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1.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 672, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is wide variability between intensivists in the decisions to forgo life-sustaining treatment (DFLST). Advance directives (ADs) allow patients to communicate their end-of-life wishes to physicians. We assessed whether ADs reduced variability in DFLSTs between intensivists. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, simulation study. Eight patients expressed their wishes in ADs after being informed about DFLSTs by an intensivist-investigator. The participating intensivists answered ten questions about the DFLSTs of each patient in two scenarios, referring to patients' characteristics without ADs (round 1) and then with (round 2). DFLST score ranged from 0 (no-DFLST) to 10 (DFLST for all questions). The main outcome was variability in DFLSTs between intensivists, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD). RESULTS: A total of 19,680 decisions made by 123 intensivists from 27 ICUs were analyzed. The DFLST score was higher with ADs than without (6.02 95% CI [5.85; 6.19] vs 4.92 95% CI [4.75; 5.10], p < 0.001). High inter-intensivist variability did not change with ADs (RSD: 0.56 (round 1) vs 0.46 (round 2), p = 0.84). Inter-intensivist agreement on DFLSTs was weak with ADs (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.28). No factor associated with DFLSTs was identified. A qualitative analysis of ADs showed focus on end-of-life wills, unwanted things and fear of pain. CONCLUSIONS: ADs increased the DFLST rate but did not reduce variability between the intensivists. In the decision-making process using ADs, the intensivist's decision took priority. Further research is needed to improve the matching of the physicians' decision with the patient's wishes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03013530. Registered 6 January 2017; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03013530 .

2.
Chest ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury has been reported in up to 30% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, cardiac injury is defined mainly by troponin elevation without description of associated structural abnormalities and its time course has not been studied. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the ECG and echocardiographic abnormalities as well as their time course in critically ill COVID-19 patients? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The cardiac function of 43 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to two ICUs was assessed prospectively and repeatedly, combining ECG, cardiac biomarker, and transthoracic echocardiographic analyses from ICU admission to ICU discharge or death or to a maximum follow-up of 14 days. Cardiac injury was defined by troponin elevation and newly diagnosed ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities, or both. RESULTS: At baseline, 49% of patients demonstrated a cardiac injury, and 70% of patients experienced cardiac injury within the first 14 days of ICU stay, with a median time of occurrence of 3 days (range, 0-7 days). The most frequent abnormalities were ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of left ventricular (LV) abnormalities (87% of patients with cardiac injury), right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction (47%), pericardial effusion (43%), new-onset atrial arrhythmias (33%), LV relaxation impairment (33%), and LV systolic dysfunction (13%). Between baseline and day 14, the incidence of pericardial effusion and of new-onset atrial arrhythmias increased and the incidence of ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities as well as the incidence of LV relaxation impairment remained stable, whereas the incidence of RV and LV systolic dysfunction decreased. INTERPRETATION: Cardiac injury is common and early in critically ill COVID-19 patients. ECG or echocardiographic signs, or both, of LV abnormalities were the most frequent abnormalities, and patients with cardiac injury experienced more RV than LV systolic dysfunction.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e042619, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234658

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In intensive care unit (ICU), the decision of extubation is a critical time because mortality is particularly high in case of reintubation. To reduce that risk, guidelines recommend to systematically perform a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) before extubation in order to mimic the postextubation physiological conditions. SBT is usually performed with a T-piece disconnecting the patient from the ventilator or with low levels of pressure-support ventilation (PSV). However, work of breathing is lower during PSV than during T-piece. Consequently, while PSV trial may hasten extubation, it may also increase the risk of reintubation. We hypothesise that, compared with T-piece, SBT performed using PSV may hasten extubation without increasing the risk of reintubation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is an investigator-initiated, multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing T-piece vs PSV for SBTs in patients at high risk of reintubation in ICUs. Nine hundred patients will be randomised with a 1:1 ratio in two groups according to the type of SBT. The primary outcome is the number of ventilator-free days at day 28, defined as the number of days alive and without invasive mechanical ventilation between the initial SBT (day 1) and day 28. Secondary outcomes include the number of days between the initial SBT and the first extubation attempt, weaning difficulty, the number of patients extubated after the initial SBT and not reintubated within the following 72 hours, the number of patients extubated within the 7 days following the initial SBT, the number of patients reintubated within the 7 days following extubation, in-ICU length of stay and mortality in ICU, at day 28 and at day 90. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the central ethics committee 'Ile de France V' (2019-A02151-56) and patients will be included after informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04227639.

4.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237291

RESUMO

Importance: Chilblain-like lesions have been reported during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The pathophysiology of such manifestations remains largely unknown. Objective: To perform a systematic clinical, histologic, and biologic assessment in a cohort of patients with chilblain-like lesions occurring during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prospective case series carried out with a COVID-19 multidisciplinary consultation group at the University Hospital of Nice, France, 40 consecutive patients presenting with chilblain-like lesions were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patients underwent a thorough general and dermatologic examination, including skin biopsies, vascular investigations, biologic analyses, interferon-alpha (IFN-α) stimulation and detection, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serologic analysis. Results: Overall, 40 consecutive patients with chilblain-like lesions were included. Most patients were young, with a median (range) age of 22 (12-67) years; 19 were male and 21 were female. The clinical presentation was highly reproducible with chilblain-like lesions mostly on the toes. Bullous and necrotic evolution was observed in 11 patients. Acrocyanosis or cold toes were reported in 19 (47.5%) cases. Criteria compatible with COVID-19 cases were noted in 11 (27.5%) within 6 weeks prior to the eruption. The real-time PCR (rt-PCR) testing results were negative in all cases. Overall, SARS-CoV-2 serology results were positive in 12 patients (30%). D-dimer concentration levels were elevated in 24 (60.0%) cases. Cryoglobulinemia and parvovirus B19 serologic results were negative for all tested patients. The major histologic findings were features of lymphocytic inflammation and vascular damage with thickening of venule walls and pericyte hyperplasia. A significant increase of IFN-α production after in vitro stimulation was observed in the chilblain population compared with patients with mild-severe acute COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: Taken together, our results suggest that chilblain-like lesions observed during the COVID-19 pandemic represent manifestations of a viral-induced type I interferonopathy. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04344119.

5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 118, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894389

RESUMO

The French Society of Intensive Care Medicine (SRLF), jointly with the French-Speaking Group of Paediatric Emergency Rooms and Intensive Care Units (GFRUP) and the French-Speaking Association of Paediatric Surgical Intensivists (ADARPEF), worked out guidelines for the management of central venous catheters (CVC), arterial catheters and dialysis catheters in intensive care unit. For adult patients: Using GRADE methodology, 36 recommendations for an improved catheter management were produced by the 22 experts. Recommendations regarding catheter-related infections' prevention included the preferential use of subclavian central vein (GRADE 1), a one-step skin disinfection(GRADE 1) using 2% chlorhexidine (CHG)-alcohol (GRADE 1), and the implementation of a quality of care improvement program. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated CVC should likely not be used (GRADE 2, for children and adults). Catheter dressings should likely not be changed before the 7th day, except when the dressing gets detached, soiled or impregnated with blood (GRADE 2- adults). CHG dressings should likely be used (GRADE 2+). For adults and children, ultrasound guidance should be used to reduce mechanical complications in case of internal jugular access (GRADE 1), subclavian access (Grade 2) and femoral venous, arterial radial and femoral access (Expert opinion). For children, an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach of the brachiocephalic vein was recommended to reduce the number of attempts for cannulation and mechanical complications. Based on scarce publications on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and on their experience (expert opinion), the panel proposed definitions, and therapeutic strategies.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(21): e017773, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972320

RESUMO

Background Recent literature reports a strong thrombotic tendency in patients hospitalized for a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. This characteristic is unusual and seems specific to COVID-19 infections, especially in their severe form. Viral infections can trigger acquired thrombophilia, which can then lead to thrombotic complications. We investigate for the presence of acquired thrombophilia, which could participate in this phenomenon, and report its prevalence. We also wonder if these thrombophilias participate in the bad prognosis of severe COVID-19 infections. Methods and Results In 89 consecutive patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection, we found a 20% prevalence of PS (protein S) deficiency and a high (ie, 72%) prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies: mainly lupus anticoagulant. The presence of PS deficiency or antiphospholipid antibodies was not linked with a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time nor with D-dimer, fibrinogen, or CRP (C-reactive protein) concentrations. These coagulation abnormalities are also not linked with thrombotic clinical events occurring during hospitalization nor with mortality. Conclusions We assess a high prevalence of positive tests detecting thrombophilia in COVID-19 infections. However, in our series, these acquired thrombophilias are not correlated with the severity of the disease nor with the occurrence of thrombotic events. Albeit the strong thrombotic tendency in COVID-19 infections, the presence of frequent acquired thrombophilia may be part of the inflammation storm of COVID-19 and should not systematically modify our strategy on prophylactic anticoagulant treatment, which is already revised upwards in this pathological condition. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04335162.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Proteína S/epidemiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/sangue , Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Proteína S/análise , Deficiência de Proteína S/sangue , Deficiência de Proteína S/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico
7.
Ann. intensive care ; 118: 1-26, Sept. 07, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG - guias GRADE | ID: biblio-1128263

RESUMO

The French Society of Intensive Care Medicine (SRLF), jointly with the French-Speaking Group of Paediatric Emer­ gency Rooms and Intensive Care Units (GFRUP) and the French-Speaking Association of Paediatric Surgical Inten­ sivists (ADARPEF), worked out guidelines for the management of central venous catheters (CVC), arterial catheters and dialysis catheters in intensive care unit. For adult patients: Using GRADE methodology, 36 recommendations for an improved catheter management were produced by the 22 experts. Recommendations regarding catheterrelated infections' prevention included the preferential use of subclavian central vein (GRADE 1), a one-step skin disinfection(GRADE 1) using 2% chlorhexidine (CHG)-alcohol (GRADE 1), and the implementation of a quality of care improvement program. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated CVC should likely not be used (GRADE 2, for children and adults). Catheter dressings should likely not be changed before the 7th day, except when the dressing gets detached, soiled or impregnated with blood (GRADE 2− adults). CHG dressings should likely be used (GRADE 2+). For adults and children, ultrasound guidance should be used to reduce mechanical complications in case of internal jugular access (GRADE 1), subclavian access (Grade 2) and femoral venous, arterial radial and femoral access (Expert opinion). For children, an ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach of the brachiocephalic vein was recommended to reduce the number of attempts for cannulation and mechanical complications. Based on scarce publications on diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and on their experience (expert opinion), the panel proposed defnitions, and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/transmissão , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas
8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 74, 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection, with an increasing incidence especially in patients with hematological malignancies. Its prognosis is poor because of its high invasive power and its intrinsic low susceptibility to antifungal agents. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of mucormycosis in intensive care units (ICU) and evaluate the outcomes. We performed a retrospective multi-center study in 16 French ICUs between 2008 and 2017. We compared the patients who survived in ICU and the patients who did not to identify factors associated with ICU survival. Then, we focused on the subgroup of patients with hematological malignancies. RESULTS: Mucormycosis was diagnosed in 74 patients during the study period. Among them, 60 patients (81%) were immunocompromised: 41 had hematological malignancies, 9 were solid organ transplant recipients, 31 received long-term steroids, 11 had diabetes, 24 had malnutrition. Only 21 patients survived to ICU stay (28.4%) with a median survival of 22 days (Q1-Q3 = 9-106) and a survival rate at day 28 and day 90, respectively, of 35.1% and 26.4%. Survivors were significantly younger (p = 0.001), with less frequently hematological malignancies (p = 0.02), and less malnutrition (p = 0.05). Median survival in patients with hematological malignancies (n = 41) was 15 days (Q1-Q3 = 5-23.5 days). In this subgroup, curative surgery was a major factor associated with survival in multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.71, [0.45-0.97], p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Overall prognosis of mucormycosis in ICU remains poor, especially in patients with hematological malignancies. In this subgroup of patients, a therapeutic strategy including curative surgery was the main factor associated with survival.

9.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 180, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lectures with slide presentations are widely used to teach evidence-based medicine to large groups. Take-home messages (THMs) are poorly identified and recollected by students. We investigated whether an instruction to list THMs in written form on slides would improve the retention thereof by residents, and the residents' level of knowledge, 1 month after lectures. METHODS: Prospective blinded randomized controlled study was conducted. Twelve lectures (6 control and 6 intervention lectures) were delivered to 73 residents. For the intervention lectures, the lecturers were instructed to incorporate clear written THMs into their slide presentations. The outcomes were ability of resident to recollect THMs delivered during a lecture (as assessed by accordance rate between the lecturers' and residents' THMs) and knowledge (as assessed by multiple choice questions (MCQs)). RESULTS: Data for 3738 residents' THMs and 3410 MCQs were analyzed. The intervention did not significantly increase the number of THMs written on slides (77% (n = 20/26), 95% CI 56-91 vs 64% (n = 18/28), 95% CI 44-81, p = 0.31) nor THMs retention (13% (n = 238/1791), 95% CI 12-15 vs 17% (n = 326/1947), 95% 15-18, p = 0.40) nor knowledge (63.8 ± 26.2 vs 61.1 ± 31.4 /100 points, p = 0.75). In multivariable analyses performed with all THMs written on slides from the two groups, a superior knowledge was associated with notetaking during lectures (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.41-2.51) and THMs retention (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.54-3.04); and THMs retention was associated with written THMs (OR 2.94, 95% CI 2.20-3.93). CONCLUSIONS: In lectures delivered to residents, a third of the THMs were not in written form. An intervention based on an explicit instruction to lecturers to provide THMs in written form in their slide presentations did not result in increased use of written THMs into the slide presentation or improvement of the THMs retention or level of knowledge. However, we showed that there was a strong positive association between writing THMs on a slide, retention of THMs and residents' knowledge. Further researches are needed to assess interventions to increase written THMs in lectures by faculty. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01795651 (Fev 21, 2013).

10.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(5): 1090-1097, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588427

RESUMO

Association between Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Azithromycin (AZT) is under evaluation for patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). Both drugs have a known torsadogenic potential, but sparse data are available concerning QT prolongation induced by this association. Our objective was to assess for COVID-19 LRTI variations of QT interval under HCQ/AZT in patients hospitalized, and to compare manual versus automated QT measurements. Before therapy initiation, a baseline 12 lead-ECG was electronically sent to our cardiology department for automated and manual QT analysis (Bazett and Fridericia's correction), repeated 2 days after initiation. According to our institutional protocol (Pasteur University Hospital), HCQ/AZT was initiated only if baseline QTc ≤ 480ms and potassium level> 4.0 mmol/L. From March 24th to April 20th 2020, 73 patients were included (mean age 62 ± 14 years, male 67%). Two patients out of 73 (2.7%) were not eligible for drug initiation (QTc ≥ 500 ms). Baseline average automated QTc was 415 ± 29 ms and lengthened to 438 ± 40 ms after 48 hours of combined therapy. The treatment had to be stopped because of significant QTc prolongation in two out of 71 patients (2.8%). No drug-induced life-threatening arrhythmia, nor death was observed. Automated QTc measurements revealed accurate in comparison with manual QTc measurements. In this specific population of inpatients with COVID-19 LRTI, HCQ/AZT could not be initiated or had to be interrupted in less than 6% of the cases.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Infecções por Coronavirus , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Hidroxicloroquina , Síndrome do QT Longo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacocinética , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/farmacocinética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacocinética , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Torsades de Pointes/prevenção & controle
12.
Chest ; 158(4): 1446-1455, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) using a T-piece remains the most frequently performed trial before extubation in ICUs. RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed at determining whether initial SBT using pressure-support ventilation (PSV) could increase successful extubation rates among patients at high risk of extubation failure. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Post hoc analysis of a multicenter trial focusing on reintubation in patients at high-risk of extubation failure. The initial SBT was performed using PSV or T-piece according to the physician/center decision. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients successfully extubated 72 hours after initial SBT, that is, extubated after initial SBT and not reintubated within the following 72 hours. RESULTS: Among the 641 patients included in the original study, initial SBT was performed using PSV (7.0 cm H2O in median without positive end-expiratory pressure) in 243 patients (38%) and using a T-piece in 398 patients (62%). The proportion of patients successfully extubated 72 hours after initial SBT was 67% (162/243) using PSV and 56% (223/398) using T-piece (absolute difference 10.6%; 95% CI, 2.8 to 28.1; P = .0076). The proportion of patients extubated after initial SBT was 77% (186/283) using PSV and 63% (249/398) using T-piece (P = .0002), whereas reintubation rates within the following 72 hours did not significantly differ (13% vs 10%, respectively; P = .4259). Performing an initial SBT using PSV was independently associated with successful extubation (adjusted OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.30 to 2.18; P = .0061). INTERPRETATION: In patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU, performing an initial SBT using PSV may hasten extubation without an increased risk of reintubation.

