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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(10)2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652620

RESUMO

Oral clefts are composed of cleft of the lip, cleft of the lip and palate, or cleft of the palate, and they are associated with a wide range of expression and severity. When cleft of the palate is associated with cleft of the lip with preservation of the primary palate, it defines an atypical phenotype called discontinuous cleft. Although this phenotype may represent 5% of clefts of the lip and/or palate (CLP), it is rarely specifically referred to and its pathophysiology is unknown. We conducted whole exome sequencing (WES) and apply a candidate gene approach to non-syndromic discontinuous CLP individuals in order to identify genes and deleterious variants that could underlie this phenotype. We discovered loss-of-function variants in two out of the seven individuals, implicating FGFR1 and DLG1 genes, which represents almost one third of this cohort. Whole exome sequencing of clinically well-defined subgroups of CLP, such as discontinuous cleft, is a relevant approach to study CLP etiopathogenesis. It could facilitate more accurate clinical, epidemiological and fundamental research, ultimately resulting in better diagnosis and care of CLP patients. Non-syndromic discontinuous cleft lip and palate seems to have a strong genetic basis.

2.
Nat Genet ; 51(10): 1438-1441, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570889

RESUMO

Hypopigmentation along Blaschko's lines is a hallmark of a poorly defined group of mosaic syndromes whose genetic causes are unknown. Here we show that postzygotic inactivating mutations of RHOA cause a neuroectodermal syndrome combining linear hypopigmentation, alopecia, apparently asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy, and facial, ocular, dental and acral anomalies. Our findings pave the way toward elucidating the etiology of pigmentary mosaicism and highlight the role of RHOA in human development and disease.

4.
J Med Genet ; 56(8): 526-535, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Balanced chromosomal rearrangements associated with abnormal phenotype are rare events, but may be challenging for genetic counselling, since molecular characterisation of breakpoints is not performed routinely. We used next-generation sequencing to characterise breakpoints of balanced chromosomal rearrangements at the molecular level in patients with intellectual disability and/or congenital anomalies. METHODS: Breakpoints were characterised by a paired-end low depth whole genome sequencing (WGS) strategy and validated by Sanger sequencing. Expression study of disrupted and neighbouring genes was performed by RT-qPCR from blood or lymphoblastoid cell line RNA. RESULTS: Among the 55 patients included (41 reciprocal translocations, 4 inversions, 2 insertions and 8 complex chromosomal rearrangements), we were able to detect 89% of chromosomal rearrangements (49/55). Molecular signatures at the breakpoints suggested that DNA breaks arose randomly and that there was no major influence of repeated elements. Non-homologous end-joining appeared as the main mechanism of repair (55% of rearrangements). A diagnosis could be established in 22/49 patients (44.8%), 15 by gene disruption (KANSL1, FOXP1, SPRED1, TLK2, MBD5, DMD, AUTS2, MEIS2, MEF2C, NRXN1, NFIX, SYNGAP1, GHR, ZMIZ1) and 7 by position effect (DLX5, MEF2C, BCL11B, SATB2, ZMIZ1). In addition, 16 new candidate genes were identified. Systematic gene expression studies further supported these results. We also showed the contribution of topologically associated domain maps to WGS data interpretation. CONCLUSION: Paired-end WGS is a valid strategy and may be used for structural variation characterisation in a clinical setting.

5.
Clin Genet ; 95(3): 420-426, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633342

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS; OMIM 180849) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder characterized by facial dysmorphism, broad thumbs and halluces associated with intellectual disability. RSTS is caused by alterations in CREBBP (about 60%) and EP300 genes (8%). RSTS is often diagnosed at birth or during early childhood but generally not suspected during antenatal period. We report nine cases of well-documented fetal RSTS. Two cases were examined after death in utero at 18 and 35 weeks of gestation and seven cases after identification of ultrasound abnormalities and termination of pregnancy. On prenatal sonography, a large gallbladder was detected in two cases, and brain malformations were noted in four cases, especially cerebellar hypoplasia. However, the diagnosis of RSTS has not been suggested during pregnancy. Fetal autopsy showed that all fetuses had large thumbs and/or suggestive facial dysmorphism. A CREBBP gene anomaly was identified in all cases. Alterations were similar to those found in typical RSTS children. This report will contribute to a better knowledge of the fetal phenotype to consider the hypothesis of RSTS during pregnancy. Genotyping allows reassuring genetic counseling.

6.
Am J Med Genet A ; : e40630, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462376

RESUMO

Mutations in the T-Box transcription factor gene TBX22 are found in X-linked Cleft Palate with or without Ankyloglossia syndrome (CPX syndrome). In addition to X-linked inheritance, ankyloglossia, present in the majority of CPX patients, is an important diagnostic marker, but it is frequently missed or unreported, as it is a "minor" feature. Other described anomalies include cleft lip, micro and/or hypodontia, and features of CHARGE syndrome. We conducted whole exome sequencing (WES) on 22 individuals from 17 "a priori" non-syndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) families. We filtered the data for heterozygous pathogenic variants within a set of predefined candidate genes. Two canonical splice-site mutations were found in TBX22. Detailed re-phenotyping of the two probands and their families unravelled orofacial features previously not associated with the CPX phenotypic spectrum: choanal atresia, Pierre-Robin sequence, and overgrowths on the posterior edge of the hard palate, on each side of the palatal midline. This study emphasizes the importance of WES analysis in familial CLP cases, combined with deep (reverse) phenotyping in "a priori" non-syndromic clefts.

7.
Brain ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985992

RESUMO

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.

8.
J Med Genet ; 55(7): 449-458, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral clefts, that is, clefts of the lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P), are the most common craniofacial birth defects with an approximate incidence of ~1/700. To date, physicians stratify patients with oral clefts into either syndromic CL/P (syCL/P) or non-syndromic CL/P (nsCL/P) depending on whether the CL/P is associated with another anomaly or not. In general, patients with syCL/P follow Mendelian inheritance, while those with nsCL/P have a complex aetiology and, as such, do not adhere to Mendelian inheritance. Genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 30 risk loci for nsCL/P, which could explain a small fraction of heritability. METHODS: To identify variants causing nsCL/P, we conducted whole exome sequencing on 84 individuals with nsCL/P, drawn from multiplex families (n=46). RESULTS: We identified rare damaging variants in four genes known to be mutated in syCL/P: TP63 (one family), TBX1 (one family), LRP6 (one family) and GRHL3 (two families), and clinical reassessment confirmed the isolated nature of their CL/P. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that patients with CL/P without cardinal signs of a syndrome may still carry a mutation in a gene linked to syCL/P. Rare coding and non-coding variants in syCL/P genes could in part explain the controversial question of 'missing heritability' for nsCL/P. Therefore, gene panels designed for diagnostic testing of syCL/P should be used for patients with nsCL/P, especially when there is at least third-degree family history. This would allow a more precise management, follow-up and genetic counselling. Moreover, stratified cohorts would allow hunting for genetic modifiers.

9.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 422-429, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Segmentation defects of the vertebrae (SDV) are non-specific features found in various syndromes. The molecular bases of SDV are not fully elucidated due to the wide range of phenotypes and classification issues. The genes involved are in the Notch signalling pathway, which is a key system in somitogenesis. Here we report on mutations identified in a diagnosis cohort of SDV. We focused on spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) and the phenotype of these patients in order to establish a diagnostic strategy when confronted with SDV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used DNA samples from a cohort of 73 patients and performed targeted sequencing of the five known SCD-causing genes (DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6) in the first 48 patients and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 28 relevant patients. RESULTS: Ten diagnoses, including four biallelic variants in TBX6, two biallelic variants in LFNG and DLL3, and one in MESP2 and HES7, were made with the gene panel, and two diagnoses, including biallelic variants in FLNB and one variant in MEOX1, were made by WES. The diagnostic yield of the gene panel was 10/73 (13.7%) in the global cohort but 8/10 (80%) in the subgroup meeting the SCD criteria; the diagnostic yield of WES was 2/28 (8%). CONCLUSION: After negative array CGH, targeted sequencing of the five known SCD genes should only be performed in patients who meet the diagnostic criteria of SCD. The low proportion of candidate genes identified by WES in our cohort suggests the need to consider more complex genetic architectures in cases of SDV.

10.
J Med Genet ; 55(3): 205-213, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 11p15 region contains two clusters of imprinted genes. Opposite genetic and epigenetic anomalies of this region result in two distinct growth disturbance syndromes: Beckwith-Wiedemann (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndromes (SRS). Cytogenetic rearrangements within this region represent less than 3% of SRS and BWS cases. Among these, 11p15 duplications were infrequently reported and interpretation of their pathogenic effects is complex. OBJECTIVES: To report cytogenetic and methylation analyses in a cohort of patients with SRS/BWS carrying 11p15 duplications and establish genotype/phenotype correlations. METHODS: From a cohort of patients with SRS/BWS with an abnormal methylation profile (using ASMM-RTQ-PCR), we used SNP-arrays to identify and map the 11p15 duplications. We report 19 new patients with SRS (n=9) and BWS (n=10) carrying de novo or familial 11p15 duplications, which completely or partially span either both telomeric and centromeric domains or only one domain. RESULTS: Large duplications involving one complete domain or both domains are associated with either SRS or BWS, depending on the parental origin of the duplication. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies of partial duplications within the telomeric domain demonstrate the prominent role of IGF2, rather than H19, in the control of growth. Furthermore, it highlights the role of CDKN1C within the centromeric domain and suggests that the expected overexpression of KCNQ1OT1 from the paternal allele (in partial paternal duplications, excluding CDKN1C) does not affect the expression of CDKN1C. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotype associated with 11p15 duplications depends on the size, genetic content, parental inheritance and imprinting status. Identification of these rare duplications is crucial for genetic counselling.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(11): 2923-2946, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948695

RESUMO

Facial femoral syndrome (FFS) is a rare congenital abnormality, also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome, characterized by variable degrees of femoral hypoplasia, associated with specific facial features. Other organ malformations are sometimes present. Most cases are sporadic, but rare family observations suggest genetic origin. However, no chromosomal or genetic abnormalities have ever been incriminated. We conducted a comprehensive literature review and added three new unreported observations. Through these 92 cases, authors aimed to determine sonographic signs that should direct towards diagnosis, and discuss potential genetic etiology. Diagnosis was suspected prenatally in 27.2% of cases, and maternal diabetes was found in 42.4% of patients. When fetal karyotype was available, it was normal in 97.1% of cases, but genomic variations of unknown significance were discovered in all three cases in which array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) techniques were applied. Femoral affection defining FFS was hypoplasia in 78.3% of cases, agenesis in 12%, and both in 9.8%. Affection was bilateral in 84.8% of cases. Retrognathia was present in 65.2% of cases, cleft lip and/or palate in 63%, and other organ malformations in 53.3%. Intellectual development was normal in 79.2% of cases. Better prenatal recognition of this pathology, notably frequently associated malformations, should lead to a more precise estimation of functional prognosis. It seems likely that today's tendency to systematically employ array-CGH and exome/genome sequencing methods to investigate malformative sequences will allow the identification of a causal genetic abnormality in the near future.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Fêmur/anormalidades , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenda Labial/genética , Fenda Labial/fisiopatologia , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/fisiopatologia , Feto , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/genética , Síndrome de Pierre Robin/fisiopatologia , Gravidez
12.
Eur J Med Genet ; 59(4): 215-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26873617

RESUMO

The formation of a properly shaped eye is a complex developmental event that requires the coordination of many induction processes and differentiation pathways. Microphthalmia and anophthalmia (MA) represent the most severe defects that can affect the ocular globe during embryonic development. When genetic, these ocular disorders exhibit large genetic heterogeneity and extreme variable expressivity. Around 20 monogenic diseases are known to be associated with MA as main phenotype and the penetrance of mutations is usually full in the patients. Some of these genes encode proteins involved in the vitamin A pathway, tightly regulated during eye development. One of those retinoic acid synthesis genes is ALDH1A3 and biallelic mutations in that gene have been recently found to lead to MA phenotype in patients. Interestingly, we report here the lack of ocular defect in a girl carrying the same homozygous mutation in the ALDH1A3 gene than the affected members of her family. Thus, this report brings new information for the phenotype-genotype correlation of ALDH1A3 mutations and raises important questions, especially in terms of genetic counselling given to the patients and their families. Furthermore, these data contribute to the more general understanding that we have for the complex genetic inheritance of these MA phenotypes.


Assuntos
Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Anoftalmia/genética , Olho/patologia , Microftalmia/genética , Anoftalmia/patologia , Criança , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Microftalmia/patologia , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Tretinoína/metabolismo
13.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(3): 504-11, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25572454

RESUMO

Interstitial microdeletions of 20q chromosome are rare, only 17 patients have been reported in the literature to date. Among them, only six carried a proximal 20q11.21-q11.23 deletion, with a size ranging from 2.6 to 6.8 Mb. The existence of a 20q11.2 microdeletion syndrome has been proposed, based on five previously reported cases that displayed anomalies of the extremities, intellectual disability, feeding difficulties, craniofacial dysmorphism and variable malformations. To further characterize this syndrome, we report on six new patients with 20q11.2 microdeletions diagnosed by whole-genome array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These patient reports more precisely refined the phenotype and narrowed the minimal critical region involved in this syndrome. Careful clinical assessment confirms the distinctive clinical phenotype. The craniofacial dysmorphism consists of high forehead, frontal bossing, enophthalmos, and midface hypoplasia. We have identified a 1.62 megabase minimal critical region involved in this syndrome encompassing three genes­GDF5, EPB41L1, andSAMHD1­which are strong candidates for different aspects of the phenotype. These results support that 20q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a new contiguous gene deletion syndrome with a recognizable phenotype.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20 , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(3): 774-7, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24357529

RESUMO

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) -OMIM 312870- is a rare X-linked inherited overgrowth syndrome caused by a loss of function mutation in the GPC3 gene. Affected patients present a variable phenotype with pre- and post-natal macrosomia, distinctive facial dysmorphism, organomegaly, and multiple congenital anomalies. Intellectual disability is not constant. About 10% of patients have an increased risk of developing embryonic tumors in early childhood. Only one case of biliary disease has been described so far. GPC3 is localized on Xq26. It encodes for glypican 3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, which among its different known roles, negatively regulates liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation. This report concerns a male with a SGBS1, carrier of a GPC3 pathogenic mutation, and neonatal liver disease, who developed an early biliary cirrhosis. Together with the associated risk of cancer and developmental delay, liver transplantation was discussed and then successfully performed at the age of 19 months. A hypothesis on the role of GPC3 in the patient's liver disease is also proposed.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Gigantismo/diagnóstico , Gigantismo/terapia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/terapia , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/terapia , Transplante de Fígado , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Biópsia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Gigantismo/genética , Glipicanas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 163C(2): 92-105, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23606591

RESUMO

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare X-linked multiple congenital abnormality/intellectual disability syndrome characterized by pre- and post-natal overgrowth, distinctive craniofacial features, macrocephaly, variable congenital malformations, organomegaly, increased risk of tumor and mild/moderate intellectual deficiency. In 1996, Glypican 3 (GPC3) was identified as the major gene causing SGBS but the mutation detection rate was only 28-70%, suggesting either genetic heterogeneity or that some patients could have alternative diagnoses. This was particularly suggested by some reports of atypical cases with more severe prognoses. In the family reported by Golabi and Rosen, a duplication of GPC4 was recently identified, suggesting that GPC4 could be the second gene for SGBS but no point mutations within GPC4 have yet been reported. In the genetics laboratory in Tours Hospital, GPC3 molecular testing over more than a decade has detected pathogenic mutations in only 8.7% of individuals with SGBS. In addition, GPC4 mutations have not been identified thus raising the question of frequent misdiagnosis. In order to better delineate the phenotypic spectrum of SGBS caused by GPC3 mutations, and to try to define specific clinical criteria for GPC3 molecular testing, we reviewed the clinical features of all male cases with a GPC3 mutation identified in the two molecular laboratories providing this test in France (Tours and Paris). We present here the results of the analysis of 42 patients belonging to 31 families and including five fetuses and three deceased neonates.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Gigantismo/genética , Glipicanas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Humanos , Fenótipo
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 22(12): 2387-99, 2013 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23427148

RESUMO

Goldberg-Shprintzen syndrome (GOSHS, MIM #609460) is an autosomal recessive disorder of intellectual disability, specific facial gestalt and Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). In 2005, homozygosity mapping in a large consanguineous family identified KIAA1279 as the disease-causing gene. KIAA1279 encodes KIF-binding protein (KBP), whose function is incompletely understood. Studies have identified either the mitochondria or the cytoskeleton as the site of KBP localization and interactions. To better delineate the KIAA1279-related clinical spectrum and the molecular mechanisms involved in GOSHS, we studied five new patients from three different families. The homozygous KIAA1279 mutations in these patients (p.Arg90X, p.Ser200X or p.Arg202IlefsX2) led to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and loss of KBP function. Despite the absence of functional KBP, respiratory chain complex activity in patient fibroblasts was normal. KBP did not co-localize with mitochondria in control human fibroblasts, but interacted with the actin and tubulin cytoskeleton. KBP expression directly affected neurite growth in a neuron-like cell line (human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y), in keeping with the central (polymicrogyria) and enteric (HSCR) neuronal developmental defects seen in GOSHS patients. The KBP interactions with actin filaments and microtubules (MTs) demonstrated in our study constitute the first evidence that an actin MT cross-link protein is involved in neuronal development in humans.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/metabolismo , Doença de Hirschsprung/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , França , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque , Masculino , Microtúbulos/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Linhagem , Ligação Proteica , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/metabolismo
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 161A(4): 671-8, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23401279

