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Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491932


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Long-term potentiation (LTP), the functional connectivity among neurons, is considered a mechanism of episodic memory. Both acute exercise and learning are thought to influence memory via an LTP-related mechanism. Limited research has evaluated the individual and combined effects of acute exercise and learning strategy implementation (e.g., 3-R technique, cue-integration) on memory, which was the purpose of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For Experiment 1, participants (n = 80; Mage = 20.9 years) were randomized into one of four experimental groups, including Exercise + Learning (E + L), Learning Only (L), Exercise Only (E), and Control Group (C; no exercise and no learning strategy implementation). The exercise stimulus involved an acute 15-min bout of lower-intensity (60% of heart rate max) walking exercise and the learning strategy involved the implementation of the 3-R technique. Experiment 2 (n = 77; Mage = 21.1 years) replicated Experiment 1 but addressed limitations (e.g., exposure level of the memory task) from Experiment 1 and employed a higher-intensity bout of exercise (77% of heart rate max). Experiment 3 (n = 80; Mage = 21.0 years) evaluated these same four experimental conditions but employed a cue-integration learning strategy and a moderate-intensity bout of acute exercise (64% of heart rate max). RESULTS: These three experiments demonstrate that both learning techniques were effective in enhancing memory and we also provided evidence of a main effect for acute exercise (Experiment 3). However, we did not observe consistent evidence of a learning by exercise interaction effect. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that both acute exercise and different learning techniques are effective in enhancing long-term memory function.

Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394736


Background and Objective: The transient hypofrontality hypothesis predicts that memory function will be impaired during high-intensity exercise, as a result of a need for metabolic and cognitive resources to be allocated toward sustaining movement, as opposed to performing a cognitive task. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate this transient hypofrontality hypothesis. Materials and Methods: Experiment 1 involved participants (n = 24; Mage = 21.9 years) completing four counterbalanced visits. Two visits evaluated working memory function, either at rest or during a high-intensity bout of acute exercise. The other two visits evaluated episodic memory function, either at rest or during a high-intensity bout of acute exercise. Experiment 2 (n = 24; Mage = 20.9 years) extended Experiment 1 by evaluating memory function (working memory) across 4 counterbalanced conditions, including at rest and during light (30% of heart rate reserve; HRR), moderate (50% HRR) and high-intensity (80% HRR) acute exercise. Results: Experiment 1 demonstrated that, when compared to rest, both working memory and episodic memory were impaired during high-intensity acute exercise. Experiment 2 replicated this effect, but then also showed that, unlike high-intensity acute exercise, memory function was not impaired during low- and moderate-intensity acute exercise. Conclusions: Our experiments provide support for the transient hypofrontality hypothesis. Both working memory and episodic memory are impaired during high-intensity acute exercise. Working memory does not appear to be impaired during lower exercise intensities.

Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia