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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(3): 1666-1676, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362255

RESUMO

AIMS: As the world population grows older, the co-existence of cancer and cardiovascular comorbidities becomes more common, complicating management of these patients. Here, we describe the impact of a large Cardio-Oncology unit in Southern Italy, characterizing different types of patients and discussing challenges in therapeutic management of cardiovascular complications. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 231 consecutive patients referred to our Cardio-Oncology unit from January 2015 to February 2020. Three different types were identified, according to their chemotherapeutic statuses at first visit. Type 1 included patients naïve for oncological treatments, Type 2 patients already being treated with oncological treatments, and Type 3 patients who had already completed cancer treatments. Type 2 patients presented the highest incidence of cardiovascular events (46.2% vs. 12.3% in Type 1 and 17.9% in Type 3) and withdrawals from oncological treatments (5.1% vs. none in Type 1) during the observation period. Type 2 patients presented significantly worse 48 month-survival (32.1% vs. 16.7% in Type 1 and 17.9% in Type 3), and this was more evident when in the three groups we focused on patients with uncontrolled cardiovascular risk factors or overt cardiovascular disease at the first cardiologic assessment. Nevertheless, these patients showed the greatest benefit from our cardiovascular assessments, as witnessed by a small, but significant improvement in ejection fraction during follow-up (Type 2b: from 50 [20; 67] to 55 [35; 65]; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who start oncological protocols without an accurate baseline cardiovascular evaluation are at major risk of developing cardiac complications due to antineoplastic treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Cardiopatias , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Oncologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35455885

RESUMO

Mixed neuroendocrine non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs) refer to heterogenous rare neoplasms constituted of at least a neuroendocrine population-either well-differentiated, or more frequently poorly differentiated-and a non-neuroendocrine population, both accounting for at least 30% of the whole tumor mass. Several studies recently focused on the key genetic and epigenetic changes underlying MiNENs to better understand how they develop, and explore biological similarities among the two components and their pure counterparts. However, their molecular landscape still remains poorly understood. NGS may represent a useful tool to study this orphan disease by detecting the main genetic alterations and possible therapeutic targets. NGS analysis on tissue and/or blood samples through the Foundation One (F1) platform was performed on consecutive samples collected from four patients diagnosed with MiNENs of the gastroenteric tract. Several genetic alterations were shared among samples from the same patients, thus suggesting a common origin between them, although morphology sometimes changed at histopathological evaluation. Common molecular alterations among samples from different patients that had not been previously described to our knowledge were also detected. Finally, it is of the utmost importance to clarify if the maintenance of the 30% cut-off is still essential in defining MiNENs and really manages to include all of the mixed neoplasms.

3.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 41(1): 109, 2022 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently conducted Cetuximab-AVElumab-Lung (CAVE-Lung), a proof-of-concept, translational and clinical trial, to evaluate the combination of two IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb): avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 drug, and cetuximab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) drug, as second- or third-line treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We have reported clinically relevant anti-tumor activity in 6/16 patients. Clinical benefit was accompanied by Natural Killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC). Among the 6 responding patients, 3 had progressed after initial response to a previous treatment with single agent anti-PD-1, nivolumab or pembrolizumab. METHODS: We report long-term clinical follow-up and additional findings on the anti-tumor activity and on the immune effects of cetuximab plus avelumab treatment for these 3 patients. RESULTS: As of November 30, 2021, 2/3 patients were alive. One patient was still on treatment from 34 months, while the other two patients had progression free survival (PFS) of 15 and 19 months, respectively. Analysis of serially collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed long-term activation of NK cell-mediated ADCC. Comprehensive genomic profile analysis found somatic mutations and germline rare variants in DNA damage response (DDR) genes. Furthermore, by transcriptomic analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset we found that DDR mutant NSCLC displayed high STING pathway gene expression. In NSCLC patient-derived three-dimensional in vitro spheroid cultures, cetuximab plus avelumab treatment induced additive cancer cell growth inhibition as compared to single agent treatment. This effect was partially blocked by treatment with an anti-CD16 mAb, suggesting a direct involvement of NK cell activation. Furthermore, cetuximab plus avelumab treatment induced 10-, 20-, and 20-fold increase, respectively, in the gene expression of CCL5 and CXCL10, two STING downstream effector cytokines, and of interferon ß, as compared to untreated control samples. CONCLUSIONS: DDR mutations may contribute to DDR-induced STING pathway with sustained innate immunity activation following cetuximab plus avelumab combination in previously treated, PD-1 inhibitor responsive NSCLC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35158740

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) constitute the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with approximately 25-40% of the diagnosed patients older than 70 years. HNSCC patients are often frail and frequently have multiple comorbidities due to their unhealthy lifestyle, and evidence suggests that older patients may receive less aggressive and suboptimal treatment than younger patients with the same disease status. The aim of this review is to depict and summarize the evidence regarding the different strategies that can be used in the clinical management of elderly HNSCC patients. Key references were derived from a PubMed query. Hand searching and clinicaltrials.gov were also used. This paper contains a narrative report and a critical discussion of clinical approaches in the context of elderly HNSCC.

5.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35207616

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent tumours and one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Its incidence has increased in recent years and could be linked to unhealthy dietary habits combined with environmental and hereditary factors, which can lead to genetic and epigenetic changes and induce tumour development. The model of CRC progression has always been based on a genomic, parametric, static and complex approach involving oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. Recent advances in omics sciences have sought a paradigm shift to a multiparametric, immunological-stromal, and dynamic approach for a better understanding of carcinogenesis and tumour heterogeneity. In the present paper, we review the most important preclinical and clinical data and present recent discoveries in the field of transcriptomics, proteomics, metagenomics and radiomics in CRC disease.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163064

RESUMO

Muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a widespread malignancy with a worse prognosis often related to a late diagnosis. For early-stage MIBC pts, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to evaluate the timing of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and surgery. The current standard therapy is platinum-based NAC (MVAC-methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin or Platinum-Gemcitabine regimens) followed by radical cystectomy (RC) with lymphadenectomy. However, preliminary data from Vesper trial highlighted that dose-dense NAC MVAC is endowed with a good pathological response but shows low tolerability. In the last few years, translational-based research approaches have identified several candidate biomarkers of NAC esponsiveness, such as ERCC2, ERBB2, or DNA damage response (DDR) gene alterations. Moreover, the recent consensus MIBC molecular classification identified six molecular subtypes, characterized by different sensitivity to chemo- or targeted or immunotherapy, that could open a novel procedure for patient selection and also for neoadjuvant therapies. The Italian PURE-01 phase II Trial extended data on efficacy and resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICIs) in this setting. In this review, we summarize the most relevant literature data supporting NAC use in MIBC, focusing on novel therapeutic strategies such as immunotherapy, considering the better patient stratification and selection emerging from novel molecular classification.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Cistectomia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Excisão de Linfonodo , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia
7.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 169: 103538, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801700

RESUMO

Cancer immunotherapy has produced an unprecedented durable response rate, thus shifting from traditional doublet chemotherapy to immunotherapy-based treatments with and without chemotherapy as the first line strategies for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients without a molecular driver. However, the majority of patients do not benefit from the treatment or may relapse after a period of response. As few treatment options are available after failure of cancer immunotherapy, including the combination of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs, a better understanding of the mechanisms limiting cancer immunotherapy may be of help in the definition of the best second line. Whereas only retrospective data support an immunotherapy rechallenge approach, new combination strategies including immunotherapy and cell-signaling inhibitors or double immunotherapy represent the newest and most promising strategy to overcome primary or acquired resistance to first line immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(18)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572944

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The use of local treatment, such as surgical resection, liver transplant, and local ablation, has improved the survival of patients with HCC detected at an early stage. Until recently, the treatment of patients with metastatic disease was limited to the use of the multikinase inhibitor (MKI) sorafenib with a marginal effect on survival outcome. New target approaches, such as the oral MKI lenvatinib in first-line treatment and regorafenib, ramucirumab, and cabozantinib in later lines of therapy, have demonstrated efficacy in patients with preserved liver function (Child-Pugh class A) and good performance status. On the other hand, the implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors directed against PD-1 (nivolumab and pembrolizumab), PD-L1 (atezolizumab), and anti-CTLA4 (ipilimumab) in the management of advanced HCC has strongly changed the continuum of care of HCC. Future research should include the evaluation of molecular biomarkers that can help patient selection and provide new insight on potential combined approaches. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical evidence of the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in HCC, and discuss how immunotherapy has been implemented into the continuum of HCC care.

9.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440249

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by a high mortality rate owing to very few available oncological treatments. For many years, a combination of platinum-based chemotherapy and anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has represented the only available option for first-line therapy. Recently, immunotherapy has been presented an alternative for positive PD-L1 HNSCC. However, the oncologists' community foresees that a new therapeutic era is approaching. In fact, no-chemo options and some molecular targets are on the horizon. This narrative review addresses past, present, and future therapeutic options for HNSCC from a translational point of view.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune hypophysitis is a frequent immune-related adverse event (irAE) in cancer patients treated with immunecheckpoint inhibitors. Studies seeking anti-pituitary (APA) and anti-hypothalamus (AHA) antibodies in patients treated with anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are scarce. The aim of this study is to search for APA and AHA and related pituitary dysfunction in patients treated with these agents. METHODS: Cross-sectional and preliminary longitudinal studies were conducted at the Medical Oncology Unit and Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Unit of the University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli". Fifty-four cancer patients on treatments with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 (Group 1) and 50 healthy controls were enrolled for a cross-sectional study; 13 cancer patients (Group 2) were enrolled for our preliminary longitudinal study. APA/AHA titers and changes in biochemical and hormonal profile were evaluated in Group 1; in Group 2, they were evaluated before and after nine weeks from the start of immunotherapy. RESULTS: Patients of Group 1 showed a higher prevalence of APA and AHA than controls: 21 of them had APA, 16 had AHA, and 11 had both autoantibodies. In total, 7 of 13 patients in Group 2 became APA-positive and 3 became AHA-positive after nine weeks of immunotherapy, showing an increase in prolactin and a decrease in ACTH and IGF-1 levels compared with basal values. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-pituitary and anti-hypothalamus antibodies seem to play a pivotal role in hypothalamic-pituitary autoimmunity and secondary endocrine-related alterations evoked by anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies.

11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(11): 1821-1839, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274504

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enters host cells through the cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2. METHODS: Using a variety of normal and malignant models and tissues from the aerodigestive and respiratory tracts, we investigated the expression and regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. RESULTS: We find that ACE2 expression is restricted to a select population of epithelial cells. Notably, infection with SARS-CoV-2 in cancer cell lines, bronchial organoids, and patient nasal epithelium induces metabolic and transcriptional changes consistent with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including up-regulation of ZEB1 and AXL, resulting in an increased EMT score. In addition, a transcriptional loss of genes associated with tight junction function occurs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, is repressed by EMT through the transforming growth factor-ß, ZEB1 overexpression, and onset of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. This suggests a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in which infected cells shift toward an increasingly mesenchymal state, associated with a loss of tight junction components with acute respiratory distress syndrome-protective effects. AXL inhibition and ZEB1 reduction, as with bemcentinib, offer a potential strategy to reverse this effect. CONCLUSIONS: These observations highlight the use of aerodigestive and, especially, lung cancer model systems in exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses and offer important insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 in healthy patients and patients with cancer alike.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Brônquios , Humanos , Pulmão , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 549, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CIN) has been demonstrated to be a prognostic factor in several cancer conditions. We previously found a significant prognostic value of CIN on overall survival (OS), in a pooled dataset of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving first line chemotherapy from 1996 to 2001. However, the prognostic role of CIN in NSCLC is still debated. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis pooling data prospectively collected in six randomized phase 3 trials in NSCLC conducted from 2002 to 2016. Patients who never started chemotherapy and those for whom toxicity data were missing were excluded. Neutropenia was categorized on the basis of worst grade during chemotherapy: absent (grade 0), mild (grade 1-2), or severe (grade 3-4). The primary endpoint was OS. Multivariable Cox model was applied for statistical analyses. In the primary analysis, a minimum time (landmark) at 180 days from randomization was applied in order to minimize the time-dependent bias. RESULTS: Overall, 1529 patients, who received chemotherapy, were eligible; 572 of them (who received 6 cycles of treatment) represented the landmark population. Severe CIN was reported in 143 (25.0%) patients and mild CIN in 135 (23.6%). At multivariable OS analysis, CIN was significantly predictive of prognosis although its prognostic value was entirely driven by severe CIN (hazard ratio [HR] of death 0.71; 95%CI: 0.53-0.95) while it was not evident with mild CIN (HR 1.21; 95%CI: 0.92-1.58). Consistent results were observed in the out-of-landmark group (including 957 patients), where both severe and mild CIN were significantly associated with a reduced risk of death. CONCLUSION: The pooled analysis of six large trials of NSCLC treatment shows that CIN occurrence is significantly associated with a longer overall survival, particularly in patients developing severe CIN, confirming our previous findings.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; 20(6): 685-694, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749484

