XID (B-1 cells deficient) mice were orally infected with E. cuniculi spores. No clinical symptoms were observed in infected animals; histopathology showed lymphoplasmocytic enteritis with degeneration of the apexes of the villi in all infected groups. Higher parasite burden was observed in infected BALB/c XID mice. In the spleen and peritoneum, all infected mice showed a decrease of lymphocytes, including CD8+ T cells, mostly in infected BALB/c XID mice. Adoptive transfer of B-1 cells (XID + B-1) was associated with a lower parasite burden. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) increased mostly in infected XID + B1 mice. Together, the present results showed that BALB/c XID mice infected by the oral route were more susceptible to encephalitozoonosis than BALB/c mice, demonstrating the B-1 cells importance in the control of the immune response against oral E. cuniculi infection.

Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/fisiologia , Encefalitozoonose/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Encefalitozoonose/microbiologia , Encefalitozoonose/patologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Baço/imunologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/microbiologia
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0186954, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091912


Microsporidiosis are diseases caused by opportunistic intracellular fungi in immunosuppressed individuals, as well as in transplanted patients, the elderly and children, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and decreased T cell response, neutrophil function, humoral immunity failure, increasing the susceptibility to infections. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic and/or immunosuppressed mice to encephalitozoonosis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Microscopically, granulomatous hepatitis, interstitial pneumonia and pielonephritis were observed in all infected groups. STZ treatment induced an immunossupressor effect in the populations of B (B-1 and B2) and CD4+ T lymphocytes. Moreover, infection decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages of DM mice. Furthermore, infection induced a significant increase of IL-6 and TNF-α cytokine serum levels in DM mice. IFN-γ, the most important cytokine for the resolution of encephalitozoonosis, increased only in infected mice. In addition to the decreased immune response, DM mice were more susceptible to encephalitozoonosis, associated with increased fungal burden, and symptoms. Additionally, cyclophosphamide immunosuppression in DM mice further increased the susceptibility to encephalitozoonosis. Thus, microsporidiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of comorbidities in diabetics.

Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Encefalitozoonose/complicações , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Encefalitozoonose/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peritônio/imunologia , Baço/imunologia , Estreptozocina
Vet Sci ; 4(3)2017 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056700


Behavioral alterations in dogs are not easy to understand and cure. The situation is more difficult when an encephalitis due to Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) and a concomitant olfactory neuroblastoma are present. This case report deals with the story of a 5-year-old Swiss shepherd dog with behavioral changes, seizures, epistaxis and ataxia. Following clinical and laboratory exams, a suspected diagnosis of CDV infection was hypothesized, and a therapy based on Ω-interferon was administered. Every supporting therapy failed and the worsening of the clinical conditions led to the euthanasia of the patient. A neoformation in the right frontal lobe was found post mortem. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry investigation showed a non-suppurative demyelinating encephalitis, suggestive of CDV infection, and a desmoplastic epithelioid olfactory neuroblastoma. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first clinical pathological report of a non-suppurative encephalitis due to CDV infection and olfactory neuroblastoma in a dog.

Immunobiology ; 222(2): 218-227, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27707513


Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an opportunist intracellular pathogen of mammals. The adaptive immune response is essential to eliminate E. cuniculi, but evidence is mounting that the response initiated by the innate immune response may ultimately define whether or not the parasite can survive. B-1 cells may act as antigen-presenting cells or differentiate into phagocytes, playing different roles in many infection models. However, the role of these cells in the dynamics of Encephalitozoon sp. infections is still unknown. To investigate the role of B-1 cells in E. cuniculi infection, BALB/c and BALB/c XID (B-1 cells deficient) mice were infected with E. cuniculi spores. Cytometric analyses of peritoneal cells showed that B-1 cells and macrophages increased significantly in infected BALB/c mice compared to uninfected controls. Despite the increase in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in XID mice, these animals were more susceptible to infection as evidenced histologically with more prominent inflammatory lesions and parasite burden. Pro-inflammatory cytokines increased in both infected BALB/c and BALB/c XID mice. To confirm B-1 cells role in encephalitozoonosis, we adoptively transferred B-1 cells to BALB/c XID mice and this group showed few symptoms and microscopic lesions, associated with an increased in cytokines. Together, these results suggest that B-1 cells may increase the resistance of BALB/c mice to encephalitozoonosis, evidencing for the first time the important role of B-1 lymphocytes in the control of microsporidia infection.

Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Encefalitozoonose/imunologia , Encefalitozoonose/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Animais , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/imunologia , Encefalitozoonose/microbiologia , Encefalitozoonose/patologia , Feminino , Contagem de Linfócitos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo