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1.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 336-362, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011505

RESUMO

Objectives: Brain imaging studies carried out in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have contributed to better characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. The present study reviews the available functional and structural brain imaging evidence on GAD, and suggests further strategies for investigations in this field. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, aiming to identify original research evaluating GAD patients with the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as diffusion tensor imaging. Results: The available studies have shown impairments in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, posterior parietal regions, and amygdala in both pediatric and adult GAD patients, mostly in the right hemisphere. However, the literature is often tentative, given that most studies have employed small samples and included patients with comorbidities or in current use of various medications. Finally, different methodological aspects, such as the type of imaging equipment used, also complicate the generalizability of the findings. Conclusions: Longitudinal neuroimaging studies with larger samples of both juvenile and adult GAD patients, as well as at risk individuals and unaffected relatives, should be carried out in order to shed light on the specific biological signature of GAD.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 21-26, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About one third of patients treated with antidepressant do not show sufficient symptoms relief and up to 15% of patients remain symptomatic even after multiple trials are applied, configuring a state called treatment resistant depression (TRD). A clear definition of this state and the understanding of underlying mechanisms contributing to chronic disability caused by major depressive disorder is still unknown. Therefore, Machine Learning (ML) techniques emerged in the last years as interesting approaches to deal with such complex problems. METHODS: We performed a bibliographic search on Pubmed, Google Scholar and Medline of clinical, imaging, genetic and EEG ML classification studies on treatment-responding depression and TRD as well as studies trying to predict response to a specific treatment in already established TRD. The inclusion criteria were met by eleven studies. Seven focused on the definition of predictors of TRD onset while four attempted to predict the response to specific treatments in TRD. RESULTS: The results showed that it seems possible to classify between responders MDD and TRD with good accuracies based on clinical variables. Moreover, some studies reported the possibility of using EEG measures to predict response to different pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in established TRD. LIMITATIONS: The definition of TRD, the selection of variables together with ML algorithms and pipelines varies across the studies, ultimately determining the unfeasibility to implement these models in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that ML could be a valid approach to increase our understanding of TRD and to better classify and stratify this disorder, which may ultimately help clinicians in the assessment of major depressive disorders.

3.
Eur Psychiatry ; 61: 119-126, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research has consistently shown that language abilities represent a core dimension of psychosis; however, to date, very little is known about syntactic comprehension performance in the early stages of psychosis. This study aims to compare the linguistic abilities involved in syntactic comprehension in a large group of First Episode Psychosis (FEP) patients and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: A multiple choice test of comprehension of syntax was administered to 218 FEP patients (166 non-affective FEP patients [FEP-NA] and 52 affective FEP patients [FEP-A]) and 106 HCs. All participants were asked to match a sentence they listen with one out of four vignettes on a pc screen. Only one vignette represents the stimulus target, while the others are grammatical or non-grammatical (visual) distractors. Both grammatical and non-grammatical errors and performance in different syntactic constructions were considered. RESULTS: FEP committed greater number of errors in the majority of TCGB language domains compared to HCs. Moreover, FEP-NA patients committed significantly more non-grammatical (z = -3.2, p = 0.007), locative (z = -4.7, p < 0.001), passive-negative (z = -3.2, p = 0.02), and relative (z = -4.6, p < 0.001) errors compared to HCs as well as more passive-affirmative errors compared to both HCs (z = -4.3, p < 0.001) and FEP-A (z = 3.1, p = 0.04). Finally, we also found that both FEP-NA and FEP-A committed more grammatical (FEP-NA: z = -9.2, p < 0.001 and FEP-A: z = -4.4, p < 0.001), total (FEP-NA: z = -8.2, p < 0.001 and FEP-A: z = 3.9, p =  0.002), and active-negative (FEP-NA: z = -5.8, p < 0.001 and FEP-A: z = -3.5, p = 0.01) errors compared to HCs. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the access to syntactic structures is already impaired in FEP patients, especially in those with FEP-NA, ultimately suggesting that language impairments represent a core and inner feature of psychosis even at early stages.

4.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 41(4): 336-362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Brain imaging studies carried out in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have contributed to better characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. The present study reviews the available functional and structural brain imaging evidence on GAD, and suggests further strategies for investigations in this field. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar, aiming to identify original research evaluating GAD patients with the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as diffusion tensor imaging. RESULTS: The available studies have shown impairments in ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, posterior parietal regions, and amygdala in both pediatric and adult GAD patients, mostly in the right hemisphere. However, the literature is often tentative, given that most studies have employed small samples and included patients with comorbidities or in current use of various medications. Finally, different methodological aspects, such as the type of imaging equipment used, also complicate the generalizability of the findings. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal neuroimaging studies with larger samples of both juvenile and adult GAD patients, as well as at risk individuals and unaffected relatives, should be carried out in order to shed light on the specific biological signature of GAD.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem Funcional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos
5.
Neuroscience ; 408: 58-67, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930130

RESUMO

The subplate (SP) represents a transitory cytoarchitectural fetal compartment containing most subcortical and cortico-cortical afferents, and has a fundamental role in the structural development of the healthy adult brain. There is evidence that schizophrenia and autism may be determined by developmental defects in the cortex or cortical circuitry during the earliest stages of pregnancy. This article provides an overview on fetal SP development, considering its role in schizophrenia and autism, as supported by a systematic review of the main databases. The SP has been described as a cortical amplifier with a role in the coordination of cortical activity, and sensitive growth and migration windows have crucial consequences with respect to cognitive functioning. Although there are not enough studies to draw final conclusions, improved knowledge of the SP's role in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders may help to elucidate and possibly prevent the onset of these two severe disorders.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986970

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcomes in psychiatric patients. Involvement of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), in particular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in brain functions is largely documented. DHA is incorporated into membrane phospholipids as structural component, especially in the central nervous system where it also has important functional effects. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between DHA and cognitive function in relation to mental disorders. Results from few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of DHA (alone or in combination) in psychotic, mood and neurodevelopmental disorders, respectively, suggest that no conclusive remarks can be drawn.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Humor/metabolismo , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia
7.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 34(3): e2693, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and has shown some degree of efficacy on negative and cognitive symptoms. We aimed to review the effects of olanzapine treatment on brain regions that are directly involved in cognitive and emotional processing. METHODS: We used the PubMed database to perform a bibliographic search on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that investigated the effects of olanzapine treatment on neural activity in patients with schizophrenia during cognitive and emotional tasks. RESULTS: Despite the high variability of tasks and analysis methods employed, the weight of the evidence was consistent with the hypothesis that olanzapine treatment is associated with a normalization of brain activity in schizophrenia. Distinctive functional changes were found in frontal cortex and cingulate cortex activity during both cognitive and emotional tasks. During emotional processing, olanzapine treatment seems to specifically regulate the activity of the striatum and limbic system. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the reviewed studies suggest that in patients with schizophrenia, olanzapine treatment might lead to a more physiological brain activity coupled with regulation of dopamine release. Future studies should further corroborate these hypotheses using larger samples and homogeneous experimental tasks.

8.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 53(5): 413-423, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elderly bipolar disorder (BD) and behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) may exhibit similar symptoms and both disorders are characterized by selective abnormalities in cortical and subcortical regions that are associated with cognitive and emotional impairments. We aimed to investigate common and distinct neural substrates of BD and bvFTD by coupling, for the first time, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques. METHODS: 3-Tesla MRI and 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET scans were acquired for 16 elderly BD patients, 23 bvFTD patients with mild cognitive impairments and 68 healthy controls (48 for PET and 20 for MRI analyses). RESULTS: BD and bvFTD patients exhibit a different localization of grey matter reductions in the lateral prefrontal cortex, with the first group showing grey matter decrease in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the latter group showing grey matter reductions in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as well as unique grey matter and metabolic alterations within the orbitofrontal cortex. The bvFTD group also displayed unique volumetric shrinkage in regions within the temporo-parietal network together with greater metabolic impairments within the temporal cortex and more extensive volumetric and metabolic abnormalities within the limbic lobe. Finally, while the BD group showed greater grey matter volumes in caudate nucleus, bvFTD subjects displayed lower metabolism. CONCLUSION: This MRI-PET study explored, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, structural and functional abnormalities in bvFTD and elderly BD patients, with the final aim of identifying the specific biological signature of these disorders, which might have important implications not only in prevention but also in differential diagnosis and treatment.

9.
Bipolar Disord ; 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Psychotic symptoms are a common feature in bipolar disorder (BD), especially during manic phases, and are associated with a more severe course of illness. However, not all bipolar subjects experience psychosis during the course of their illness, and this difference often guides assessment and pharmacological treatment. The aim of the present study is to elucidate, for the first time, the FDG uptake dysfunctions associated with psychosis in BD patients with and without a history of past psychotic symptoms, through a positron emission tomography (PET) approach. METHODS: Fifty BD patients with lifetime psychotic symptoms, 40 BD patients without lifetime psychotic symptoms and 27 healthy controls (HC) were recruited and underwent an 18F-FDG-PET session. RESULTS: Compared to HC, BD subjects shared common FDG uptake deficits in several brain areas, including insula, inferior temporal gyrus and middle occipital gyrus. Moreover, we found that BD patients with a history of past psychotic symptoms had a unique FDG uptake alteration in the right fusiform gyrus compared to both BD patients without lifetime psychotic symptoms and HC (all P < 0.01, cFWE corrected). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that FDG uptake alterations in brain regions involved in emotion regulation are a key feature of BD, regardless the presence of past psychosis. Finally, we demonstrated that the FDG uptake reduction in fusiform gyrus is associated with the presence of past psychotic symptoms in BD, ultimately leading towards the idea that the fusiform gyrus might be considered a putative biomarker of psychosis.

10.
Compr Psychiatry ; 86: 31-38, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prosody comprehension deficits have been reported in major psychoses. It is still not clear whether these deficits occur at early psychosis stages. The aims of our study were to investigate a) linguistic and emotional prosody comprehension abilities in First Episode Psychosis (FEP) patients compared to healthy controls (HC); b) performance differences between non-affective (FEP-NA) and affective (FEP-A) patients, and c) association between symptoms severity and prosodic features. METHODS: A total of 208 FEP (156 FEP-NA and 52 FEP-A) patients and 77 HC were enrolled and assessed with the Italian version of the "Protocole Montréal d'Evaluation de la Communication" to evaluate linguistic and emotional prosody comprehension. Clinical variables were assessed with a comprehensive set of standardized measures. RESULTS: FEP patients displayed significant linguistic and emotional prosody deficits compared to HC, with FEP-NA showing greater impairment than FEP-A. Also, significant correlations between symptom severity and prosodic features in FEP patients were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that prosodic impairments occur at the onset of psychosis being more prominent in FEP-NA and in those with severe psychopathology. These findings further support the hypothesis that aprosodia is a core feature of psychosis.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948252

RESUMO

In the original publication of the article, the title was incorrect. The correct title should read as given below.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29937484

RESUMO

Depression is one of the most important health problems worldwide. Women are 2.5 times more likely to experience major depression than men. Evidence suggests that some women might experience an increased risk for developing depression during “windows of vulnerability”, i.e., when exposed to intense hormone fluctuations, such as the menopause transition. Indeed, this period is associated with different symptoms, including vasomotor, depressive, and cognitive symptoms, which have all been shown to worsen as women approach menopause. Even though hormonal therapy represents the most effective treatment, side effects have been reported by several studies. Therefore, an increased number of women might prefer the use of alternative medicine for treating menopausal symptoms. N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) are included among these alternative treatments. We here provide a review of studies investigating the effects of n-3 LCPUFAs on hot flashes and depressive and cognitive disorders in menopausal women. The reported results are scattered and heterogeneous. In conclusion, a beneficial role of n-3 LCPUFAs in hot flashes, and depressive and cognitive symptoms related to menopausal transition is still far from conclusive.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Depressão/dietoterapia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fogachos/dietoterapia , Sistema Vasomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Terapias Complementares , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Fogachos/fisiopatologia , Fogachos/psicologia , Humanos , Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Menopausa/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Sistema Vasomotor/fisiopatologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29594394

RESUMO

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reported gray matter (GM) loss in bipolar disorder (BD) in cingulate cortices, key regions subserving emotional regulation and cognitive functions in humans. The aim of this study was to further explore cingulate GM volumes in a sizeable group of BD patients with respect to healthy controls, particularly investigating the impact of gender and clinical variables. 39 BD patients (mean Age = 48.6 ± 9.7, 15 males and 24 females) and 39 demographically matched healthy subjects (mean Age = 47.9 ± 9.1, 15 males and 24 females) underwent a 1.5T MRI scan. GM volumes within the cingulate cortex were manually detected, including anterior and posterior regions. BD patients had decreased left anterior cingulate volumes compared with healthy controls (F = 6.7, p = 0.01). Additionally, a significant gender effect was observed, with male patients showing reduced left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes compared to healthy controls (F = 5.1, p = 0.03). Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between right ACC volumes and number of hospitalizations were found in the whole group of BD patients (r = - 0.51, p = 0.04) and in male BD patients (r = - 0.88, p = 0.04). Finally, no statistically significant correlations were observed in female BD patients. Our findings further confirm the putative role of the ACC in the pathophysiology of BD. Interestingly, this study also suggested the presence of gender-specific GM volume reductions in ACC in BD, which may also be associated to poor outcome.

14.
Compr Psychiatry ; 82: 95-99, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29454165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPAA) has been consistently reported in mood disorders. However, only few studies investigated the Pituitary gland (PG) in Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the results are so far contrasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the integrity of the PG as well as the role of gender and the impact of clinical measurements on this structure in a sample of BD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 34 BD patients and 41 HC underwent a 1.5 T MRI scan. PG volumes were manually traced for all subjects. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by means of the Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Bech Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale. RESULTS: We found decreased PG volumes in BD patients compared to HC (F = 24.9, p < 0.001). Interestingly, after dividing the sample by gender, a significant PG volume decrease was detected only in female BD patients compared to female HC (F = 9.1, p < 0.001), but not in male BD compared to male HC (F = -0.12, p = 0.074). No significant correlations were observed between PG volumes and clinical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that BD patients have decreased PG volumes, probably due to the long-term hyperactivity of the HPAA and to the consequent strengthening of the negative feedback control towards the PG volume itself. This alteration was particularly evident in females, suggesting a role of gender in affecting PG volumes in BD. Finally, the absence of significant correlations between PG volumes and clinical variables further supports that PG disruption is a trait feature of BD, being independent of symptoms severity and duration of treatment.

15.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 22(1): 6-12, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28643537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies provided evidence of selective brain abnormalities in schizophrenia, both in cortical and subcortical structures. Basal ganglia are of particular interest, given not only the high concentration of dopaminergic neurons and receptors, but also for their crucial role in cognitive functions, commonly impaired in schizophrenia. To date, very few studies explored basal ganglia using diffusion imaging, which is sensitive to microstructural organization in brain tissues. The aim of our study is to explore basal ganglia structures with diffusion imaging in a sizeable sample of patients affected by schizophrenia and healthy controls. METHODS: We enrolled 52 subjects affected by schizophrenia according to DMS-IV-R criteria and 46 healthy controls. Diffusion weighted images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were determined in axial and coronal sections at the level of basal ganglia. RESULTS: Patients affected by schizophrenia showed a significantly higher ADC compared to healthy controls in the left anterior lenticular nucleus (F = 3.9, p = .05). A significant positive correlation between right anterior lenticular nucleus and psychotropic dosages was found (r = 0.4, p = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence of lenticular nucleus microstructure alterations in schizophrenia, potentially sustaining cognitive and motor deficits in schizophrenia. Key points The basal ganglia structures was explored with diffusion imaging in a sizeable sample of patients affected by schizophrenia and healthy controls. Patients affected by schizophrenia showed a significantly higher ADC compared to healthy controls in the left anterior lenticular nucleus. Our study provides evidence of lenticular nucleus microstructure alterations in schizophrenia, potentially sustaining cognitive and motor deficits in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Gânglios da Base/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Schizophr Res ; 193: 269-275, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28729037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prefrontal cortex gyrification has been suggested to be altered in patients with schizophrenia and first episode psychosis. Therefore, it may represent a possible trait marker for these illnesses and an indirect evidence of a disrupted underlying connectivity. The aim of this study was to add further evidence to the existing literature on the role of prefrontal gyrification in psychosis by carrying out a study on a sizeable sample of chronic patients with schizophrenia and non-affective first-episode psychosis (FEP-NA) patients. METHODS: Seventy-two patients with schizophrenia, 51 FEP-NA patients (12 who later develop schizophrenia) and 95 healthy controls (HC) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cortical folding was quantified using the automated gyrification index (GI). GI values were compared among groups and related to clinical variables. RESULTS: Both FEP-NA and patients with schizophrenia showed a higher mean prefrontal GI compared to HC (all p<0.05). Interestingly, no differences have been observed between the two patients groups as well as between FEP-NA patients who did and did not develop schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest the presence of a shared aberrant prefrontal GI in subjects with both schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis. These findings support the hypothesis that altered GI represents a neurodevelopmental trait marker for psychosis, which may be involved in the associated neurocognitive deficits.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Humor/etiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 271: 75-81, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129544

RESUMO

Structural and diffusion imaging studies have provided some evidence of abnormal organization of Corpus Callosum (CC) in Bipolar Disorder (BD). Therefore, by using Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), which allows to build subtle prediction models of fiber integrity for white matter (WM) tracts, this study aims to further explore the microstructure integrity of CC in BD patients compared to matched healthy controls. Twenty-four chronic patients with BD and 35 healthy controls were included in the study. Circular regions of interest were placed, on diffusion images, in the left and right side of callosal regions (i.e. rostrum/genu, anterior body, posterior body, splenium) and the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) was then calculated. Significantly increased ADC values were found in right anterior body and in right splenium in BD patients compared to healthy controls (all p < 0.05, Bonferroni corrected). In this study, we found abnormally increased ADC callosal values in BD suggesting microstructural anomalies specifically in the right hemisphere. Interestingly, this finding further supports the presence of an altered inter-hemispheric communication between frontal and temporo-parietal association areas in patients with BD, which may ultimately result in clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(12)2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207548

RESUMO

In this systematic review, we will consider and debate studies that have explored the effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in three major, and somehow related, developmental psychiatric disorders: Autism, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity disorder and Psychosis. The impact of ω-3 PUFAs on clinical symptoms and, if possible, brain trajectory in children and adolescents suffering from these illnesses will be reviewed and discussed, considering the biological plausibility of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids, together with their potential perspectives in the field. Heterogeneity in study designs will be discussed in the light of differences in results and interpretation of studies carried out so far.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Autístico/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Neuropsychobiology ; 75(1): 32-38, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decades, there has been increasing interest in investigating the role of the vermis in bipolar disorder (BD), especially because of its involvement in cognitive processes. The main aims of this study were to explore the integrity of the vermis and elucidate the role of demographic and clinical variables on vermis volumes in BD patients, stratified according to gender. METHODS: T1-weighted images were obtained for 38 BD patients and 38 healthy controls using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Images were analyzed with a PC workstation with BRAINS2 software on a Linux system. Anatomical regions were traced manually from a blinded operator, with respect to subject identity and other clinical variables. RESULTS: The direct comparison between the 2 groups showed no significant gray matter differences in vermis volumes. Interestingly, vermis volumes were significantly inversely associated with chronological age and age of BD onset, particularly in male subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence of the impact of aging on the vermis in BD, potentially related to earlier and faster gender-related neurodegenerative phenomena occurring during the progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Progressão da Doença , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Estatística como Assunto
20.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 267: 22-31, 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732208

RESUMO

The parietal lobe (PL) supports cognitive domains, including attention and memory, which are impaired in bipolar disorder (BD). Although cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies found reduced PL grey matter (GM) in BD, none has longitudinally focused on PL anatomy in BD, relating it to patients' functioning. Thirty-eight right-handed BD patients and 42 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan at baseline. Seventeen BD patients and 16 matched HS underwent a follow-up MRI. PL white matter (WM) and GM volumes were measured. The trajectory of parietal volumes over time and the possible relation with the global functioning were investigated in both BD patients and HS. At baseline, BD patients showed significant reduced PL WM and GM and different WM laterality compared with HS. Furthermore, smaller PL WM volumes predicted lower global functioning in BD, but not in HS. At follow-up, although BD patients reported reduced PL WM compared with HS, no different pattern of volume changes over time was detected between groups. This study suggests the involvement of the PL in the pathophysiology of BD. In particular, PL WM reductions seem to predict an impairment in general functioning in BD and might represent a marker of functional outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Lobo Parietal/patologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
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