RESUMO

Ectodermal dysplasias (ED) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders that have in common abnormal development of ectodermal derivatives. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by abnormal development of eccrine sweat glands, hair, and teeth. The X-linked form of the disease, caused by mutations in the EDA gene, represents the majority of patients with the hypohidrotic form. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms are occasionally seen, and result from mutations in at least three genes (WNT10A, EDAR, or more rarely EDARADD). We have screened for mutations in EDAR (commonly involved in the hypohidrotic form) and WNT10A (involved in a wide spectrum of ED and in isolated hypodontia) in a cohort of 36 patients referred for EDA molecular screening, which failed to identify any mutation. We identified eight EDAR mutations in five patients (two with homozygous mutations, one with compound heterozygous mutations, and two with heterozygous mutation), four of which were novel variants. We identified 28 WNT10A mutations in 16 patients (5 with homozygous mutations, 7 with compound heterozygous mutations, and 4 with heterozygous mutations), seven of which were novel variants. Our study allows a more precise definition of the phenotypic spectrum associated with EDAR and WNT10A mutations and underlines the importance of the implication of WNT10A among patients with ED.


Assuntos
Anodontia/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anodontia/complicações , Displasia Ectodérmica/complicações , Receptor Edar/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Alinhamento de Sequência
18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(3): 163-70, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23279911

RESUMO

The increased use of array-CGH and SNP-arrays for genetic diagnosis has led to the identification of new microdeletion/microduplication syndromes and enabled genotype-phenotype correlations to be made. In this study, nine patients with 9q21 deletions were investigated and compared with four previously Decipher reported patients. Genotype-phenotype comparisons of 13 patients revealed several common major characteristics including significant developmental delay, epilepsy, neuro-behavioural disorders and recognizable facial features including hypertelorism, feature-less philtrum, and a thin upper lip. The molecular investigation identified deletions with different breakpoints and of variable lengths, but the 750 kb smallest overlapping deleted region includes four genes. Among these genes, RORB is a strong candidate for a neurological phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of 9q21 microdeletions and our observations strongly suggest that these deletions are responsible for a new genetic syndrome characterised by mental retardation with speech delay, epilepsy, autistic behaviour and moderate facial dysmorphy.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Microanálise por Sonda Eletrônica , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Membro 2 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertases/genética , Proteínas/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPM/genética
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(2): 265-70, 2013 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23312594

RESUMO

Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M) are early-eye-development anomalies resulting in absent or small ocular globes, respectively. A/M anomalies occur in syndromic or nonsyndromic forms. They are genetically heterogeneous, some mutations in some genes being responsible for both anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Using a combination of homozygosity mapping, exome sequencing, and Sanger sequencing, we identified homozygosity for one splice-site and two missense mutations in the gene encoding the A3 isoform of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A3) in three consanguineous families segregating A/M with occasional orbital cystic, neurological, and cardiac anomalies. ALDH1A3 is a key enzyme in the formation of a retinoic acid gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during early eye development. Transitory expression of mutant ALDH1A3 open reading frames showed that both missense mutations reduce the accumulation of the enzyme, potentially leading to altered retinoic acid synthesis. Although the role of retinoic acid signaling in eye development is well established, our findings provide genetic evidence of a direct link between retinoic-acid-synthesis dysfunction and early-eye-development anomalies in humans.


Assuntos
Aldeído Desidrogenase/genética , Anoftalmia/enzimologia , Anoftalmia/genética , Genes Recessivos/genética , Microftalmia/enzimologia , Microftalmia/genética , Mutação/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Células HEK293 , Homozigoto , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Linhagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(1): 26-31, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23063576

RESUMO

The introduction of molecular karyotyping technologies into the diagnostic work-up of patients with congenital disorders permitted the identification and delineation of novel microdeletion and microduplication syndromes. Interstitial 16p13.3 duplication, encompassing the CREBBP gene, which is mutated or deleted in the Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, have been proposed to cause a recognisable syndrome with variable intellectual disability, normal growth, mild facial dysmorphism, mild anomalies of the extremities, and occasional findings such as developmental defects of the heart, genitalia, palate or the eyes. We here report the phenotypic and genotypic delineation of 9 patients carrying a submicroscopic 16p13.3 duplication, including the smallest 16p13.3 duplication reported so far. Careful clinical assessment confirms the distinctive clinical phenotype and also defines frequent associated features : marked speech problems, frequent ocular region involvement with upslanting of the eyes, narrow palpebral fissures, ptosis and strabismus, frequent proximal implantation of thumbs, cleft palate/bifid uvula and inguinal hernia. It also confirms that CREBBP is the critical gene involved in the duplication 16p13.3 syndrome.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/diagnóstico , Síndrome
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