14.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(3): 176-188, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most diseases encountered in the intensive care unit are associated with major stress that can potentially trigger Takotsubo syndrome. Many severe cardiovascular complications are associated with Takotsubo syndrome, yet little is known about Takotsubo syndrome in the intensive care unit. AIMS: We sought to determine the incidence of Takotsubo syndrome, and to describe its clinical features and outcome in an intensive care unit. METHODS: This prospective single-centre study included all patients admitted consecutively over a 12-month period who had transthoracic echocardiography, electrocardiography and a troponin I assay performed on admission, at 24 and 48hours after admission, and at discharge and in the case of clinical worsening. RESULTS: The incidence of Takotsubo syndrome was 4.6% (13/280 patients) and female sex predominated (69.2%). The median age of the subgroup with Takotsubo syndrome was 64 (56-72) years. Pulmonary disease and sepsis were the most frequent triggers (46.2% and 38.5%, respectively). Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 29.0% (20.0-37.0). Patients with Takotsubo syndrome presented with shock and arrhythmias and needed ventilation more frequently than patients without Takotsubo syndrome (69.2% vs. 36.3%, P=0.035; 46.2% vs. 13.5%, P=0.006; and 92.3% vs. 60.7%, P=0.021), but mortality rates were similar. The median delay to cardiac index recovery, when impaired, was 2.0 (1.0-2.75) days, and that of left ventricular ejection fraction was 12.5 (7-14.75) days. CONCLUSION: Takotsubo syndrome in the intensive care unit is not uncommon and is associated with substantial haemodynamic and respiratory instability. New-onset arrhythmias and respiratory and haemodynamic worsening could arouse suspicion of and prompt screening for Takotsubo syndrome in the intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Respiração , Fatores de Risco , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/sangue
15.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1465-1475, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577036

RESUMO

Importance: High-flow nasal oxygen may prevent postextubation respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of high-flow nasal oxygen with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may be an optimal strategy of ventilation to avoid reintubation. Objective: To determine whether high-flow nasal oxygen with prophylactic NIV applied immediately after extubation could reduce the rate of reintubation, compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone, in patients at high risk of extubation failure in the ICU. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter randomized clinical trial conducted from April 2017 to January 2018 among 641 patients at high risk of extubation failure (ie, older than 65 years or with an underlying cardiac or respiratory disease) at 30 ICUs in France; follow-up was until April 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to high-flow nasal oxygen alone (n = 306) or high-flow nasal oxygen alternating with NIV (n = 342) immediately after extubation. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of patients reintubated at day 7; secondary outcomes included postextubation respiratory failure at day 7, reintubation rates up until ICU discharge, and ICU mortality. Results: Among 648 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 70 [10] years; 219 women [34%]), 641 patients completed the trial. The reintubation rate at day 7 was 11.8% (95% CI, 8.4%-15.2%) (40/339) with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 18.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-22.6%) (55/302) with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -6.4% [95% CI, -12.0% to -0.9%]; P = .02). Among the 11 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 showed no significant difference. The proportion of patients with postextubation respiratory failure at day 7 (21% vs 29%; difference, -8.7% [95% CI, -15.2% to -1.8%]; P = .01) and reintubation rates up until ICU discharge (12% vs 20%, difference -7.4% [95% CI, -13.2% to -1.8%]; P = .009) were significantly lower with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV than with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. ICU mortality rates were not significantly different: 6% with high-flow nasal oxygen and NIV and 9% with high-flow nasal oxygen alone (difference, -2.4% [95% CI, -6.7% to 1.7%]; P = .25). Conclusions and Relevance: In mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of extubation failure, the use of high-flow nasal oxygen with NIV immediately after extubation significantly decreased the risk of reintubation compared with high-flow nasal oxygen alone. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03121482.


Assuntos
Extubação , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , França , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Desmame do Respirador
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e029798, 2019 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended as first-line therapy in respiratory failure of critically ill immunocompromised patients as it can decrease intubation and mortality rates as compared with standard oxygen. However, its recommendation is only conditional. Indeed, the use of NIV in this setting has been challenged recently based on results of trials finding similar outcomes with or without NIV or even deleterious effects of NIV. To date, NIV has been compared with standard oxygen but not to high-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFOT) in immunocompromised patients. Several studies have found lower mortality rates using HFOT alone than when using HFOT with NIV sessions in patients with de novo respiratory failure, and even in immunocompromised patients. We are hypothesising that HFOT alone is more effective than HFOT with NIV sessions and reduces mortality of immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is an investigator-initiated, multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing HFOT alone or with NIV in immunocompromised patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Around 280 patients will be randomised with a 1:1 ratio in two groups. The primary outcome is the mortality rate at day 28 after inclusion. Secondary outcomes include the rate of intubation in each group, length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality up to day 180. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the ethics committee and patients will be included after informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02978300.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Desmame do Respirador , França , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Intubação Intratraqueal , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(4): 303-312, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation has never been compared with high-flow oxygen to determine whether it reduces the risk of severe hypoxaemia during intubation. We aimed to determine if preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation was more efficient than high-flow oxygen in reducing the risk of severe hypoxaemia during intubation. METHODS: The FLORALI-2 multicentre, open-label trial was done in 28 intensive care units in France. Adult patients undergoing tracheal intubation for acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (a partial pressure of arterial oxygen [PaO2] to fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] ratio of ≤300 mm Hg) were randomly assigned (1:1; block size, four participants) to non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen during preoxygenation, with stratification by PaO2/FiO2 ratio (≤200 mm Hg vs >200 mm Hg). Key exclusion criteria were intubation for cardiac arrest, altered consciousness (defined as a Glasgow coma score of less than eight points), other contraindications to non-invasive ventilation (recent laryngeal, oesophageal, or gastric surgery, and substantial facial fractures), pulse oximetry not available, pregnant or breastfeeding women, and refusal to participate. The primary outcome was the occurrence of severe hypoxaemia (pulse oximetry <80%) during the procedure, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02668458. FINDINGS: Between April 15, 2016, and Jan 8, 2017, 2079 patients were intubated in the 28 participating units, and 322 were enrolled. We excluded five patients with no recorded data, two who withdrew consent or were under legal protection, one who was not intubated, and one who had a cardiac arrest. Of the 313 patients included in the intention-to-treat analysis, 142 were assigned to non-invasive ventilation and 171 to high-flow oxygen therapy. Severe hypoxaemia occurred in 33 (23%) of 142 patients after preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation and 47 (27%) of 171 with high-flow oxygen (absolute difference -4·2%, 95% CI -13·7 to 5·5; p=0·39). In the 242 patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 ≤200 mm Hg), severe hypoxaemia occurred less frequently after preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation than with high-flow oxygen (28 [24%] of 117 patients vs 44 [35%] of 125; adjusted odds ratio 0·56, 0·32 to 0·99, p=0·0459). Serious adverse events did not differ between treatment groups, with the most common immediate complications being systolic arterial hypotension (70 [49%] patients in the non-invasive ventilation group vs 86 [50%] patients in the high-flow oxygen group) and chest infiltrate on x-ray (28 [20%] vs 33 [19%]), and the most common late complications being death at day 28 (53 [37%] vs 58 [34%]) and ventilator-associated pneumonia during ICU stay (31 [22%] vs 35 [20%]). INTERPRETATION: In patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, preoxygenation with non-invasive ventilation or high-flow oxygen therapy did not change the risk of severe hypoxaemia. Future research should explore the effect of preoxygenation method in patients with moderate-to-severe hypoxaemia at baseline. FUNDING: French Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Doença Aguda , Cateterismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Nariz , Oximetria , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos
20.
Lancet ; 392(10141): 31-40, 2018 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29910040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute acidaemia is frequently observed during critical illness. Sodium bicarbonate infusion for the treatment of severe metabolic acidaemia is a possible treatment option but remains controversial, as no studies to date have examined its effect on clinical outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether sodium bicarbonate infusion would improve these outcomes in critically ill patients. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled, phase 3 trial. Local investigators screened eligible patients from 26 intensive care units (ICUs) in France. We included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who were admitted within 48 h to the ICU with severe acidaemia (pH ≤7·20, PaCO2 ≤45 mm Hg, and sodium bicarbonate concentration ≤20 mmol/L) and with a total Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of 4 or more or an arterial lactate concentration of 2 mmol/L or more. We randomly assigned patients (1:1), by stratified randomisation with minimisation via a restricted web platform, to receive either no sodium bicarbonate (control group) or 4·2% of intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion (bicarbonate group) to maintain the arterial pH above 7·30. Our protocol recommended that the volume of each infusion should be within the range of 125-250 mL in 30 min, with a maximum of 1000 mL within 24 h after inclusion. Randomisation criteria were stratified among three prespecified strata: age, sepsis status, and the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) score. The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause by day 28 and the presence of at least one organ failure at day 7. All analyses were done on data from the intention-to-treat population, which included all patients who underwent randomisation. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02476253. FINDINGS: Between May 5, 2015, and May 7, 2017, we enrolled 389 patients into the intention-to-treat analysis in the overall population (194 in the control group and 195 in the bicarbonate group). The primary outcome occurred in 138 (71%) of 194 patients in the control group and 128 (66%) of 195 in the bicarbonate group (absolute difference estimate -5·5%, 95% CI -15·2 to 4·2; p=0·24). The Kaplan-Meier method estimate of the probability of survival at day 28 between the control group and bicarbonate group was not significant (46% [95% CI 40-54] vs 55% [49-63]; p=0·09. In the prespecified AKIN stratum of patients with a score of 2 or 3, the Kaplan-Meier method estimate of survival by day 28 between the control group and bicarbonate group was significant (37% [95% CI 28-48] vs 54% [45-65]; p=0·0283). [corrected] Metabolic alkalosis, hypernatraemia, and hypocalcaemia were observed more frequently in the bicarbonate group than in the control group, with no life-threatening complications reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with severe metabolic acidaemia, sodium bicarbonate had no effect on the primary composite outcome. However, sodium bicarbonate decreased the primary composite outcome and day 28 mortality in the a-priori defined stratum of patients with acute kidney injury. FUNDING: French Ministry of Health and the Société Française d'Anesthésie Réanimation.


Assuntos
Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Acidose/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Infusões Intravenosas , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Análise de Sobrevida
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