Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 86
Filtrar
1.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma, a heterogeneous disease with variable age of onset, results from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Early-life tobacco smoke (ELTS) exposure is a major asthma risk factor. Only a few genetic loci have been reported to interact with ELTS exposure in asthma. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify new loci interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset (TAO) in childhood. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide interaction analyses of ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood in five European-ancestry studies (totaling 8,273 subjects) using Cox proportional-hazard model. The results of all five genome-wide analyses were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: The 13q21 locus showed genome-wide significant interaction with ELTS exposure (P=4.3x10-8 for rs7334050 within KLHL1 with consistent results across the five studies). Suggestive interactions (P<5x10-6 ) were found at three other loci: 20p12 (rs13037508 within MACROD2; P=4.9x10-7 ), 14q22 (rs7493885 near NIN; P=2.9x10-6 ) and 2p22 (rs232542 near CYP1B1; P=4.1x10-6 ). Functional annotations and the literature showed that the lead SNPs at these four loci influence DNA methylation in the blood and are located nearby CpG sites reported to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke components, which strongly support our findings. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We identified novel candidate genes interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood. These genes have plausible biological relevance related to tobacco smoke exposure. Further epigenetic and functional studies are needed to confirm these findings and to shed light on the underlying mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 3(5): 332-342, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline variants in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) might increase the risk of childhood and adolescent melanoma, but a clear conclusion is challenging because of the low number of studies and cases. We assessed the association of MC1R variants with childhood and adolescent melanoma in a large study comparing the prevalence of MC1R variants in child or adolescent patients with melanoma to that in adult patients with melanoma and in healthy adult controls. METHODS: In this retrospective pooled analysis, we used the M-SKIP Project, the Italian Melanoma Intergroup, and other European groups (with participants from Australia, Canada, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and the USA) to assemble an international multicentre cohort. We gathered phenotypic and genetic data from children or adolescents diagnosed with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma at age 20 years or younger, adult patients with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed at age 35 years or older, and healthy adult individuals as controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for childhood and adolescent melanoma associated with MC1R variants by multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analysis was done for children aged 18 or younger and 14 years or younger. FINDINGS: We analysed data from 233 young patients, 932 adult patients, and 932 healthy adult controls. Children and adolescents had higher odds of carrying MC1R r variants than did adult patients (OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·02-2·33), including when analysis was restricted to patients aged 18 years or younger (1·80, 1·06-3·07). All investigated variants, except Arg160Trp, tended, to varying degrees, to have higher frequencies in young patients than in adult patients, with significantly higher frequencies found for Val60Leu (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·05-2·44; p=0·04) and Asp294His (2·15, 1·05-4·40; p=0·04). Compared with those of healthy controls, young patients with melanoma had significantly higher frequencies of any MC1R variants. INTERPRETATION: Our pooled analysis of MC1R genetic data of young patients with melanoma showed that MC1R r variants were more prevalent in childhood and adolescent melanoma than in adult melanoma, especially in patients aged 18 years or younger. Our findings support the role of MC1R in childhood and adolescent melanoma susceptibility, with a potential clinical relevance for developing early melanoma detection and preventive strategies. FUNDING: SPD-Pilot/Project-Award-2015; AIRC-MFAG-11831.

4.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(2): 386-394, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although rare in the general population, highly penetrant germline mutations in CDKN2A are responsible for 5%-40% of melanoma cases reported in melanoma-prone families. We sought to determine whether MELPREDICT was generalizable to a global series of families with melanoma and whether performance improvements can be achieved. METHODS: In total, 2116 familial melanoma cases were ascertained by the international GenoMEL Consortium. We recapitulated the MELPREDICT model within our data (GenoMELPREDICT) to assess performance improvements by adding phenotypic risk factors and history of pancreatic cancer. We report areas under the curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) along with net reclassification indices (NRIs) as performance metrics. RESULTS: MELPREDICT performed well (AUC 0.752, 95% CI 0.730-0.775), and GenoMELPREDICT performance was similar (AUC 0.748, 95% CI 0.726-0.771). Adding a reported history of pancreatic cancer yielded discriminatory improvement (P < .0001) in GenoMELPREDICT (AUC 0.772, 95% CI 0.750-0.793, NRI 0.40). Including phenotypic risk factors did not improve performance. CONCLUSION: The MELPREDICT model functioned well in a global data set of familial melanoma cases. Adding pancreatic cancer history improved model prediction. GenoMELPREDICT is a simple tool for predicting CDKN2A mutational status among melanoma patients from melanoma-prone families and can aid in directing these patients to receive genetic testing or cancer risk counseling.

5.
Thorax ; 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A positional cloning study of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) at the 17p11 locus in the French Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) families showed significant interaction between early-life environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and genetic variants located in DNAH9. This gene encodes the heavy chain subunit of axonemal dynein, which is involved with ATP in the motile cilia function.Our goal was to identify genetic variants at other genes interacting with ETS in BHR by investigating all genes belonging to the 'ATP-binding' and 'ATPase activity' pathways which include DNAH9, are targets of cigarette smoke and play a crucial role in the airway inflammation. METHODS: Family-based interaction tests between ETS-exposed and unexposed BHR siblings were conducted in 388 EGEA families. Twenty single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) showing interaction signals (p≤5.10-3) were tested in the 253 Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean (SLSJ) families. RESULTS: One of these SNPs was significantly replicated for interaction with ETS in SLSJ families (p=0.003). Another SNP reached the significance threshold after correction for multiple testing in the combined analysis of the two samples (p=10-5). Results were confirmed using both a robust log-linear test and a gene-based interaction test. CONCLUSION: The SNPs showing interaction with ETS belong to the ATP8A1 and ABCA1 genes, which play a role in the maintenance of asymmetry and homeostasis of lung membrane lipids.

6.
Biochimie ; 152: 155-158, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960033

RESUMO

Identifying precise and predictive biomarkers of health and disease is a critical objective of clinical biochemistry and biomedical research. New concepts and technologies have emerged recently that could support such an objective. The exposome corresponds to the totality of exposure over the lifetime. Research in this field allowed the development of sensors and biological biomarkers using omics technologies that are relevant for predicting the effect of those exposure on human health. Precision medicine has primarily focused on adapting treatments to the genetic profiles of tumors, when in fact, it had originally a wider scope including the use of robust biomarkers for disease prevention. Large-scale genetic studies have also contributed to highlight gene environment interactions, and were extended more recently to epigenetics. In line with the systems medicine approach, we propose to integrate the genome and exposome data in what we present as the exposome-genome paradigm. Such an integrated view will help strengthen approaches to identify relevant predictive markers that can support precise prevention actions both at the population and at the individual levels.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Genoma Humano , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Metabolômica , Medicina de Precisão
7.
Oncotarget ; 9(45): 27682-27697, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963229

RESUMO

Despite major advances, it is estimated that a large part of melanoma predisposing genes remains to be discovered. Animal models of spontaneous diseases are valuable tools and experimental crosses can be used to identify and fine-map new susceptibility loci associated with melanoma. We performed a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) of melanoma occurrence and progression (clinical ulceration and presence of metastasis) in a porcine model of spontaneous melanoma, the MeLiM pig. Five loci on chromosomes 2, 5, 7, 8 and 16 showed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 × 10-6) with either one of these phenotypes. Suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10-5) were also found at 16 additional loci. Moreover, comparison of the porcine results to those reported by human melanoma GWAS indicated shared association signals notably at CDKAL1 and TERT loci but also nearby CCND1, FTO, PLA2G6 and TMEM38B-RAD23B loci. Extensive search of the literature revealed a potential key role of genes at the identified porcine loci in tumor invasion (DST, PLEKHA5, CBY1, LIMK2 and ETV5) and immune response modulation (ETV5, HERC3 and DICER1) of the progression phenotypes. These biological processes are consistent with the clinico-pathological features of MeLiM tumors and can open new routes for future melanoma research in humans.

8.
J Invest Dermatol ; 138(12): 2617-2624, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890168

RESUMO

It is unclear to what degree genomic and traditional (phenotypic and environmental) risk factors overlap in their prediction of melanoma risk. We evaluated the incremental contribution of common genomic variants (in pigmentation, nevus, and other pathways) and their overlap with traditional risk factors, using data from two population-based case-control studies from Australia (n = 1,035) and the United Kingdom (n = 1,460) that used the same questionnaires. Polygenic risk scores were derived from 21 gene regions associated with melanoma and odds ratios from published meta-analyses. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, center, and ancestry. Adding the polygenic risk score to a model with traditional risk factors increased the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) by 2.3% (P = 0.003) for Australia and by 2.8% (P = 0.002) for Leeds. Gene variants in the pigmentation pathway, particularly MC1R, were responsible for most of the incremental improvement. In a cross-tabulation of polygenic by traditional tertile risk scores, 59% (Australia) and 49% (Leeds) of participants were categorized in the same (concordant) tertile. Of participants with low traditional risk, 9% (Australia) and 21% (Leeds) had high polygenic risk. Testing of genomic variants can identify people who are susceptible to melanoma despite not having a traditional phenotypic risk profile.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1684, 2018 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739929

RESUMO

The skin's tendency to sunburn rather than tan is a major risk factor for skin cancer. Here we report a large genome-wide association study of ease of skin tanning in 176,678 subjects of European ancestry. We identify significant association with tanning ability at 20 loci. We confirm previously identified associations at six of these loci, and report 14 novel loci, of which ten have never been associated with pigmentation-related phenotypes. Our results also suggest that variants at the AHR/AGR3 locus, previously associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma the underlying mechanism of which is poorly understood, might act on disease risk through modulation of tanning ability.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(1): 42-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273806

RESUMO

We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(5): 1659-1667.e11, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopy, an endotype underlying allergic diseases, has a substantial genetic component. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to identify novel genes associated with atopy in asthma-ascertained families. METHODS: We implemented a 3-step analysis strategy in 3 data sets: the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) data set (1660 subjects), the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean study data set (1138 subjects), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) data set (446 subjects). This strategy included a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association study (GWAS), the selection of related gene pairs based on statistical filtering of GWAS results, and text-mining filtering using Gene Relationships Across Implicated Loci and SNP-SNP interaction analysis of selected gene pairs. RESULTS: We identified the 5q14 locus, harboring the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor V1 (ADGRV1) gene, which showed genome-wide significant association with atopy (rs4916831, meta-analysis P value = 6.8 × 10-9). Statistical filtering of GWAS results followed by text-mining filtering revealed relationships between ADGRV1 and 3 genes showing suggestive association with atopy (P ≤ 10-4). SNP-SNP interaction analysis between ADGRV1 and these 3 genes showed significant interaction between ADGRV1 rs17554723 and 2 correlated SNPs (rs2134256 and rs1354187) within the dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 (DNAH5) gene (Pmeta-int = 3.6 × 10-5 and 6.1 × 10-5, which met the multiple-testing corrected threshold of 7.3 × 10-5). Further conditional analysis indicated that rs2134256 alone accounted for the interaction signal with rs17554723. CONCLUSION: Because both DNAH5 and ADGRV1 contribute to ciliary function, this study suggests that ciliary dysfunction might represent a novel mechanism underlying atopy. Combining GWAS and epistasis analysis driven by statistical and knowledge-based evidence represents a promising approach for identifying new genes involved in complex traits.

12.
J Invest Dermatol ; 137(12): 2606-2612, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28830827

RESUMO

Germline mutations in CDKN2A are frequently identified among melanoma kindreds and are associated with increased atypical nevus counts. However, a clear relationship between pathogenic CDKN2A mutation carriage and other nevus phenotypes including counts of common acquired nevi has not yet been established. Using data from GenoMEL, we investigated the relationships between CDKN2A mutation carriage and 2-mm, 5-mm, and atypical nevus counts among blood-related members of melanoma families. Compared with individuals without a pathogenic mutation, those who carried one had an overall higher prevalence of atypical (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.28) nevi but not 2-mm nevi (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 0.92-1.21) or 5-mm nevi (odds ratio = 1.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.94-1.70). Stratification by case status showed more pronounced positive associations among non-case family members, who were nearly three times (odds ratio = 2.91; 95% confidence interval = 1.75-4.82) as likely to exhibit nevus counts at or above the median in all three nevus categories simultaneously when harboring a pathogenic mutation (vs. not harboring one). Our results support the hypothesis that unidentified nevogenic genes are co-inherited with CDKN2A and may influence carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Melanoma/genética , Nevo/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Nevo Pigmentado/genética , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Sistema de Registros
13.
PLoS Med ; 14(5): e1002294, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE). These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation. The study employed data from the UK Biobank resource and from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE eczema consortia. Using four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in 33,996 individuals, we conducted MR studies to estimate the effect of lowered 25OHD on the risk of asthma (n = 146,761), childhood onset asthma (n = 15,008), atopic dermatitis (n = 40,835), and elevated IgE level (n = 12,853) and tested MR assumptions in sensitivity analyses. None of the four 25OHD-lowering alleles were associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated IgE levels (p ≥ 0.2). The MR odds ratio per standard deviation decrease in log-transformed 25OHD was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.19, p = 0.63) for asthma, 0.95 (95% CI 0.69-1.31, p = 0.76) for childhood-onset asthma, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.92-1.37, p = 0.27) for atopic dermatitis, and the effect size on log-transformed IgE levels was -0.40 (95% CI -1.65 to 0.85, p = 0.54). These results persisted in sensitivity analyses assessing population stratification and pleiotropy and vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathways. The main limitations of this study are that the findings do not exclude an association between the studied outcomes and 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, the study was underpowered to detect effects smaller than an OR of 1.33 for childhood asthma, and the analyses were restricted to white populations of European ancestry. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource and data from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE Eczema consortia. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found no evidence that genetically determined reduction in 25OHD levels conferred an increased risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated total serum IgE, suggesting that efforts to increase vitamin D are unlikely to reduce risks of atopic disease.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
14.
BMC Genet ; 18(1): 24, 2017 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most genome-wide association studies assumed an additive model of inheritance which may result in significant loss of power when there is a strong departure from additivity. The General Regression Model (GRM), which allows performing an assumption-free test for association by testing for both additive effect and deviation from additive effect, may be more appropriate for association tests. Additionally, GRM allows testing the underlying genetic model. We compared the power of GRM association test to additive and other Cochran-Armitage Trend (CAT) tests through simulations and by applying GRM to a large case/control sample, the bipolar Welcome Trust Case Control Cohort data. Simulations were performed on two sets of case/control samples (1000/1000 and 2000/2000), using a large panel of genetic models. Four association tests (GRM and additive, recessive and dominant CAT tests) were applied to all replicates. RESULTS: We showed that GRM power to detect association was similar or greater than the additive CAT test, in particular in case of recessive inheritance, with up to 67% gain in power. GRM analysis of genome-wide bipolar disorder Welcome Trust Consortium data (1998 cases/3004 controls) showed significant association in the 16p12 region (rs420259; P = 3.4E-7) which has not been identified using the additive CAT test. As expected, rs42025 fitted a non-additive (recessive) model. CONCLUSIONS: GRM provides increased power compared to the additive CAT test for association studies and is easily applicable.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genômica , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Regressão
15.
Genome Biol ; 18(1): 50, 2017 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The functional impact of genetic variation has been extensively surveyed, revealing that genetic changes correlated to phenotypes lie mostly in non-coding genomic regions. Studies have linked allele-specific genetic changes to gene expression, DNA methylation, and histone marks but these investigations have only been carried out in a limited set of samples. RESULTS: We describe a large-scale coordinated study of allelic and non-allelic effects on DNA methylation, histone mark deposition, and gene expression, detecting the interrelations between epigenetic and functional features at unprecedented resolution. We use information from whole genome and targeted bisulfite sequencing from 910 samples to perform genotype-dependent analyses of allele-specific methylation (ASM) and non-allelic methylation (mQTL). In addition, we introduce a novel genotype-independent test to detect methylation imbalance between chromosomes. Of the ~2.2 million CpGs tested for ASM, mQTL, and genotype-independent effects, we identify ~32% as being genetically regulated (ASM or mQTL) and ~14% as being putatively epigenetically regulated. We also show that epigenetically driven effects are strongly enriched in repressed regions and near transcription start sites, whereas the genetically regulated CpGs are enriched in enhancers. Known imprinted regions are enriched among epigenetically regulated loci, but we also observe several novel genomic regions (e.g., HOX genes) as being epigenetically regulated. Finally, we use our ASM datasets for functional interpretation of disease-associated loci and show the advantage of utilizing naïve T cells for understanding autoimmune diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our rich catalogue of haploid methylomes across multiple tissues will allow validation of epigenome association studies and exploration of new biological models for allelic exclusion in the human genome.


Assuntos
Alelos , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Efeitos da Posição Cromossômica , Ilhas de CpG , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
16.
Bioinformatics ; 33(10): 1536-1544, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069594

RESUMO

Motivation: Apart from single marker-based tests classically used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), network-assisted analysis has become a promising approach to identify a set of genes associated with disease. To date, most network-assisted methods aim at finding genes connected in a background network, whatever the density or strength of their connections. This can hamper the findings as sparse connections are non-robust against noise from either the GWAS results or the network resource. Results: We present SigMod, a novel and efficient method integrating GWAS results and gene network to identify a strongly interconnected gene module enriched in high association signals. Our method is formulated as a binary quadratic optimization problem, which can be solved exactly through graph min-cut algorithms. Compared to existing methods, SigMod has several desirable properties: (i) edge weights quantifying confidence of connections between genes are taken into account, (ii) the selection path can be computed rapidly, (iii) the identified gene module is strongly interconnected, hence includes genes of high functional relevance, and (iv) the method is robust against noise from either the GWAS results or the network resource. We applied SigMod to both simulated and real data. It was found to outperform state-of-the-art network-assisted methods in identifying disease-associated genes. When SigMod was applied to childhood-onset asthma GWAS results, it successfully identified a gene module enriched in consistently high association signals and made of functionally related genes that are biologically relevant for asthma. Availability and implementation: An R package SigMod is available at: https://github.com/YuanlongLiu/SigMod. Contact: yuanlong.liu@inserm.fr. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Algoritmos , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 125(2): 207-214, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27504716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biological mechanisms by which cleaning products and disinfectants-an emerging risk factor-affect respiratory health remain incompletely evaluated. Studying genes by environment interactions (G × E) may help identify new genes related to adult-onset asthma. OBJECTIVES: We identified interactions between genetic polymorphisms of a large set of genes involved in the response to oxidative stress and occupational exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) agents or irritants on adult-onset asthma. METHODS: Our data came from three large European cohorts: Epidemiological Family-based Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults (SAPALDIA), and European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Adults (ECRHS). A candidate pathway-based strategy identified 163 genes involved in the response to oxidative stress and potentially related to exposures to LMW agents/irritants. Occupational exposures were evaluated using an asthma job-exposure matrix and job-specific questionnaires for cleaners and healthcare workers. Logistic regression models were used to detect G × E interactions, adjusted for age, sex, and population ancestry, in 2,599 adults (mean age, 47 years; 60% women, 36% exposed, 18% asthmatics). p-Values were corrected for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Ever exposure to LMW agents/irritants was associated with current adult-onset asthma [OR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.58)]. Eight single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by exposure interactions at five loci were found at p < 0.005: PLA2G4A (rs932476, chromosome 1), near PLA2R1 (rs2667026, chromosome 2), near RELA (rs931127, rs7949980, chromosome 11), PRKD1 (rs1958980, rs11847351, rs1958987, chromosome 14), and PRKCA (rs6504453, chromosome 17). Results were consistent across the three studies and after accounting for smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Using a pathway-based selection process, we identified novel genes potentially involved in adult asthma by interaction with occupational exposure. These genes play a role in the NF-κB pathway, which is involved in inflammation. Citation: Rava M, Ahmed I, Kogevinas M, Le Moual N, Bouzigon E, Curjuric I, Dizier MH, Dumas O, Gonzalez JR, Imboden M, Mehta AJ, Tubert-Bitter P, Zock JP, Jarvis D, Probst-Hensch NM, Demenais F, Nadif R. 2017. Genes interacting with occupational exposures to low molecular weight agents and irritants on adult-onset asthma in three European studies. Environ Health Perspect 125:207-214; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP376.


