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1.
Pain Ther ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502739

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advanced age and obesity are reported to increase the risk of opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD). Oliceridine, an intravenous opioid, is a G-protein-biased agonist at the µ-opioid receptor that may provide improved safety. The recent phase 3 ATHENA open-label, multicenter study evaluated postoperative use of oliceridine in patients with moderate-to-severe acute pain. This exploratory analysis of the ATHENA data examined the incidence of OIRD in older (≥ 65 years) and/or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) patients and analyzed risk factors of OIRD. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with a score ≥ 4 on an 11-point numeric pain rating scale (NPRS) received IV oliceridine as needed via bolus dosing and/or patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). OIRD occurring within 48 h of last dose of oliceridine was defined using two established definitions: (1) naloxone use, (2) respiratory rate < 10 breaths per minute and/or oxygen saturation < 90%. RESULTS: A total of 724 surgical patients with a mean age of 54.5 ± 15.9 years and a mean NRS score of 6.2 ± 2.1 were included in this analysis; 33.3% (241/724) were ≥ 65 years of age and 46.3% (335/724) had BMI (body mass index) ≥ 30 kg/m2. The overall OIRD incidence was 13.7% with no patients requiring naloxone. The OIRD incidence was similar in the elderly and younger adults' cohorts [10.8 vs. 15.1%, OR 0.68 (0.42, 1.1), p = 0.11], and in obese and non-obese groups [14.0 vs. 13.4%, OR 1.06 (0.69, 1.62), p = 0.80]. In patients that were both elderly and obese (n = 120), the incidence was 10.8%. The multivariate analysis identified baseline NRS ≥ 6 [OR 1.6 (1.0, 2.4), p = 0.0499], PCA administration [OR 1.9 (1.2, 3.1), p = 0.005], and concomitant use of benzodiazepines and/or gabapentinoids [OR 1.6 (1.0, 2.6), p = 0.045], as being associated with OIRD. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative oliceridine use in patients with advanced age and/or increased BMI was not associated with increased risk of OIRD.

2.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(2): 462-469, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919400

RESUMO

Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is prevalent and associated with a substantial psychosocial burden and mortality. There are few prior studies of interventions for TRD in adolescents. This was the largest study to date examining the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of 10-Hz transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for adolescents with TRD. Adolescents with TRD (aged 12-21 years) were enrolled in a randomized, sham-controlled trial of TMS across 13 sites. Treatment resistance was defined as an antidepressant treatment record level of 1 to 4 in a current episode of depression. Intention-to-treat patients (n = 103) included those randomly assigned to active NeuroStar TMS monotherapy (n = 48) or sham TMS (n = 55) for 30 daily treatments over 6 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-24) score. After 6 weeks of blinded treatment, improvement in the least-squares mean (SE) HAM-D-24 scores were similar between the active (-11.1 [2.03]) and sham groups (-10.6 [2.00]; P = 0.8; difference [95% CI], - 0.5 [-4.2 to 3.3]). Response rates were 41.7% in the active group and 36.4% in the sham group (P = 0.6). Remission rates were 29.2% in the active group and 29.0% in the sham group (P = 0.95). There were no new tolerability or safety signals in adolescents. Although TMS treatment produced a clinically meaningful change in depressive symptom severity, this did not differ from sham treatment. Future studies should focus on strategies to reduce the placebo response and examine the optimal dosing of TMS for adolescents with TRD.

3.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 7492865, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163127

RESUMO

Background: Oliceridine, an investigational IV opioid, is a first-in-class G-protein selective agonist at the µ-opioid receptor. The G-protein selectivity results in potent analgesia with less recruitment of ß-arrestin, a signaling pathway associated with opioid-related adverse events (ORAEs). In randomized controlled studies in both hard and soft tissue models yielding surgical pain, oliceridine provided effective analgesia with a potential for an improved safety and tolerability profile at equianalgesic doses to morphine. The phase 3, open-label, single-arm, multicenter ATHENA trial demonstrated the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of oliceridine in moderate to severe acute pain in a broad range of patients undergoing surgery or with painful medical conditions warranting use of an IV opioid. This retrospective, observational chart review study compared respiratory depression events associated with oliceridine administration as found in the ATHENA trial to a control cohort treated with conventional opioids. Methods: Patients at 18 years of age or older, who underwent colorectal, orthopedic, cardiothoracic, bariatric, or general surgeries between June 2015 and May 2017 in 11 sites participating in the ATHENA trial who received postoperative analgesia either with IV oliceridine or with IV conventional opioids (e.g., morphine alone or in combination with other opioids) (CO cohort); and had a hospital stay >48 hours, were included in this retrospective analysis. Data from the ATHENA trial was used for the oliceridine cohort; and additional baseline characteristics were collected from medical charts. Data from medical charts were collected for all CO cohort patients. The two cohorts were balanced using an inverse probability weighting method. The primary outcome was the incidence of operationally defined opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) in the two cohorts. Secondary outcomes included between-group comparison of the incidence of OIRD events among a subset of high-risk patients. Results: OIRD was significantly less in the oliceridine cohort compared to the CO cohort (8.0% vs. 30.7%; odds ratio: 0.139) (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.22; P < 0.0001). Likewise, the incidence of OIRD was lower among high-risk patients in the oliceridine cohort (9.1% vs. 34.7%; odds ratio: 0.136) (95% CI [0.09-0.22]; P < 0.0001) compared to the CO cohort. Conclusion: In this retrospective chart review study, patients receiving IV oliceridine for moderate to severe acute pain demonstrated a lower incidence of treatment emergent OIRD compared to patients who were treated with IV morphine either alone or with concomitant administration of other opioids.

4.
Pain Ther ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210266

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Use of parenteral opioids is a major risk factor for postoperative nausea and vomiting. Conventional opioids bind to µ-opioid receptors (MOR), stimulate both the G-protein signaling (achieving analgesia); and the ß-arrestin pathway (associated with opioid-related adverse effects). Oliceridine, a next-generation IV opioid, is a G-protein selective MOR agonist, with limited recruitment of ß-arrestin. In two randomized, placebo- and morphine-controlled phase 3 studies of patients with moderate-to-severe acute pain following bunionectomy or abdominoplasty, oliceridine at demand doses of 0.1, 0.35, and 0.5 mg provided rapid and sustained analgesia vs. placebo with favorable gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability. In this exploratory analysis, we utilized a clinical endpoint assessing gastrointestinal tolerability, "complete GI response" defined as the proportion of patients with no vomiting and no use of rescue antiemetic to characterize the GI tolerability profile of oliceridine vs. morphine. METHODS: A logistic regression model was utilized to compare oliceridine (pooled regimens) vs. morphine, after controlling for analgesia (using the sum of pain intensity difference [SPID]-48/24 [bunionectomy/abdominoplasty] with pre-rescue scores carried forward for 6 h). This analysis excluded patients receiving placebo and was performed for each study separately and for pooled data from both studies. RESULTS: In the unadjusted analysis, a significantly greater proportion of patients in the placebo (76.4%), oliceridine 0.1 mg (68.0%), and 0.35 mg (46.2%) demand dose achieved complete GI response vs. morphine 1 mg (30.8%), p ≤ 0.005. In the adjusted analysis, after controlling for analgesia, the odds ratio of experiencing a complete GI response with oliceridine (pooled regimens) vs. morphine was 3.14 (95% CI: 1.78, 5.56; p < 0.0001) in bunionectomy study and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.09, 3.36; p = 0.024) in abdominoplasty study. CONCLUSIONS: When controlled for the analgesic effects (constant SPID-48/24), the odds ratio for complete GI response was higher with oliceridine than morphine, suggesting better GI tolerability with oliceridine.

5.
Anesthesiology ; 133(3): 559-568, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve understanding of the respiratory behavior of oliceridine, a µ-opioid receptor agonist that selectively engages the G-protein-coupled signaling pathway with reduced activation of the ß-arrestin pathway, the authors compared its utility function with that of morphine. It was hypothesized that at equianalgesia, oliceridine will produce less respiratory depression than morphine and that this is reflected in a superior utility. METHODS: Data from a previous trial that compared the respiratory and analgesic effects of oliceridine and morphine in healthy male volunteers (n = 30) were reanalyzed. A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis was performed and served as basis for construction of utility functions, which are objective functions of probability of analgesia, P(analgesia), and probability of respiratory depression, P(respiratory depression). The utility function = P(analgesia ≥ 0.5) - P(respiratory depression ≥ 0.25), where analgesia ≥ 0.5 is the increase in hand withdrawal latency in the cold pressor test by at least 50%, and respiratory depression ≥ 0.25 is the decrease of the hypercapnic ventilatory response by at least 25%. Values are median ± standard error of the estimate. RESULTS: The two drugs were equianalgesic with similar potency values (oliceridine: 27.9 ± 4.9 ng/ml; morphine 34.3 ± 9.7 ng/ml; potency ratio, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.56). A 50% reduction of the hypercapnic ventilatory response by morphine occurred at an effect-site concentration of 33.7 ± 4.8 ng/ml, while a 25% reduction by oliceridine occurred at 27.4 ± 3.5 ng/ml (potency ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.65 to 3.72; P < 0.01). Over the clinically relevant concentration range of 0 to 35 ng/ml, the oliceridine utility function was positive, indicating that the probability of analgesia exceeds the probability of respiratory depression. In contrast, the morphine function was negative, indicative of a greater probability of respiratory depression than analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a favorable oliceridine safety profile over morphine when considering analgesia and respiratory depression over the clinical concentration range.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Morfina/farmacologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Compostos de Espiro/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
6.
CNS Drugs ; 34(8): 853-865, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The delta opioid receptor (DOR) has been identified as a therapeutic target for migraine, with DOR agonists exhibiting low abuse potential compared with conventional µ-opioid agonists. TRV250 is a novel small molecule agonist of the DOR that is preferentially selective for G-protein signaling, with relatively little activation of the ß-arrestin2 post-receptor signaling pathway. This selectivity provides reduced susceptibility to proconvulsant activity seen with non-selective DOR agonists. TRV250 significantly reduced nitroglycerin-evoked hyperalgesia in rodents, indicating a potential utility in acute migraine without the risk of seizure activity or abuse potential. OBJECTIVE: This trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of ascending dose levels of TRV250 administered subcutaneously (SC) and the relative bioavailability of TRV250 administered orally compared with SC administration. METHODS: This was a two-part, single ascending dose study. Part A included four cohorts of healthy adults (N = 38). Each cohort was dosed on three occasions (placebo and two different dose levels of TRV250, allocated in randomized order and administered by SC route). In Part B, a single cohort of nine subjects received an oral dose of either TRV250 (n = 7) or placebo (n = 2) in a fed or fasted state. Serial blood samples were obtained for pharmacokinetic determination across a 24-h post-dose period. Safety assessments included clinical laboratory measures, vital signs, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), and electroencephalogram (EEG) pre- and post-dosing. RESULTS: TRV250 was well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events (SAEs), and all AEs were mild in severity. Injection-site reactions and headache were the most common AEs. One subject was withdrawn from the study due to a TRV250-related AE of postural orthostatic tachycardia. There were no clinically relevant changes in physical examination, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, suicidal ideation, or vital signs, with the exception of orthostatic changes in some subjects. No subject experienced abnormalities in EEGs or experienced a change from baseline in heart-rate-corrected QT interval (QTcF) > 60 ms, or an absolute QTcF interval > 480 ms at any post-dosing observation. Peak and total plasma exposure to TRV250 increased in a dose-proportional manner following 0.1-30 mg SC doses, with the mean half-life ranging from 2.39 to 3.76 h. Oral bioavailability of TRV250 ranged from 14% (fasting) to 19% (fed) relative to SC dosing, while administration with food increased the AUC but decreased the rate of absorption as reflected by a modest delay in median time to maximum concentration and a slight reduction in maximum concentration. CONCLUSION: The findings from the first-in-human study support further evaluation of TRV250, a G-protein selective DOR agonist, in the treatment of acute migraine.

7.
Clin Drug Investig ; 40(8): 755-764, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) is a potentially fatal complication associated with conventional opioids. Currently, there is a paucity of validated endpoints available to measure respiratory safety. Oliceridine, an investigational intravenous (IV) opioid, is a G-protein selective µ-agonist with limited activity on ß-arrestin2, a signaling pathway associated with adverse events including OIRD. In controlled phase III trials, oliceridine 0.35 mg and 0.5 mg demand doses demonstrated comparable analgesia to morphine 1 mg with favorable improvements in respiratory safety. In this exploratory analysis, we report dosing interruption (DI) and average cumulative duration of DI (CDDI) for both oliceridine and morphine. METHODS: Patients requiring analgesia after bunionectomy or abdominoplasty were randomized to IV demand doses of placebo, oliceridine (0.1 mg, 0.35 mg, or 0.5 mg), or morphine (1 mg), administered via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), following a loading dose (oliceridine 1.5 mg, morphine 4 mg, volume-matched placebo) with a 6-min lockout interval. Certified nurse anesthetists monitored each patient and withheld study medication according to the patient's respiratory status. For each patient, the duration of all DIs was summed and reported as CDDI. A zero-inflated gamma mixture model was used to compute the mean CDDI for each treatment. RESULTS: Proportion of patients with DI was lower with oliceridine (0.1 mg: 3.2%, 0.35 mg: 13.9%, 0.5 mg: 15.1%) versus morphine (22%). The CDDI was also lower across all demand doses of oliceridine versus morphine. CONCLUSION: Using DI as a surrogate for OIRD indicates improved respiratory safety with oliceridine versus morphine that merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Morfina/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Espiro/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem
8.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(4): 261-266, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315537

RESUMO

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of adolescents with antidepressant treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and to examine the utility of the Antidepressant Treatment Record (ATR) in categorizing treatment resistance in this population. Methods: Adolescents with treatment-resistant MDD enrolled in an interventional study underwent a baseline evaluation with the ATR, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), and Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) scales. Demographic and clinical characteristics were examined with regard to ATR-defined level of resistance (level 1 to ≥3) using analysis of variance and χ2 tests. Results: In adolescents with treatment-resistant MDD (N = 97), aged 12-21 years, most were female (65%), white (89%), and had recurrent illness (78%). Patients were severely ill (median CGI-S score of 5), had a mean CDRS-R score of 63 ± 10, and 17.5% had been hospitalized for depression-related symptoms. Fifty-two patients were classified as ATR 1, whereas 32 were classified as ATR level 2 and 13 patients as ≥3, respectively. For increasing ATR-defined levels, illness duration increased from 12.0 (range: 1.5-31.9) to 14.8 (range: 1.8-31.7) to 19.5 (range: 2.5-36.2) months and the likelihood of treatment with serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and dopamine norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (DNRIs) similarly increased (p = 0.006 for both SNRIs and DNRIs) as did the likelihood of treatment with mixed dopamine serotonin receptor antagonists (χ2 = 17, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study underscores the morbidity and chronicity of treatment-resistant MDD in adolescents. The present characterization of related clinical features describes the use of nonselective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in adolescents with treatment-resistant depression and raises the possibility that those with the greatest medication treatment resistance are less likely to have had recurrent episodes. The study also demonstrates the utility of the ATR in categorizing treatment resistance in adolescents with MDD.

9.
Pain Pract ; 19(7): 715-731, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The clinical utility of conventional IV opioids is limited by the occurrence of opioid-related adverse events. Oliceridine is a novel G protein-biased µ-opioid receptor agonist designed to provide analgesia with an improved safety and tolerability profile. This phase III, double-blind, randomized trial (APOLLO-2 [NCT02820324]) evaluated the efficacy and safety of oliceridine for acute pain following abdominoplasty. METHODS: Patients received a loading dose of either placebo, oliceridine (1.5 mg), or morphine (4 mg), followed by demand doses via patient-controlled analgesia (0.1, 0.35, or 0.5 mg oliceridine; 1 mg morphine; or placebo) with a 6-minute lockout interval. The primary endpoint was the proportion of treatment responders over 24 hours for oliceridine regimens compared to placebo. Secondary outcomes included a predefined composite measure of respiratory safety burden (RSB, representing the cumulative duration of respiratory safety events) and the proportion of treatment responders vs. morphine. RESULTS: A total of 401 patients were treated with study medication. Effective analgesia was observed for all oliceridine regimens, with responder rates of 61.0%, 76.3%, and 70.0% for the 0.1-, 0.35-, and 0.5-mg regimens, respectively, compared with 45.7% for placebo (all P < 0.05) and 78.3% for morphine. Oliceridine 0.35- and 0.5-mg demand dose regimens were equi-analgesic to morphine using a noninferiority analysis. RSB showed a dose-dependent increase across oliceridine regimens (mean hours [standard deviation], 0.1 mg: 0.43 [1.56]; 0.35 mg: 1.48 [3.83]; 0.5 mg: 1.59 [4.26]; all comparisons not significant at P > 0.05 vs. placebo: 0.60 [2.82]). The RSB measure for morphine was 1.72 (3.86) (P < 0.05 vs. placebo). Gastrointestinal adverse events increased in a dose-dependent manner across oliceridine demand dose regimens (0.1 mg: 49.4%; 0.35 mg: 65.8%; 0.5 mg: 78.8%; vs. placebo: 47.0%; and morphine: 79.3%). In comparison to morphine, the proportion of patients experiencing nausea or vomiting was lower with the 2 equi-analgesic dose regimens of 0.35 and 0.5 mg oliceridine. CONCLUSIONS: Oliceridine is a safe and effective IV analgesic for the relief of moderate to severe acute postoperative pain in patients undergoing abdominoplasty. Since the low-dose regimen of 0.1 mg oliceridine was superior to placebo but not as effective as the morphine regimen, safety comparisons to morphine are relevant only to the 2 equi-analgesic dose groups of 0.35 and 0.5 mg, which showed a favorable safety and tolerability profile regarding respiratory and gastrointestinal adverse effects compared to morphine. These findings support that oliceridine may provide a new treatment option for patients with moderate to severe acute pain where an IV opioid is warranted.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Opioides mu , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Abdominoplastia , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Analgesia Controlada pelo Paciente , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor
10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 113: 125-136, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974339

RESUMO

There is considerable diversity in how treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is defined. However, every definition incorporates the concept that patients with TRD have not benefited sufficiently from one or more adequate trials of antidepressant treatment. This review examines the issues fundamental to the systematic evaluation of antidepressant treatment adequacy and resistance. These issues include the domains of interventions deemed effective in treatment of major depressive episodes (e.g., pharmacotherapy, brain stimulation, and psychotherapy), the subgroups of patients for whom distinct adequacy criteria are needed (e.g., bipolar vs. unipolar depression, psychotic vs. nonpsychotic depression), whether trials should be rated dichotomously as adequate or inadequate or on a potency continuum, whether combination and augmentation strategies require specific consideration, and the criteria used to evaluate the adequacy of treatment delivery (e.g., dose, duration), trial adherence, and clinical outcome. This review also presents the Antidepressant Treatment History Form: Short-Form (ATHF-SF), a completely revised version of an earlier instrument, and details how these fundamental issues were addressed in the ATHF-SF.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/patologia , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Brain Stimul ; 9(2): 251-7, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26708778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is efficacious for acute treatment of resistant major depressive disorder (MDD), but there is little information on maintenance TMS after acute response. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: This pilot feasibility study investigated 12-month outcomes comparing two maintenance TMS approaches--a scheduled, single TMS session delivered monthly (SCH) vs. observation only (OBS). METHODS: Antidepressant-free patients with unipolar, non-psychotic, treatment-resistant MDD participated in a randomized, open-label, multisite trial. Patients meeting protocol-defined criteria for improvement after six weeks of acute TMS were randomized to SCH or OBS regimens. TMS reintroduction was available for symptomatic worsening; all patients remained antidepressant-free during the trial. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients enrolled in the acute phase, and 49 (73%) met randomization criteria. Groups were matched, although more patients in the SCH group had failed ≥ 2 antidepressants (p = .035). There were no significant group differences on any outcome measure. SCH patients had nonsignificantly longer time to first TMS reintroduction, 91 ± 66 days, vs. OBS, 77 ± 52 days; OBS patients were nonsignificantly more likely to need reintroduction (odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI .38-3.89). Reintroduction lasted 14.3 ± 17.8 days (SCH) and 16.9 ± 18.9 days (OBS); 14/18 (78%) SCH and 17/27 (63%) OBS responded to reintroduction. Sixteen patients (32.7%) completed all 53 weeks of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Maintaining treatment-resistant depressed patients off medications with periodic TMS appears feasible in some cases. There was no statistical advantage of SCH vs. OBS, although SCH was associated with a nonsignificantly longer time to relapse. Those who initially respond to TMS have a strong chance of re-responding if relapse occurs.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Retratamento , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Conduta Expectante , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 75(12): 1394-401, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25271871

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective and safe acute treatment for patients not benefiting from antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Few studies have examined its longer term durability. This study assessed the long-term effectiveness of TMS in naturalistic clinical practice settings following acute treatment. METHOD: Adult patients with a primary diagnosis of unipolar, nonpsychotic major depressive disorder (DSM-IV clinical criteria), who did not benefit from antidepressant medication, received TMS treatment in 42 clinical practices. Two hundred fifty-seven patients completed a course of acute TMS treatment and consented to follow-up over 52 weeks. Assessments were obtained at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The study was conducted between March 2010 and August 2012. RESULTS: Compared with pre-TMS baseline, there was a statistically significant reduction in mean total scores on the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (primary outcome), 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, and Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report (IDS-SR) at the end of acute treatment (all P < .0001), which was sustained throughout follow-up (all P < .0001). The proportion of patients who achieved remission at the conclusion of acute treatment remained similar at conclusion of the long-term follow-up. Among 120 patients who met IDS-SR response or remission criteria at the end of acute treatment, 75 (62.5%) continued to meet response criteria throughout long-term follow-up. After the first month, when the majority of acute TMS tapering was completed, 93 patients (36.2%) received reintroduction of TMS. In this group, the mean (SD) number of TMS treatment days was 16.2 (21.1). CONCLUSIONS: TMS demonstrates a statistically and clinically meaningful durability of acute benefit over 12 months of follow-up. This was observed under a pragmatic regimen of continuation antidepressant medication and access to TMS retreatment for symptom recurrence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01114477.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Indução de Remissão , Retratamento , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
CNS Spectr ; 18(6): 322-32, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23895940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective and safe therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). This study assessed quality of life (QOL) and functional status outcomes for depressed patients after an acute course of TMS. METHODS: Forty-two, U.S.-based, clinical TMS practice sites treated 307 outpatients with a primary diagnosis of MDD and persistent symptoms despite prior adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Treatment parameters were based on individual clinical considerations and followed the labeled procedures for use of the approved TMS device. Patient self-reported QOL outcomes included change in the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the EuroQol 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D) ratings from baseline to end of the acute treatment phase. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in functional status on a broad range of mental health and physical health domains was observed on the SF-36 following acute TMS treatment. Similarly, statistically significant improvement in patient-reported QOL was observed on all domains of the EQ-5D and on the General Health Perception and Health Index scores. Improvement on these measures was observed across the entire range of baseline depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION: These data confirm that TMS is effective in the acute treatment of MDD in routine clinical practice settings. This symptom benefit is accompanied by statistically and clinically meaningful improvements in patient-reported QOL and functional status outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Observação , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 205(1-2): 67-73, 2013 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23021320

RESUMO

As they alleviate major depressive disorder, antidepressant therapies may improve associated sleep disturbances, but may also have inherent sedating or activating properties. We examined sleep changes during a multicenter, sham-controlled, trial of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy for pharmacoresistant MDD. Medication-free outpatients (N=301) were randomized to receive active (N=155) or sham (N=146) TMS for 6 weeks. Depression severity was rated with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report (IDS-SR). Assessments were performed at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 week time points. Sleep was assessed using the HAMD and IDS-SR sleep factors; comparison between treatment groups employed ANCOVA model. No significant differences were identified between the active and sham treatment groups in either the HAMD or IDS-SR sleep factor scores at any time during treatment. Sleep difficulty as an adverse event over the length of the study did not differ between active and sham treatment. Stratified by end of acute treatment responder status, there was a statistically significant improvement in both the HAMD sleep factor score and the IDS-SR sleep factor during acute treatment in both the active and sham treatment conditions. TMS exerts no intrinsic effect upon sleep in patients with MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Depress Anxiety ; 29(7): 587-96, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22689344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in real-world clinical practice settings. METHODS: Forty-two US-based clinical TMS practice sites treated 307 outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), and persistent symptoms despite antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Treatment was based on the labeled procedures of the approved TMS device. Assessments were performed at baseline, week 2, at the point of maximal acute benefit, and at week 6 when the acute course extended beyond 6 weeks. The primary outcome was change in the Clinician Global Impressions-Severity of Illness from baseline to end of acute phase. Secondary outcomes were change in continuous and categorical outcomes on self-report depression scales (9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ-9], and Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self Report [IDS-SR]). RESULTS: Patients had a mean ± SD age of 48.6 ± 14.2 years and 66.8% were female. Patients received an average of 2.5 (± 2.4) antidepressant treatments of adequate dose and duration without satisfactory improvement in this episode. There was a significant change in CGI-S from baseline to end of treatment (-1.9 ± 1.4, P < .0001). Clinician-assessed response rate (CGI-S) was 58.0% and remission rate was 37.1%. Patient-reported response rate ranged from 56.4 to 41.5% and remission rate ranged from 28.7 to 26.5%, (PHQ-9 and IDS-SR, respectively). CONCLUSION: Outcomes demonstrated response and adherence rates similar to research populations. These data indicate that TMS is an effective treatment for those unable to benefit from initial antidepressant medication.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Brain Behav Immun ; 26(7): 1047-56, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22687333

RESUMO

A dynamic systems model was used to generate parameters describing a phenotype of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) behavior in a sample of 36 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and/or fibromyalgia (FM) and 36 case-matched healthy controls. Altered neuroendocrine function, particularly in relation to somatic symptoms and poor sleep quality, may contribute to the pathophysiology of these disorders. Blood plasma was assayed for cortisol and ACTH every 10 min for 24h. The dynamic model was specified with an ordinary differential equation using three parameters: (1) ACTH-adrenal signaling, (2) inhibitory feedback, and (3) non-ACTH influences. The model was "personalized" by estimating an individualized set of parameters from each participant's data. Day and nighttime parameters were assessed separately. Two nocturnal parameters (ACTH-adrenal signaling and inhibitory feedback) significantly differentiated the two patient subgroups ("fatigue-predominant" patients with CFS only versus "pain-predominant" patients with FM and comorbid chronic fatigue) from controls (all p's<.05), whereas daytime parameters and diurnal/nocturnal slopes did not. The same nocturnal parameters were significantly associated with somatic symptoms among patients (p's<.05). There was a significantly different pattern of association between nocturnal non-ACTH influences and sleep quality among patients versus controls (p<.05). Although speculative, the finding that patient somatic symptoms decreased when more cortisol was produced per unit ACTH, is consistent with cortisol's anti-inflammatory and sleep-modulatory effects. Patients' HPA systems may compensate by promoting more rapid or sustained cortisol production. Mapping "behavioral phenotypes" of stress-arousal systems onto symptom clusters may help disentangle the pathophysiology of complex disorders with frequent comorbidity.


Assuntos
Doença/classificação , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Adolescente , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Algoritmos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Vis Exp ; (45)2010 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21189465

RESUMO

The Neuronetics NeuroStar Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) System is a class II medical device that produces brief duration, pulsed magnetic fields. These rapidly alternating fields induce electrical currents within localized, targeted regions of the cortex which are associated with various physiological and functional brain changes. In 2007, O'Reardon et al., utilizing the NeuroStar device, published the results of an industry-sponsored, multisite, randomized, sham-stimulation controlled clinical trial in which 301 patients with major depression, who had previously failed to respond to at least one adequate antidepressant treatment trial, underwent either active or sham TMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The patients, who were medication-free at the time of the study, received TMS five times per week over 4-6 weeks. The results demonstrated that a sub-population of patients (those who were relatively less resistant to medication, having failed not more than two good pharmacologic trials) showed a statistically significant improvement on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and various other outcome measures. In October 2008, supported by these and other similar results, Neuronetics obtained the first and only Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the clinical treatment of a specific form of medication-refractory depression using a TMS Therapy device (FDA approval K061053). In this paper, we will explore the specified FDA approved NeuroStar depression treatment protocol (to be administered only under prescription and by a licensed medical profession in either an in- or outpatient setting).


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/instrumentação , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/normas , Aprovação de Equipamentos , Humanos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
19.
Brain Stimul ; 3(4): 187-99, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20965447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be an effective acute antidepressant treatment, few studies systematically examine persistence of benefit. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the durability of antidepressant effect after acute response to TMS in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) using protocol-specified maintenance antidepressant monotherapy. METHODS: Three hundred one patients were randomly assigned to active or sham TMS in a 6-week, controlled trial. Nonresponders could enroll in a second, 6-week, open-label study. Patients who met criteria for partial response (i.e., >25% decrease from the baseline HAMD 17) during either the sham-controlled or open-label study (n = 142) were tapered off TMS over 3 weeks, while simultaneously starting maintenance antidepressant monotherapy. Patients were then followed for 24 weeks in a naturalistic follow-up study examining the long-term durability of TMS. During this durability study, TMS was readministered if patients met prespecified criteria for symptom worsening (i.e., a change of at least one point on the CGI-S scale for 2 consecutive weeks). Relapse was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS: Ten of 99 (10%; Kaplan-Meier survival estimate = 12.9%) patients relapsed. Thirty-eight (38.4%) patients met criteria for symptom worsening and 32/38 (84.2%) reachieved symptomatic benefit with adjunctive TMS. Safety and tolerability were similar to acute TMS monotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: These initial data suggest that the therapeutic effects of TMS are durable and that TMS may be successfully used as an intermittent rescue strategy to preclude impending relapse.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento
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