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1.
Front Genet ; 12: 743230, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646309

RESUMO

Traditional methods for the analysis of repeat expansions, which underlie genetic disorders, such as fragile X syndrome (FXS), lack single-nucleotide resolution in repeat analysis and the ability to characterize causative variants outside the repeat array. These drawbacks can be overcome by long-read and short-read sequencing, respectively. However, the routine application of next-generation sequencing in the clinic requires target enrichment, and none of the available methods allows parallel analysis of long-DNA fragments using both sequencing technologies. In this study, we investigated the use of indirect sequence capture (Xdrop technology) coupled to Nanopore and Illumina sequencing to characterize FMR1, the gene responsible of FXS. We achieved the efficient enrichment (> 200×) of large target DNA fragments (~60-80 kbp) encompassing the entire FMR1 gene. The analysis of Xdrop-enriched samples by Nanopore long-read sequencing allowed the complete characterization of repeat lengths in samples with normal, pre-mutation, and full mutation status (> 1 kbp), and correctly identified repeat interruptions relevant for disease prognosis and transmission. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small insertions/deletions (indels) could be detected in the same samples by Illumina short-read sequencing, completing the mutational testing through the identification of pathogenic variants within the FMR1 gene, when no typical CGG repeat expansion is detected. The study successfully demonstrated the parallel analysis of repeat expansions and SNVs/indels in the FMR1 gene at single-nucleotide resolution by combining Xdrop enrichment with two next-generation sequencing approaches. With the appropriate optimization necessary for the clinical settings, the system could facilitate both the study of genotype-phenotype correlation in FXS and enable a more efficient diagnosis and genetic counseling for patients and their relatives.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21070, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702906

RESUMO

Mummified remains of relevant historical figures are nowadays an important source of information to retrace data concerning their private life and health, especially when historical archives are not available. Next-generation-sequencing was proved to be a valuable tool to unravel the characteristics of these individuals through their genetic heritage. Using the strictest criteria currently available for the validation of ancient DNA sequences, whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing were generated from the mummy remains of an Italian nobleman died almost 700 years ago, Cangrande della Scala. While its genome sequencing could not yield sufficient coverage for in depth investigation, exome sequencing could overcome the limitations of this approach to achieve significantly high coverage on coding regions, thus allowing to perform the first extensive exome analysis of a mummy genome. Similar to a standard "clinical exome analysis" conducted on modern DNA, an in-depth variant annotation, high-quality filtering and interpretation was performed, leading to the identification of a genotype associated with late-onset Pompe disease (glycogen storage disease type II). This genetic diagnosis was concordant with the limited clinical history available for Cangrande della Scala, who likely represents the earliest known case of this autosomal recessive metabolic disorder.

3.
Plant J ; 108(3): 646-660, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427014

RESUMO

Food legumes are crucial for all agriculture-related societal challenges, including climate change mitigation, agrobiodiversity conservation, sustainable agriculture, food security and human health. The transition to plant-based diets, largely based on food legumes, could present major opportunities for adaptation and mitigation, generating significant co-benefits for human health. The characterization, maintenance and exploitation of food-legume genetic resources, to date largely unexploited, form the core development of both sustainable agriculture and a healthy food system. INCREASE will implement, on chickpea (Cicer arietinum), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), lentil (Lens culinaris) and lupin (Lupinus albus and L. mutabilis), a new approach to conserve, manage and characterize genetic resources. Intelligent Collections, consisting of nested core collections composed of single-seed descent-purified accessions (i.e., inbred lines), will be developed, exploiting germplasm available both from genebanks and on-farm and subjected to different levels of genotypic and phenotypic characterization. Phenotyping and gene discovery activities will meet, via a participatory approach, the needs of various actors, including breeders, scientists, farmers and agri-food and non-food industries, exploiting also the power of massive metabolomics and transcriptomics and of artificial intelligence and smart tools. Moreover, INCREASE will test, with a citizen science experiment, an innovative system of conservation and use of genetic resources based on a decentralized approach for data management and dynamic conservation. By promoting the use of food legumes, improving their quality, adaptation and yield and boosting the competitiveness of the agriculture and food sector, the INCREASE strategy will have a major impact on economy and society and represents a case study of integrative and participatory approaches towards conservation and exploitation of crop genetic resources.

4.
Elife ; 102021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941312

RESUMO

Extreme longevity is the paradigm of healthy aging as individuals who reached the extreme decades of human life avoided or largely postponed all major age-related diseases. In this study, we sequenced at high coverage (90X) the whole genome of 81 semi-supercentenarians and supercentenarians [105+/110+] (mean age: 106.6 ± 1.6) and of 36 healthy unrelated geographically matched controls (mean age 68.0 ± 5.9) recruited in Italy. The results showed that 105+/110+ are characterized by a peculiar genetic background associated with efficient DNA repair mechanisms, as evidenced by both germline data (common and rare variants) and somatic mutations patterns (lower mutation load if compared to younger healthy controls). Results were replicated in a second independent cohort of 333 Italian centenarians and 358 geographically matched controls. The genetics of 105+/110+ identified DNA repair and clonal haematopoiesis as crucial players for healthy aging and for the protection from cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Reparo do DNA , Longevidade/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Patrimônio Genético , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
5.
Genomics ; 113(4): 1628-1638, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839270

RESUMO

Sequencing the SARS-CoV-2 genome from clinical samples can be challenging, especially in specimens with low viral titer. Here we report Accurate SARS-CoV-2 genome Reconstruction (ACoRE), an amplicon-based viral genome sequencing workflow for the complete and accurate reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 sequences from clinical samples, including suboptimal ones that would usually be excluded even if unique and irreplaceable. The protocol was optimized to improve flexibility and the combination of technical replicates was established as the central strategy to achieve accurate analysis of low-titer/suboptimal samples. We demonstrated the utility of the approach by achieving complete genome reconstruction and the identification of false-positive variants in >170 clinical samples, thus avoiding the generation of inaccurate and/or incomplete sequences. Most importantly, ACoRE was crucial to identify the correct viral strain responsible of a relapse case, that would be otherwise mis-classified as a re-infection due to missing or incorrect variant identification by a standard workflow.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Reinfecção/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Reinfecção/patologia , Reinfecção/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915956

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive infancy tumor, leading cause of death among preschool age diseases. Here we focused on characterization of exosomal DNA (exo-DNA) isolated from plasma cell-derived exosomes of neuroblastoma patients, and its potential use for detection of somatic mutations present in the parental tumor cells. Exosomes are small extracellular membrane vesicles secreted by most cells, playing an important role in intercellular communications. Using an enzymatic method, we provided evidence for the presence of double-stranded DNA in the NB exosomes. Moreover, by whole exome sequencing, we demonstrated that NB exo-DNA represents the entire exome and that it carries tumor-specific genetic mutations, including those occurring on known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in neuroblastoma (ALK, CHD5, SHANK2, PHOX2B, TERT, FGFR1, and BRAF). NB exo-DNA can be useful to identify variants responsible for acquired resistance, such as mutations of ALK, TP53, and RAS/MAPK genes that appear in relapsed patients. The possibility to isolate and to enrich NB derived exosomes from plasma using surface markers, and the quick and easy extraction of exo-DNA, gives this methodology a translational potential in the clinic. Exo-DNA can be an attractive non-invasive biomarker for NB molecular diagnostic, especially when tissue biopsy cannot be easily available.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/sangue , Neuroblastoma/genética , Carcinogênese , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Humanos , Mutação
7.
Biodivers Data J ; 9: e59892, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519262

RESUMO

Background: Long-palped Water Beetles were collected during a taxon expedition in Montenegro which involved citizen scientists, students and taxonomists. The material was collected from springs, brooks, fens and the Tara River, at altitudes between 600 m and 1450 m above sea level, using fine-meshed hand-nets and by manual checking of submerged substrates. The morphological species delimitation was supplemented and congruent with mtDNA sequences mainly obtained in the field using the newly-developed MinION-based ONTrack pipeline. New information: The new species Hydraena dinarica Freitag & de Vries, sp. n. from Durmitor Mt. is described, illustrated and compared in detail to closely-related congeners of the H. saga d'Orchymont, 1930/H. emarginata Rey, 1885 species complex. Five additional species and female specimens of two unidentified morphospecies of the genus were also recorded in the vicinity of Durmitor National Park. New records and the first DNA barcodes for Hydraena biltoni Jäch & Díaz, 2012 (endemic to Montenegro) and H. morio Kiesenwetter, 1849 are provided. Further records of H. nigrita Germar, 1824, H. minutissima Stephens, 1829, H. subintegra Ganglbauer, 1901 and females of two unidentified morphospecies are commented upon. The resulting inter- and intraspecific genetic distances and some observations of low or zero sequence divergence between recently-diverged species of Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 are briefly discussed.

8.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 194: 111426, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385396

RESUMO

Advanced age is the major risk factor for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), but to date the biological relationship between PD and ageing remains elusive. Here we describe the rationale and the design of the H2020 funded project "PROPAG-AGEING", whose aim is to characterize the contribution of the ageing process to PD development. We summarize current evidences that support the existence of a continuum between ageing and PD and justify the use of a Geroscience approach to study PD. We focus in particular on the role of inflammaging, the chronic, low-grade inflammation characteristic of elderly physiology, which can propagate and transmit both locally and systemically. We then describe PROPAG-AGEING design, which is based on the multi-omic characterization of peripheral samples from clinically characterized drug-naïve and advanced PD, PD discordant twins, healthy controls and "super-controls", i.e. centenarians, who never showed clinical signs of motor disability, and their offspring. Omic results are then validated in a large number of samples, including in vitro models of dopaminergic neurons and healthy siblings of PD patients, who are at higher risk of developing PD, with the final aim of identifying the molecular perturbations that can deviate the trajectories of healthy ageing towards PD development.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Pesquisa Biomédica , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Geriatria , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Atividade Motora , Degeneração Neural , Neurônios/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Transdução de Sinais , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
9.
Neuro Oncol ; 23(2): 264-276, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) have a dramatically poor prognosis. The recent REGOMA trial suggested an overall survival (OS) benefit of regorafenib in recurrent GBM patients. Considering the extreme genetic heterogeneity of GBMs, we aimed to identify molecular biomarkers predictive of differential response to the drug. METHODS: Total RNA was extracted from tumor samples of patients enrolled in the REGOMA trial. Genome-wide transcriptome and micro (mi)RNA profiles were associated with patients' OS and progression-free survival. RESULTS: In the first step, a set of 11 gene transcripts (HIF1A, CTSK, SLC2A1, KLHL12, CDKN1A, CA12, WDR1, CD53, CBR4, NIFK-AS1, RAB30-DT) and 10 miRNAs (miR-93-5p, miR-203a-3p, miR-17-5p, let-7c-3p, miR-101-3p, miR-3607-3p, miR-6516-3p, miR-301a-3p, miR-23b-3p, miR-222-3p) was filtered by comparing survival between regorafenib and lomustine arms. In the second step, a mini-signature of 2 gene transcripts (HIF1A, CDKN1A) and 3 miRNAs (miR-3607-3p, miR-301a-3p, miR-93-5p) identified a subgroup of patients showing prolonged survival after regorafenib administration (median OS range, 10.6-20.8 mo). CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that a signature based on the expression of 5 biomarkers could help identify a subgroup of GBM patients exhibiting a striking survival advantage when treated with regorafenib. Although the presented results must be confirmed in larger replication cohorts, the study highlights potential biomarker options to help guide the clinical decision among regorafenib and other treatments in patients with relapsing GBM.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , MicroRNAs , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico
10.
J Exp Bot ; 72(5): 1617-1633, 2021 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247939

RESUMO

In legumes, pod shattering occurs when mature pods dehisce along the sutures, and detachment of the valves promotes seed dispersal. In Phaseolus vulgaris (L)., the major locus qPD5.1-Pv for pod indehiscence was identified recently. We developed a BC4/F4 introgression line population and narrowed the major locus down to a 22.5 kb region. Here, gene expression and a parallel histological analysis of dehiscent and indehiscent pods identified an AtMYB26 orthologue as the best candidate for loss of pod shattering, on a genomic region ~11 kb downstream of the highest associated peak. Based on mapping and expression data, we propose early and fine up-regulation of PvMYB26 in dehiscent pods. Detailed histological analysis establishes that pod indehiscence is associated with the lack of a functional abscission layer in the ventral sheath, and that the key anatomical modifications associated with pod shattering in common bean occur early during pod development. We finally propose that loss of pod shattering in legumes resulted from histological convergent evolution and that it is the result of selection at orthologous loci.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Phaseolus/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sementes
11.
Microbiol Res ; 244: 126665, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340794

RESUMO

Despite sharing many of the traits that have allowed the genus Bacillus to gain recognition for its agricultural relevance, the genus Lysinibacillus is not as well-known and studied. The present study employs in vitro, in vivo, in planta, and in silico approaches to characterize Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain S4C11, isolated from the roots of an apple tree in northern Italy. The in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that strain S4C11 possesses an antifungal activity against different fungal pathogens, and is capable of interfering with the germination of Botrytis cinerea conidia, as well as of inhibiting its growth through the production of volatile organic molecules. In planta assays showed that the strain possesses the ability to promote plant growth, that is not host-specific, both in controlled conditions and in a commercial nursery. Biocontrol assays carried out against phytopathogenic viruses gave contrasting results, suggesting that the strain does not activate the host's defense pathways. The in silico analyses were carried out by sequencing the genome of the strain through an innovative approach that combines Illumina and High-Definition Mapping methods, allowing the reconstruction of a main chromosome and two plasmids from strain S4C11. The analysis of the genes encoded by the genome contributed to the characterization of the strain, detecting genes related to the biocontrol effect detected in the experimental trials.


Assuntos
Bacillaceae/fisiologia , Antibiose , Bacillaceae/genética , Bacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Genoma Bacteriano , Itália , Malus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271988

RESUMO

The reconstruction of individual haplotypes can facilitate the interpretation of disease risks; however, high costs and technical challenges still hinder their assessment in clinical settings. Second-generation sequencing is the gold standard for variant discovery but, due to the production of short reads covering small genomic regions, allows only indirect haplotyping based on statistical methods. In contrast, third-generation methods such as the nanopore sequencing platform developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) generate long reads that can be used for direct haplotyping, with fewer drawbacks. However, robust standards for variant phasing in ONT-based target resequencing efforts are not yet available. In this study, we presented a streamlined proof-of-concept workflow for variant calling and phasing based on ONT data in a clinically relevant 12-kb region of the APOE locus, a hotspot for variants and haplotypes associated with aging-related diseases and longevity. Starting with sequencing data from simple amplicons of the target locus, we demonstrated that ONT data allow for reliable single-nucleotide variant (SNV) calling and phasing from as little as 60 reads, although the recognition of indels is less efficient. Even so, we identified the best combination of ONT read sets (600) and software (BWA/Minimap2 and HapCUT2) that enables full haplotype reconstruction when both SNVs and indels have been identified previously using a highly-accurate sequencing platform. In conclusion, we established a rapid and inexpensive workflow for variant phasing based on ONT long reads. This allowed for the analysis of multiple samples in parallel and can easily be implemented in routine clinical practice, including diagnostic testing.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Genômica , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Amplificação de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Software
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9424, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523024

RESUMO

The exome contains many obscure regions difficult to explore with current short-read sequencing methods. Repetitious genomic regions prevent the unique alignment of reads, which is essential for the identification of clinically-relevant genetic variants. Long-read technologies attempt to resolve multiple-mapping regions, but they still produce many sequencing errors. Thus, a new approach is required to enlighten the obscure regions of the genome and rescue variants that would be otherwise neglected. This work aims to improve the alignment of multiple-mapping reads through the extension of the standard DNA fragment size. As Illumina can sequence fragments up to 550 bp, we tested different DNA fragment lengths using four major commercial WES platforms and found that longer DNA fragments achieved a higher genotypability. This metric, which indicates base calling calculated by combining depth of coverage with the confidence of read alignment, increased from hundreds to thousands of genes, including several associated with clinical phenotypes. While depth of coverage has been considered crucial for the assessment of WES performance, we demonstrated that genotypability has a greater impact in revealing obscure regions, with ~1% increase in variant calling in respect to shorter DNA fragments. Results confirmed that this approach enlightened many regions previously not explored.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Algoritmos , Exoma/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2902, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518223

RESUMO

It remains a major challenge to identify the genes and mutations that lead to plant sexual differentiation. Here, we study the structure and evolution of the sex-determining region (SDR) in Vitis species. We report an improved, chromosome-scale Cabernet Sauvignon genome sequence and the phased assembly of nine wild and cultivated grape genomes. By resolving twenty Vitis SDR haplotypes, we compare male, female, and hermaphrodite haplotype structures and identify sex-linked regions. Coupled with gene expression data, we identify a candidate male-sterility mutation in the VviINP1 gene and potential female-sterility function associated with the transcription factor VviYABBY3. Our data suggest that dioecy has been lost during domestication through a rare recombination event between male and female haplotypes. This work significantly advances the understanding of the genetic basis of sex determination in Vitis and provides the information necessary to rapidly identify sex types in grape breeding programs.


Assuntos
Haplótipos , Melhoramento Vegetal , Vitis/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Domesticação , Flores , Mutação , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
BMC Biol ; 18(1): 51, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cline of human genetic diversity observable across Europe is recapitulated at a micro-geographic scale by variation within the Italian population. Besides resulting from extensive gene flow, this might be ascribable also to local adaptations to diverse ecological contexts evolved by people who anciently spread along the Italian Peninsula. Dissecting the evolutionary history of the ancestors of present-day Italians may thus improve the understanding of demographic and biological processes that contributed to shape the gene pool of European populations. However, previous SNP array-based studies failed to investigate the full spectrum of Italian variation, generally neglecting low-frequency genetic variants and examining a limited set of small effect size alleles, which may represent important determinants of population structure and complex adaptive traits. To overcome these issues, we analyzed 38 high-coverage whole-genome sequences representative of population clusters at the opposite ends of the cline of Italian variation, along with a large panel of modern and ancient Euro-Mediterranean genomes. RESULTS: We provided evidence for the early divergence of Italian groups dating back to the Late Glacial and for Neolithic and distinct Bronze Age migrations having further differentiated their gene pools. We inferred adaptive evolution at insulin-related loci in people from Italian regions with a temperate climate, while possible adaptations to pathogens and ultraviolet radiation were observed in Mediterranean Italians. Some of these adaptive events may also have secondarily modulated population disease or longevity predisposition. CONCLUSIONS: We disentangled the contribution of multiple migratory and adaptive events in shaping the heterogeneous Italian genomic background, which exemplify population dynamics and gene-environment interactions that played significant roles also in the formation of the Continental and Southern European genomic landscapes.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Arqueologia , DNA Antigo/análise , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Itália
16.
Hortic Res ; 7: 49, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257235

RESUMO

To elucidate the physiology underlying the development of superficial scald in pears, susceptible "Blanquilla" fruit was treated with different compounds that either promoted (ethylene) or repressed (1-methylcyclopropene and lovastatin) the incidence of this disorder after 4 months of cold storage. Our data show that scald was negligible for the fruit treated with 1-methylcyclopropene or lovastatin, but highly manifested in untreated (78% incidence) or ethylene-treated fruit (97% incidence). The comparison between the fruit metabolomic profile and transcriptome evidenced a distinct reprogramming associated with each treatment. In all treated samples, cold storage led to an activation of a cold-acclimation-resistance mechanism, including the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids, which was especially evident in 1-methylcyclopropane-treated fruit. Among the treatments applied, only 1-methylcyclopropene inhibited ethylene production, hence supporting the involvement of this hormone in the development of scald. However, a common repression effect on the PPO gene combined with higher sorbitol content was found for both lovastatin and 1-methylcyclopropene-treated samples, suggesting also a non-ethylene-mediated process preventing the development of this disorder. The results presented in this work represent a step forward to better understand the physiological mechanisms governing the etiology of superficial scald in pears.

17.
Biotechnol Biofuels ; 13: 78, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336989

RESUMO

Background: Nannochloropsis gaditana is a photosynthetic unicellular microalgae considered one of the most interesting marine algae to produce biofuels and food additive due to its rapid growth rate and high lipid accumulation. Although microalgae are attractive platforms for solar energy bioconversion, the overall efficiency of photosynthesis is reduced due to the steep light gradient in photobioreactors. Moreover, accumulation of lipids in microalgae for biofuels production is usually induced in a two-phase cultivation process by nutrient starvation, with additional time and costs associated. In this work, a biotechnological approach was directed for the isolation of strains with improved light penetration in photobioreactor combined with increased lipids productivity. Results: Mutants of Nannochloropsis gaditana were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and screened for having both a reduced chlorophyll content per cell and increased affinity for Nile red, a fluorescent dye which binds to cellular lipid fraction. Accordingly, one mutant, called e8, was selected and characterized for having a 30% reduction of chlorophyll content per cell and an almost 80% increase of lipid productivity compared to WT in nutrient-replete conditions, with C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids being more than doubled in the mutant. Whole-genome sequencing revealed mutations in 234 genes in e8 mutant among which there is a non-conservative mutation in the dgd1 synthase gene. This gene encodes for an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of DGDG, one of the major lipids found in the thylakoid membrane and it is thus involved in chloroplast biogenesis. Lipid biosynthesis is strongly influenced by light availability in several microalgae species, including Nannochloropsis gaditana: reduced chlorophyll content per cell and more homogenous irradiance in photobioreactor is at the base for the increased lipid productivity observed in the e8 mutant. Conclusions: The results herein obtained presents a promising strategy to produce algal biomass enriched in lipid fraction to be used for biofuel and biodiesel production in a single cultivation process, without the additional complexity of the nutrient starvation phase. Genome sequencing and identification of the mutations introduced in e8 mutant suggest possible genes responsible for the observed phenotypes, identifying putative target for future complementation and biotechnological application.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153609

RESUMO

Helianthus tuberosus L., known as the Jerusalem artichoke, is a hexaploid plant species, adapted to low-nutrient soils, that accumulates high levels of inulin in its tubers. Inulin is a fructose-based polysaccharide used either as dietary fiber or for the production of bioethanol. Key enzymes involved in inulin biosynthesis are well known. However, the gene networks underpinning tuber development and inulin accumulation in H. tuberous remain elusive. To fill this gap, we selected 6,365 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from an H. tuberosus library to set up a microarray platform and record their expression across three tuber developmental stages, when rhizomes start enlarging (T0), at maximum tuber elongation rate (T3), and at tuber physiological maturity (Tm), in "VR" and "K8-HS142"clones. The former was selected as an early tuberizing and the latter as a late-tuberizing clone. We quantified inulin and starch levels, and qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of critical genes accounting for inulin biosynthesis. The microarray analysis revealed that the differences in morphological and physiological traits between tubers of the two clones are genetically determined since T0 and that is relatively low the number of differentially expressed ESTs across the stages shared between the clones (93). The expression of ESTs for sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT), the two critical genes for fructans polymerization, resulted to be temporarily synchronized and mirror the progress of inulin accumulation and stretching. The expression of ESTs for starch biosynthesis was insignificant throughout the developmental stages of the clones in line with the negligible level of starch into their mature tubers, where inulin was the dominant polysaccharide. Overall, our study disclosed candidate genes underpinning the development and storage of carbohydrates in the tubers of two H. tuberosus clones. A model according to which the steady-state levels of 1-SST and 1-FFT transcripts are developmentally controlled and might represent a limiting factor for inulin accumulation has been provided. Our finding may have significant repercussions for breeding clones with improved levels of inulin for food and chemical industry.

19.
Hortic Res ; 7(1): 49, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790252

RESUMO

To elucidate the physiology underlying the development of superficial scald in pears, susceptible "Blanquilla" fruit was treated with different compounds that either promoted (ethylene) or repressed (1-methylcyclopropene and lovastatin) the incidence of this disorder after 4 months of cold storage. Our data show that scald was negligible for the fruit treated with 1-methylcyclopropene or lovastatin, but highly manifested in untreated (78% incidence) or ethylene-treated fruit (97% incidence). The comparison between the fruit metabolomic profile and transcriptome evidenced a distinct reprogramming associated with each treatment. In all treated samples, cold storage led to an activation of a cold-acclimation-resistance mechanism, including the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids, which was especially evident in 1-methylcyclopropane-treated fruit. Among the treatments applied, only 1-methylcyclopropene inhibited ethylene production, hence supporting the involvement of this hormone in the development of scald. However, a common repression effect on the PPO gene combined with higher sorbitol content was found for both lovastatin and 1-methylcyclopropene-treated samples, suggesting also a non-ethylene-mediated process preventing the development of this disorder. The results presented in this work represent a step forward to better understand the physiological mechanisms governing the etiology of superficial scald in pears.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1575, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867031

RESUMO

Several research studies were focused to understand how grapevine cultivars respond to environment; nevertheless, the biological mechanisms tuning this phenomenon need to be further deepened. Particularly, the molecular processes underlying the interplay between clones of the same cultivar and environment were poorly investigated. To address this issue, we analyzed the transcriptome of berries from three "Nebbiolo" clones grown in different vineyards, during two ripening seasons. RNA-sequencing data were implemented with analyses of candidate genes, secondary metabolites, and agronomical parameters. This multidisciplinary approach helped to dissect the complexity of clone × environment interactions, by identifying the molecular responses controlled by genotype, vineyard, phenological phase, or a combination of these factors. Transcripts associated to sugar signalling, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and transport were differently modulated among clones, according to changes in berry agronomical features. Conversely, genes involved in defense response, such as stilbene synthase genes, were significantly affected by vineyard, consistently with stilbenoid accumulation. Thus, besides at the cultivar level, clone-specific molecular responses also contribute to shape the agronomic features of grapes in different environments. This reveals a further level of complexity in the regulation of genotype × environment interactions that has to be considered for orienting viticultural practices aimed at enhancing the quality of grape productions.

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