Assuntos
Irritantes/análise , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peso Molecular , NF-kappa B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Int J Cancer ; 139(9): 2012-20, 2016 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27347659

RESUMO

Breslow thickness (BT) is a major prognostic factor of cutaneous melanoma (CM), the most fatal skin cancer. The genetic component of BT has only been explored by candidate gene studies with inconsistent results. Our objective was to uncover the genetic factors underlying BT using an hypothesis-free genome-wide approach. Our analysis strategy integrated a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for BT followed by pathway analysis of GWAS outcomes using the gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) method and epistasis analysis within BT-associated pathways. This strategy was applied to two large CM datasets with Hapmap3-imputed SNP data: the French MELARISK study for discovery (966 cases) and the MD Anderson Cancer Center study (1,546 cases) for replication. While no marginal effect of individual SNPs was revealed through GWAS, three pathways, defined by gene ontology (GO) categories were significantly enriched in genes associated with BT (false discovery rate ≤5% in both studies): hormone activity, cytokine activity and myeloid cell differentiation. Epistasis analysis, within each significant GO, identified a statistically significant interaction between CDC42 and SCIN SNPs (pmeta-int =2.2 × 10(-6) , which met the overall multiple-testing corrected threshold of 2.5 × 10(-6) ). These two SNPs (and proxies) are strongly associated with CDC42 and SCIN gene expression levels and map to regulatory elements in skin cells. This interaction has important biological relevance since CDC42 and SCIN proteins have opposite effects in actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics, a key mechanism underlying melanoma cell migration and invasion.


Assuntos
Gelsolina/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Melanoma/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína cdc42 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Adulto , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas
20.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res ; 8(5): 466-70, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334786

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in inflammation and immunity and its decoy receptor, IL-1R2, has been implicated in transcriptomic and genetic studies of asthma. METHODS: Two large asthma family collections, the French-Canadian Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ) study and the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), were used to investigate the association of SNPs in 10 genes that modulate IL-1R2 activities with asthma, allergic asthma, and atopy. Gene-gene interactions were also tested. RESULTS: One SNP in BACE2 was associated with allergic asthma in the SLSJ study and replicated in the EGEA study before statistical correction for multiple testing. Additionally, two SNPs in the MMP2 gene were replicated in both studies prior to statistical correction and reached significance in the combined analysis. Moreover, three gene-gene interactions also survived statistical correction in the combined analyses (BACE1-IL1RAP in asthma and allergic asthma and IL1R1-IL1RAP in atopy). CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the relevance of genes involved in the IL-1R2 activity in the context of asthma and asthma-related traits.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA