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1.
Eur Heart J ; 40(29): 2413-2420, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170283

RESUMO

AIMS: Genetic disposition and lifestyle factors are understood as independent components underlying the risk of multiple diseases. In this study, we aim to investigate the interplay between genetics, educational attainment-an important denominator of lifestyle-and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the effect sizes of 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, we calculated a 'genetic education score' in 13 080 cases and 14 471 controls and observed an inverse correlation between the score and risk of CAD [P = 1.52 × 10-8; odds ratio (OR) 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.85 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile]. We replicated in 146 514 individuals from UK Biobank (P = 1.85 × 10-6) and also found strong associations between the 'genetic education score' with 'modifiable' risk factors including smoking (P = 5.36 × 10-23), body mass index (BMI) (P = 1.66 × 10-30), and hypertension (P = 3.86 × 10-8). Interestingly, these associations were only modestly attenuated by adjustment for years spent in school. In contrast, a model adjusting for BMI and smoking abolished the association signal between the 'genetic education score' and CAD risk suggesting an intermediary role of these two risk factors. Mendelian randomization analyses performed with summary statistics from large genome-wide meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis using 1271 variants affecting educational attainment (OR 0.68 for the higher compared with the lowest score quintile; 95% CI 0.63-0.74; P = 3.99 × 10-21) further strengthened these findings. CONCLUSION: Genetic variants known to affect educational attainment may have implications for a health-conscious lifestyle later in life and subsequently affect the risk of CAD.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(23): 2932-2942, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The taxonomy of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is divided into a broad spectrum of clinical entities. Many such diseases coincide in specific patient groups and suggest shared predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study focused on coronary artery disease (CAD) and investigated the genetic relationship to CV and non-CV diseases with reported CAD comorbidity. METHODS: This study examined 425,196 UK Biobank participants to determine a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 300 CAD associated variants (CAD-GRS). This score was associated with 22 traits, including risk factors, diseases secondary to CAD, as well as comorbid and non-CV conditions. Sensitivity analyses were performed in individuals free from CAD or stable angina diagnosis. RESULTS: Hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.29) and hypertension (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.12) were strongly associated with the CAD-GRS, which indicated that the score contained variants predisposing to these conditions. However, the CAD-GRS was also significant in patients with CAD who were free of CAD risk factors (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30 to 1.44). The study observed significant associations between the CAD-GRS and peripheral arterial disease (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.32), abdominal aortic aneurysms (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.37), and stroke (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), which remained significant in sensitivity analyses that suggested shared genetic predisposition. The score was also associated with heart failure (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22 to 1.29), atrial fibrillation (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.10), and premature death (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06). These associations were abolished in sensitivity analyses that indicated that they were secondary to prevalent CAD. Finally, an inverse association was observed between the score and migraine headaches (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.96). CONCLUSIONS: A wide spectrum of CV conditions, including premature death, might develop consecutively or in parallel with CAD for the same genetic roots. In conditions like heart failure, the study found evidence that the CAD-GRS could be used to stratify patients with no or limited genetic overlap with CAD risk. Increased genetic predisposition to CAD was inversely associated with migraine headaches.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1209, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872577

RESUMO

Sparse profiling of CpG methylation in blood by microarrays has identified epigenetic links to common diseases. Here we apply methylC-capture sequencing (MCC-Seq) in a clinical population of ~200 adipose tissue and matched blood samples (Ntotal~400), providing high-resolution methylation profiling (>1.3 M CpGs) at regulatory elements. We link methylation to cardiometabolic risk through associations to circulating plasma lipid levels and identify lipid-associated CpGs with unique localization patterns in regulatory elements. We show distinct features of tissue-specific versus tissue-independent lipid-linked regulatory regions by contrasting with parallel assessments in ~800 independent adipose tissue and blood samples from the general population. We follow-up on adipose-specific regulatory regions under (1) genetic and (2) epigenetic (environmental) regulation via integrational studies. Overall, the comprehensive sequencing of regulatory element methylomes reveals a rich landscape of functional variants linked genetically as well as epigenetically to plasma lipid traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
4.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2018 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506689

RESUMO

The CYP4F2 gene is known to influence mean coumarin dose. The aim of the present study was to undertake a meta-analysis at individual patients' level to capture the possible effect of ethnicity, gene-gene interaction or other drugs on the association and to verify if inclusion of CYP4F2*3 variant into dosing algorithms improves the prediction of mean coumarin dose. We asked the authors of our previous meta-analysis (30 articles) and of 38 new articles retrieved by a systematic review to send us individual patients' data. The final collection consists 15,754 patients split into a derivation and validation cohort. The CYP4F2*3 polymorphism was consistently associated with an increase in mean coumarin dose (+9% (95%CI 7-10%), with a higher effect in females, in patients taking acenocoumarol and in Whites. The inclusion of the CYP4F2*3 in dosing algorithms slightly improved the prediction of stable coumarin dose. New pharmacogenetic equations potentially useful for clinical practice were derived. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10(1): 126, 2018 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many smoking-associated signals have been detected in the blood methylome, but the extent to which these changes are widespread to metabolically relevant tissues, and impact gene expression or metabolic health, remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated smoking-associated DNA methylation and gene expression variation in adipose tissue biopsies from 542 healthy female twins. Replication, tissue specificity, and longitudinal stability of the smoking-associated effects were explored in additional adipose, blood, skin, and lung samples. We characterized the impact of adipose tissue smoking methylation and expression signals on metabolic disease risk phenotypes, including visceral fat. RESULTS: We identified 42 smoking-methylation and 42 smoking-expression signals, where five genes (AHRR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYTL1, F2RL3) were both hypo-methylated and upregulated in current smokers. CYP1A1 gene expression achieved 95% prediction performance of current smoking status. We validated and replicated a proportion of the signals in additional primary tissue samples, identifying tissue-shared effects. Smoking leaves systemic imprints on DNA methylation after smoking cessation, with stronger but shorter-lived effects on gene expression. Metabolic disease risk traits such as visceral fat and android-to-gynoid ratio showed association with methylation at smoking markers with functional impacts on expression, such as CYP1A1, and at tissue-shared smoking signals, such as NOTCH1. At smoking-signals, BHLHE40 and AHRR DNA methylation and gene expression levels in current smokers were predictive of future gain in visceral fat upon smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first comprehensive characterization of coordinated DNA methylation and gene expression markers of smoking in adipose tissue. The findings relate to human metabolic health and give insights into understanding the widespread health consequence of smoking outside of the lung.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 72(16): 1883-1893, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has substantial heritability and a polygenic architecture. However, the potential of genomic risk scores to help predict CAD outcomes has not been evaluated comprehensively, because available studies have involved limited genomic scope and limited sample sizes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to construct a genomic risk score for CAD and to estimate its potential as a screening tool for primary prevention. METHODS: Using a meta-analytic approach to combine large-scale, genome-wide, and targeted genetic association data, we developed a new genomic risk score for CAD (metaGRS) consisting of 1.7 million genetic variants. We externally tested metaGRS, both by itself and in combination with available data on conventional risk factors, in 22,242 CAD cases and 460,387 noncases from the UK Biobank. RESULTS: The hazard ratio (HR) for CAD was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.73) per SD increase in metaGRS, an association larger than any other externally tested genetic risk score previously published. The metaGRS stratified individuals into significantly different life course trajectories of CAD risk, with those in the top 20% of metaGRS distribution having an HR of 4.17 (95% CI: 3.97 to 4.38) compared with those in the bottom 20%. The corresponding HR was 2.83 (95% CI: 2.61 to 3.07) among individuals on lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications. The metaGRS had a higher C-index (C = 0.623; 95% CI: 0.615 to 0.631) for incident CAD than any of 6 conventional factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, self-reported high cholesterol, and family history). For men in the top 20% of metaGRS with >2 conventional factors, 10% cumulative risk of CAD was reached by 48 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic score developed and evaluated here substantially advances the concept of using genomic information to stratify individuals with different trajectories of CAD risk and highlights the potential for genomic screening in early life to complement conventional risk prediction.

7.
Physiol Genomics ; 50(7): 510-522, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652634

RESUMO

Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have propelled the discovery of thousands of loci associated with complex diseases. The focus is now turning toward the function of these association signals, determining the causal variant(s) among those in strong linkage disequilibrium, and identifying their underlying mechanisms, such as long-range gene regulation. Genome-editing techniques utilizing zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats with Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR-Cas9) are becoming the tools of choice to establish functionality for these variants, due to the ability to assess effects of single variants in vivo. This review will discuss examples of how these technologies have begun to aid functional analysis of GWAS loci for complex traits such as cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and autoimmune disease. We focus on analysis of variants occurring within noncoding genomic regions, as these comprise the majority of GWAS variants, providing the greatest challenges to determining functionality, and compare editing strategies that provide different levels of evidence for variant functionality. The review describes molecular insights into some of these potentially causal variants and how these may relate to the pathology of the trait and look toward future directions for these technologies in post-GWAS analysis, such as base-editing.

8.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 98, 2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies are useful for discovering genotype-phenotype associations but are limited because they require large cohorts to identify a signal, which can be population-specific. Mapping genetic variation to genes improves power and allows the effects of both protein-coding variation as well as variation in expression to be combined into "gene level" effects. METHODS: Previous work has shown that warfarin dose can be predicted using information from genetic variation that affects protein-coding regions. Here, we introduce a method that improves dose prediction by integrating tissue-specific gene expression. In particular, we use drug pathways and expression quantitative trait loci knowledge to impute gene expression-on the assumption that differential expression of key pathway genes may impact dose requirement. We focus on 116 genes from the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways of warfarin within training and validation sets comprising both European and African-descent individuals. RESULTS: We build gene-tissue signatures associated with warfarin dose in a cohort-specific manner and identify a signature of 11 gene-tissue pairs that significantly augments the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium dosage-prediction algorithm in both populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that imputed expression can improve dose prediction and bridge population-specific compositions. MATLAB code is available at https://github.com/assafgo/warfarin-cohort.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Tecidual , Varfarina/farmacocinética , Varfarina/farmacologia
9.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1113-1119, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530674

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although 58 genomic regions have been associated with CAD thus far, most of the heritability is unexplained, indicating that additional susceptibility loci await identification. An efficient discovery strategy may be larger-scale evaluation of promising associations suggested by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, we genotyped 56,309 participants using a targeted gene array derived from earlier GWAS results and performed meta-analysis of results with 194,427 participants previously genotyped, totaling 88,192 CAD cases and 162,544 controls. We identified 25 new SNP-CAD associations (P < 5 × 10-8, in fixed-effects meta-analysis) from 15 genomic regions, including SNPs in or near genes involved in cellular adhesion, leukocyte migration and atherosclerosis (PECAM1, rs1867624), coagulation and inflammation (PROCR, rs867186 (p.Ser219Gly)) and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation (LMOD1, rs2820315). Correlation of these regions with cell-type-specific gene expression and plasma protein levels sheds light on potential disease mechanisms.


Assuntos
Artérias/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Aterosclerose/genética , Adesão Celular/genética , Quimiotaxia de Leucócito/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Código das Histonas , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14694, 2017 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28272467

RESUMO

Male-pattern baldness (MPB) is a common and highly heritable trait characterized by androgen-dependent, progressive hair loss from the scalp. Here, we carry out the largest GWAS meta-analysis of MPB to date, comprising 10,846 early-onset cases and 11,672 controls from eight independent cohorts. We identify 63 MPB-associated loci (P<5 × 10-8, METAL) of which 23 have not been reported previously. The 63 loci explain ∼39% of the phenotypic variance in MPB and highlight several plausible candidate genes (FGF5, IRF4, DKK2) and pathways (melatonin signalling, adipogenesis) that are likely to be implicated in the key-pathophysiological features of MPB and may represent promising targets for the development of novel therapeutic options. The data provide molecular evidence that rather than being an isolated trait, MPB shares a substantial biological basis with numerous other human phenotypes and may deserve evaluation as an early prognostic marker, for example, for prostate cancer, sudden cardiac arrest and neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Alopecia/genética , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/genética , Adipogenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Melatonina , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transativadores/genética
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(1)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28213390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified loci influencing circulating lipid concentrations in humans; further information on novel contributing genes, pathways, and biology may be gained through studies of epigenetic modifications. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify epigenetic changes associated with lipid concentrations, we assayed genome-wide DNA methylation at cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs) in whole blood from 2306 individuals from 2 population-based cohorts, with replication of findings in 2025 additional individuals. We identified 193 CpGs associated with lipid levels in the discovery stage (P<1.08E-07) and replicated 33 (at Bonferroni-corrected P<0.05), including 25 novel CpGs not previously associated with lipids. Genes at lipid-associated CpGs were enriched in lipid and amino acid metabolism processes. A differentially methylated locus associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; cg27243685; P=8.1E-26 and 9.3E-19) was associated with cis-expression of a reverse cholesterol transporter (ABCG1; P=7.2E-28) and incident cardiovascular disease events (hazard ratio per SD increment, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.66; P=0.0007). We found significant cis-methylation quantitative trait loci at 64% of the 193 CpGs with an enrichment of signals from genome-wide association studies of lipid levels (PTC=0.004, PHDL-C=0.008 and Ptriglycerides=0.00003) and coronary heart disease (P=0.0007). For example, genome-wide significant variants associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease at APOB were cis-methylation quantitative trait loci for a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-related differentially methylated locus. CONCLUSIONS: We report novel associations of DNA methylation with lipid levels, describe epigenetic mechanisms related to previous genome-wide association studies discoveries, and provide evidence implicating epigenetic regulation of reverse cholesterol transport in blood in relation to occurrence of cardiovascular disease events.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Metilação de DNA , Dislipidemias/genética , Epigênese Genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Ilhas de CpG , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 72(4): 1152-1162, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28062682

RESUMO

Background: The antiretroviral nevirapine is associated with hypersensitivity reactions in 6%-10% of patients, including hepatotoxicity, maculopapular exanthema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Objectives: To undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic predisposing factors for the different clinical phenotypes associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity. Methods: A GWAS was undertaken in a discovery cohort of 151 nevirapine-hypersensitive and 182 tolerant, HIV-infected Malawian adults. Replication of signals was determined in a cohort of 116 cases and 68 controls obtained from Malawi, Uganda and Mozambique. Interaction with ERAP genes was determined in patients positive for HLA-C*04:01 . In silico docking studies were also performed for HLA-C*04:01 . Results: Fifteen SNPs demonstrated nominal significance ( P < 1 × 10 -5 ) with one or more of the hypersensitivity phenotypes. The most promising signal was seen in SJS/TEN, where rs5010528 ( HLA-C locus) approached genome-wide significance ( P < 8.5 × 10 -8 ) and was below HLA -wide significance ( P < 2.5 × 10 -4 ) in the meta-analysis of discovery and replication cohorts [OR 4.84 (95% CI 2.71-8.61)]. rs5010528 is a strong proxy for HLA-C*04:01 carriage: in silico docking showed that two residues (33 and 123) in the B pocket were the most likely nevirapine interactors. There was no interaction between HLA-C*04:01 and ERAP1 , but there is a potential protective effect with ERAP2 [ P = 0.019, OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.21-0.87)]. Conclusions: HLA-C*04:01 predisposes to nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN in sub-Saharan Africans, but not to other hypersensitivity phenotypes. This is likely to be mediated via binding to the B pocket of the HLA-C peptide. Whether this risk is modulated by ERAP2 variants requires further study.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos HLA-C/genética , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(4): 1211-1222, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864399

RESUMO

Background: Cross-sectional genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci associated with blood lipids and related cardiovascular traits, but few genetic association studies have focused on long-term changes in blood lipids. Methods: Participants from the GLACIER Study (Nmax = 3492) were genotyped with the MetaboChip array, from which 29 387 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms; replication, fine-mapping regions and wildcard SNPs for lipid traits) were extracted for association tests with 10-year change in total cholesterol (ΔTC) and triglycerides (ΔTG). Four additional prospective cohort studies (MDC, PIVUS, ULSAM, MRC Ely; Nmax = 8263 participants) were used for replication. We conducted an in silico look-up for association with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D) Consortium (N ∼ 190 000) and functional annotation for the top ranking variants. Results: In total, 956 variants were associated (P < 0.01) with either ΔTC or ΔTG in GLACIER. In GLACIER, chr19:50121999 at APOE was associated with ΔTG and multiple SNPs in the APOA1/A4/C3/A5 region at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), whereas variants in four loci, DOCK7, BRE, SYNE1 and KCNIP1, reached study-wide significance (P < 1.7 × 10-6). The rs7412 variant at APOE was associated with ΔTC in GLACIER (P < 1.7 × 10-6). In pooled analyses of all cohorts, 139 SNPs at six and five loci were associated with ΔTC and for ΔTG, respectively (P < 10-3). Of these, a variant at CAPN3 (P = 1.2 × 10-4), multiple variants at HPR (Pmin = 1.5 × 10-6) and a variant at SIX5 (P = 1.9 × 10-4) showed evidence for association with CAD. Conclusions: We identified seven novel genomic regions associated with long-term changes in blood lipids, of which three also raise CAD risk.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Loci Gênicos , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Suécia
15.
J Invest Dermatol ; 137(4): 910-920, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27993549

RESUMO

High nevus count is the strongest risk factor for melanoma, and although gene variants have been discovered for both traits, epigenetic variation is unexplored. We investigated 322 healthy human skin DNA methylomes associated with total body nevi count, incorporating genetic and transcriptomic variation. DNA methylation changes were identified at genes involved in melanocyte biology, such as RAF1 (P = 1.2 × 10-6) and CTC1 (region: P = 6.3 × 10-4), and other genes including ARRDC1 (P = 3.1 × 10-7). A subset exhibited coordinated methylation and transcription changes within the same biopsy. The total analysis was also enriched for melanoma-associated DNA methylation variation (P = 6.33 × 10-6). In addition, we show that skin DNA methylation is associated in cis with known genome-wide association study single nucleotide polymorphisms for nevus count, at PLA2G6 (P = 1.7 × 10-49) and NID1 (P = 6.4 × 10-14), as well as melanoma risk, including in or near MC1R, MX2, and TERT/CLPTM1L (P < 1 × 10-10). Our analysis using a uniquely large dataset comprising healthy skin DNA methylomes identified known and additional regulatory loci and pathways in nevi and melanoma biology. This integrative study improves our understanding of predisposition to nevi and their potential contribution to melanoma pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Melanoma/genética , Nevo/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epigenômica , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Melanoma/patologia , Nevo/epidemiologia , Nevo/patologia , Fenótipo , Valores de Referência , Sistema de Registros , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Reino Unido
16.
J Lipid Res ; 57(12): 2176-2184, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27729386

RESUMO

Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) variants influence fasting lipids and risk of metabolic syndrome, but their impact on postprandial lipids, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is unclear. We determined the effects of SNPs within a ∼410 kb region encompassing CD36 and its proximal and distal promoters on chylomicron (CM) remnants and LDL particles at fasting and at 3.5 and 6 h following a high-fat meal (Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study, n = 1,117). Five promoter variants associated with CMs, four with delayed TG clearance and five with LDL particle number. To assess mechanisms underlying the associations, we queried expression quantitative trait loci, DNA methylation, and ChIP-seq datasets for adipose and heart tissues that function in postprandial lipid clearance. Several SNPs that associated with higher serum lipids correlated with lower adipose and heart CD36 mRNA and aligned to active motifs for PPARγ, a major CD36 regulator. The SNPs also associated with DNA methylation sites that related to reduced CD36 mRNA and higher serum lipids, but mixed-model analyses indicated that the SNPs and methylation independently influence CD36 mRNA. The findings support contributions of CD36 SNPs that reduce adipose and heart CD36 RNA expression to inter-individual variability of postprandial lipid metabolism and document changes in CD36 DNA methylation that influence both CD36 expression and lipids.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD36/genética , Remanescentes de Quilomícrons/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
JAMA ; 316(13): 1383-1391, 2016 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27701660

RESUMO

Importance: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1 or HMGCR, encoding the respective molecular targets of ezetimibe and statins, have previously been used as proxies to study the efficacy of these lipid-lowering drugs. Alleles near HMGCR are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, similar to the increased incidence of new-onset diabetes associated with statin treatment in randomized clinical trials. It is unknown whether alleles near NPC1L1 are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To investigate whether LDL-C-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1 and other genes encoding current or prospective molecular targets of lipid-lowering therapy (ie, HMGCR, PCSK9, ABCG5/G8, LDLR) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease of LDL-C-lowering genetic variants were investigated in meta-analyses of genetic association studies. Meta-analyses included 50 775 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 270 269 controls and 60 801 individuals with coronary artery disease and 123 504 controls. Data collection took place in Europe and the United States between 1991 and 2016. Exposures: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1, HMGCR, PCSK9, ABCG5/G8, and LDLR. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs) for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Results: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering genetic variants at NPC1L1 were inversely associated with coronary artery disease (OR for a genetically predicted 1-mmol/L [38.7-mg/dL] reduction in LDL-C of 0.61 [95% CI, 0.42-0.88]; P = .008) and directly associated with type 2 diabetes (OR for a genetically predicted 1-mmol/L reduction in LDL-C of 2.42 [95% CI, 1.70-3.43]; P < .001). For PCSK9 genetic variants, the OR for type 2 diabetes per 1-mmol/L genetically predicted reduction in LDL-C was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.02-1.38; P = .03). For a given reduction in LDL-C, genetic variants were associated with a similar reduction in coronary artery disease risk (I2 = 0% for heterogeneity in genetic associations; P = .93). However, associations with type 2 diabetes were heterogeneous (I2 = 77.2%; P = .002), indicating gene-specific associations with metabolic risk of LDL-C-lowering alleles. Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, exposure to LDL-C-lowering genetic variants in or near NPC1L1 and other genes was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. These data provide insights into potential adverse effects of LDL-C-lowering therapy.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Ezetimiba/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Lipoproteínas/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo Genético , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Receptores de LDL/genética , Risco , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos
18.
Nat Genet ; 48(10): 1162-70, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618448

RESUMO

Meta-analyses of association results for blood pressure using exome-centric single-variant and gene-based tests identified 31 new loci in a discovery stage among 146,562 individuals, with follow-up and meta-analysis in 180,726 additional individuals (total n = 327,288). These blood pressure-associated loci are enriched for known variants for cardiometabolic traits. Associations were also observed for the aggregation of rare and low-frequency missense variants in three genes, NPR1, DBH, and PTPMT1. In addition, blood pressure associations at 39 previously reported loci were confirmed. The identified variants implicate biological pathways related to cardiometabolic traits, vascular function, and development. Several new variants are inferred to have roles in transcription or as hubs in protein-protein interaction networks. Genetic risk scores constructed from the identified variants were strongly associated with coronary disease and myocardial infarction. This large collection of blood pressure-associated loci suggests new therapeutic strategies for hypertension, emphasizing a link with cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Variação Genética , Exoma , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 99(1): 40-55, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27346686

RESUMO

Platelet production, maintenance, and clearance are tightly controlled processes indicative of platelets' important roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. Platelets are common targets for primary and secondary prevention of several conditions. They are monitored clinically by complete blood counts, specifically with measurements of platelet count (PLT) and mean platelet volume (MPV). Identifying genetic effects on PLT and MPV can provide mechanistic insights into platelet biology and their role in disease. Therefore, we formed the Blood Cell Consortium (BCX) to perform a large-scale meta-analysis of Exomechip association results for PLT and MPV in 157,293 and 57,617 individuals, respectively. Using the low-frequency/rare coding variant-enriched Exomechip genotyping array, we sought to identify genetic variants associated with PLT and MPV. In addition to confirming 47 known PLT and 20 known MPV associations, we identified 32 PLT and 18 MPV associations not previously observed in the literature across the allele frequency spectrum, including rare large effect (FCER1A), low-frequency (IQGAP2, MAP1A, LY75), and common (ZMIZ2, SMG6, PEAR1, ARFGAP3/PACSIN2) variants. Several variants associated with PLT/MPV (PEAR1, MRVI1, PTGES3) were also associated with platelet reactivity. In concurrent BCX analyses, there was overlap of platelet-associated variants with red (MAP1A, TMPRSS6, ZMIZ2) and white (PEAR1, ZMIZ2, LY75) blood cell traits, suggesting common regulatory pathways with shared genetic architecture among these hematopoietic lineages. Our large-scale Exomechip analyses identified previously undocumented associations with platelet traits and further indicate that several complex quantitative hematological, lipid, and cardiovascular traits share genetic factors.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Volume Plaquetário Médio , Contagem de Plaquetas
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(6): 1092-1100, 2016 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27236921

RESUMO

Bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection) is a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa but little is known about the role of human genetics in susceptibility. We conducted a genome-wide association study of bacteremia susceptibility in more than 5,000 Kenyan children as part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2). Both the blood-culture-proven bacteremia case subjects and healthy infants as controls were recruited from Kilifi, on the east coast of Kenya. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacteremia in Kilifi and was thus the focus of this study. We identified an association between polymorphisms in a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) gene (AC011288.2) and pneumococcal bacteremia and replicated the results in the same population (p combined = 1.69 × 10(-9); OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.84-3.31). The susceptibility allele is African specific, derived rather than ancestral, and occurs at low frequency (2.7% in control subjects and 6.4% in case subjects). Our further studies showed AC011288.2 expression only in neutrophils, a cell type that is known to play a major role in pneumococcal clearance. Identification of this novel association will further focus research on the role of lincRNAs in human infectious disease.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/genética , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Adolescente , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/patologia , Fatores de Risco
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