RESUMO

Introduction: Cancer immunotherapies with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against immune checkpoints (i.e. CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1) have revolutionized antineoplastic treatments. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) approved for cancer immunotherapy are mAbs anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab), anti-PD-1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and cemiplimab), and anti-PD-L1 (atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab). Treatment with ICIs can be associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including an increased risk of developing myocarditis. These findings are compatible with the observation that, CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 pathways play a central role in the modulation of autoimmunity.Areas covered: In this paper, we start from examining the pathogenesis of cardiovascular adverse events from ICIs, and then we focus on risk factors and strategies to prevent and manage this cardiotoxicity.Expert opinion: There is a growing need for a multidisciplinary approach of ICI-associated cardiotoxicity, involving oncologists, cardiologists, and immunologists. Prevention and effective management of ICIs cardiotoxicity starts with an in-depth screening and surveillance strategies of high-risk patients, in order to improve early detection and appropriate management in a personalized approach.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/administração & dosagem , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 1758835920949418, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767760

RESUMO

Head and neck cancers (HNC) represent the seventh most frequent cancer worldwide, with squamous cell carcinomas as the most frequent histologic subtype. Standard treatment for early stage diseases is represented by single modality surgery or radiotherapy, whereas in the locally advanced and recurrent or metastatic settings a more aggressive multi-modal approach is needed with locoregional intervention and/or systemic therapies. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in HNC biology and has been studied extensively in preclinical and clinical settings. In this scenario, anti-EGFR targeted agent cetuximab, introduced in clinical practice a decade ago, represents the only approved targeted therapy to date, while the development of immune-checkpoint inhibitors has recently changed the available treatment options. In this review, we focus on the current role of anti-EGFR therapies in HNCs, underlying available clinical data and mechanisms of resistance, and highlight future perspectives regarding their role in the era of immunotherapy.

15.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 165-173, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of immunotherapy has improved the prognosis of patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). However, data in poor ECOG Performance Status (PS) patients remain scant due to their exclusion from randomized trials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with immunotherapy in two Italian Centers, to evaluate the impact of PS (0-1 vs 2) on disease control rate (DCR), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Chi-square test was used to compare clinical-pathological variables, their impact on survival was evaluated through Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Among 404 patients included, PS was 0 in 137 (33.9 %), 1 in 208 (51.5 %) and 2 in 59 (14.6 %) patients; 143 were female and 90 had squamous NSCLC. Clinical-pathological variables were uniformly distributed except for higher prevalence of liver metastases in patients with poor PS. We found that PS2 patients showed worse outcomes in terms of DCR (21.8 % vs 50.3 %, p = 0.001), PFS [2.0 (95 % CI 1.6-3.0) vs 3.0 (95 % CI 2.7-4.0) months, p < 0.0001] and OS [4.0 (95 % CI 2.8-5.7) vs 13.2 (95 % CI 11.0-15.8) months, p < 0.0001]. PS2 status, negative PDL1 expression and early corticosteroids exposure as well as higher Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and LDH at baseline were associated with worse outcomes at univariate and multivariable analysis. Subgroup analysis confirmed poor outcomes in PS2 patients with high LDH and concomitant corticosteroid therapies. The incidence of Grade 3/4 adverse events was 11.3 % in PS 0-1 and 10.2 % in PS 2 patients (p = 0.81). CONCLUSION: Our data confirm reduced efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with poor PS even though a good safety. Despite PS remains the most powerful independent prognostic factor for NSCLC, LDH levels and steroids exposure could support the decision making in PS2 patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Biomarcadores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
bioRxiv ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577652

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which enters host cells via the cell surface proteins ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Using a variety of normal and malignant models and tissues from the aerodigestive and respiratory tracts, we investigated the expression and regulation of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. We find that ACE2 expression is restricted to a select population of highly epithelial cells. Notably, infection with SARS-CoV-2 in cancer cell lines, bronchial organoids, and patient nasal epithelium, induces metabolic and transcriptional changes consistent with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), including upregulation of ZEB1 and AXL, resulting in an increased EMT score. Additionally, a transcriptional loss of genes associated with tight junction function occurs with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor, ACE2, is repressed by EMT via TGFbeta, ZEB1 overexpression and onset of EGFR TKI inhibitor resistance. This suggests a novel model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis in which infected cells shift toward an increasingly mesenchymal state, associated with a loss of tight junction components with acute respiratory distress syndrome-protective effects. AXL-inhibition and ZEB1-reduction, as with bemcentinib, offers a potential strategy to reverse this effect. These observations highlight the utility of aerodigestive and, especially, lung cancer model systems in exploring the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, and offer important insights into the potential mechanisms underlying the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in healthy patients and cancer patients alike.

17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 652005, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35155453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngioma is a rare intracranial tumor, with a high morbidity rate due to its common refractiveness to conventional treatments. BRAF V600E mutation has recently been identified as the principal oncogenic molecular driver of papillary craniopharyngiomas (PCP), one of the two main variants of craniopharyngioma. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49-year-old man with recurrent craniopharyngioma, harboring BRAF V600E mutation, has been treated with targeted therapy based on a combination of a BRAF-inhibitor, dabrafenib (150 mg, orally two times daily), and a MEK-inhibitor, trametinib (2 mg, orally two times daily). Before starting treatment, the patient was symptomatic: he lamented confusion, dysphasia, and intense fatigue, that did not allow him to work normally. After just one cycle of treatment, the patient showed an important clinical improvement, reporting a progressive regression of the basal symptoms, hinting at a rapid and dramatic response, which was confirmed at the first radiological assessment. Thus, treatment was continued and at the time of writing, the treatment is still ongoing (total duration of treatment: 14 months) and it is well tolerated, with very good quality of life: the patient has no limitations in daily activities and he has even been able to restart to work. CONCLUSION: The use of targeted therapies-as a clinical practice or in clinical trials-represents an important therapeutic alternative and a great evolution for patients' prognosis vs. the standard of care, historically represented by unselected chemotherapies. The discovery of the BRAF V600E mutation in patients with PCP is very rare, resulting in a lack of data on the efficacy of the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib.

18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35008306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multimodality treatment is considered the best treatment strategy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, the ideal combination of them is still a matter of controversy. Here, we report a case series of MPM treated with a trimodality approach: induction chemotherapy (CT), pleurectomy/decortication (P/D), postoperative radiotherapy (RT) and post-operative CT. METHODS: A retrospective case series of 17 MPM patients treated between 2013 and 2020 is presented. Patients had epithelial or mixed MPM diagnosed by video-assisted thoracoscopy and pathologic IMIG stage I or II disease. Treatment details and radiological data were collected. Induction therapy consisted of combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed, every 21 days for two cycles. P/D was performed 4-6 weeks after induction CT, post-operative RT 3-6 weeks after surgery, while post-operative CT was given 4-6 weeks after RT, with the same schedule of induction. RESULTS: All patients showed objective response or stability of disease at the restaging following induction CT and underwent surgery by posterolateral thoracotomy. There were two cases of cardiac arrest as major intraoperative complication, both resolved by manual cardiac massage. Minor complications included one hemidiaphragm elevation, 1 anemia requiring blood transfusion, one wound infection, and two persistent air leaks. Median overall survival was 32.1 months, median progression free survival was 23.7 months. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the feasibility of these trimodality treatment scheme for early stage MPM patients. Larger series and long-term prospective studies are needed to confirm the validity of this strategy.

19.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has overwhelmed the health systems worldwide. Data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on cancer patients (CPs) undergoing or candidate for immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are lacking. We depicted the practice and adaptations in the management of patients with solid tumors eligible or receiving ICIs during the COVID-19 pandemic, with a special focus on Campania region. METHODS: This survey (25 questions), promoted by the young section of SCITO (Società Campana di ImmunoTerapia Oncologica) Group, was circulated among Italian young oncologists practicing in regions variously affected by the pandemic: high (group 1), medium (group 2) and low (group 3) prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. For Campania region, the physician responders were split into those working in cancer centers (CC), university hospitals (UH) and general hospitals (GH). Percentages of agreement, among High (H) versus Medium (M) and versus Low (L) group for Italy and among CC, UH and GH for Campania region, were compared by using Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous answers and χ2 test for trends relative to the questions with 3 or more options. RESULTS: This is the first Italian study to investigate the COVID-19 impact on cancer immunotherapy, unique in its type and very clear in the results. The COVID-19 pandemic seemed not to affect the standard practice in the prescription and delivery of ICIs in Italy. Telemedicine was widely used. There was high consensus to interrupt immunotherapy in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and to adopt ICIs with longer schedule interval. The majority of the responders tended not to delay the start of ICIs; there were no changes in supportive treatments, but some of the physicians opted for delaying surgeries (if part of patients' planned treatment approach). The results from responders in Campania did not differ significantly from the national ones. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the efforts of Italian oncologists to maintain high standards of care for CPs treated with ICIs, regardless the regional prevalence of COVID-19, suggesting the adoption of similar solutions. Research on patients treated with ICIs and experiencing COVID-19 will clarify the safety profile to continue the treatments, thus informing on the most appropriate clinical conducts.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/imunologia , Oncologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento
20.
ESMO Open ; 5(5): e000753, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) may mediate antitumour activity of IgG1-isotype monoclonal antibody (mAb), suggesting as potential treatment combination of IgG1-mAbs, anti-epidermal growth factor receptor cetuximab and anti-programmed death-ligand-1 avelumab. METHODS: We evaluated ADCC induction in lung cancer cells by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Antitumour activity and safety of cetuximab plus avelumab were explored in a single-arm proof-of-concept study in pre-treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (pt) (Cetuximab-AVElumab-lung, CAVE-Lung). Search for predictive biomarkers of response was done. RESULTS: Avelumab plus cetuximab induced ADCC in NSCLC cells in vitro in presence of natural killers (NK) from healthy donors (HD) or NSCLC pt, as effectors. Sixteen relapsed NSCLC pt were treated with avelumab plus cetuximab. Antitumour activity was observed in 6/16 pt, defined by progression free survival (PFS) ≥8 months, with 4 of them still on treatment at data lock time (range, 14-19 months). Of note, 3/6 responders had received as previous line anti-programmed death-1 therapy. In responders, clinical benefit was accompanied by significant increase in LDH release over baseline at the first radiological evaluation (8 weeks) (p=0.01) and by early skin toxicity; while in the 10 non-responders, that had PFS ≤5 months, LDH release tends to reduce. Baseline circulating DNA levels were higher in non-responders compared with responders and HD (p=0.026) and decrease in responders during therapy. Mutations in DNA damage responsive family genes were found in responders. CONCLUSION: Cetuximab and avelumab activates NSCLC pt NK cells. Ex vivo evaluation of ADCC, circulating DNA levels and early skin toxicity may predict response to cetuximab plus avelumab in NSCLC.EUDRACT 2017-004195-58.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Células Matadoras Naturais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética
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