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1.
IUBMB Life ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073734

RESUMO

Bladder cancer (BC) is a frequently diagnosed malignancy affecting predominantly adult and elderly populations. It is expected that due to the longer life time, BC will become even more frequent in the future; thus in consequence, it will represent serious health problem of older society part. The treatment of advanced BC is mostly ineffective due to its very aggressive behavior. So far, no effective targeted therapy is used for BC treatment. Here, we found that BC is characterized by lower protein levels of BRM, INI1, and BAF155 main subunits of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex (CRC) which is involved in global control of gene expression and influences various important cellular processes like: cell cycle control, apoptosis, DNA repair, etc. Moreover, the expression of SMARCA2, a BRM encoding gene, strongly correlated with BC metastasis and expression of such metabolic genes as PKM2 and PRKAA1. Furthermore, the analysis of T24 and 5637 commonly used BC cell lines revealed different expression levels of metabolic genes including FBP1 gene encoding Frutose-1,6-Bisphosphatase, an enzyme controlling glycolysis flux and gluconeogenesis. The tested BC cell lines exhibited various molecular and metabolic alterations as well as differential glucose uptake, growth rate, and migration potential. We have shown that BRM subunit is involved in the transcriptional control of genes encoding metabolic enzymes. Moreover, we found that the FBP1 expression level and the SWI/SNF CRCs may serve as markers of molecular subtypes of BC. Collectively, this study may provide a new knowledge about the molecular and metabolic BC subtypes which likely will be of high importance for the clinic in the future.

2.
Med Oncol ; 37(1): 11, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768889

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) represents a major complication of cancer and its treatment, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality. The appropriate choice of thromboprophylaxis method and duration is, therefore, of utmost importance. We conducted an extensive review of the literature concerning VTE in patients undergoing surgery for urological cancers. Special attention was paid to risk factors, different types of surgery (transurethral, pelvic, abdominal-open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted) and different medications used (heparins, vitamin K antagonists and new oral anticoagulants). Original papers, reviews and guidelines were identified in Medline database. The available data were then summarised for the purpose of this article. Venous thromboprophylaxis is obligatory in urological cancer patients undergoing surgical treatment. Unless individual contraindications are recognised, the available guidelines should be followed. The variety of clinical scenarios and patients' comorbidities necessitate cooperation with other specialists (cardiologists, neurologists, etc.) in choosing the optimal management. Thrombosis risk must be carefully weighed against bleeding risk.

3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1153: 31-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903615

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2-3% of all malignancies. Most RCC-related deaths are caused by metastases of the disease. Studies suggest that inflammation-related parameters are of prognostic significance in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients. Neutrophilia and thrombocytosis are markers of systemic inflammation that accompanies cancer, while lymphopenia is related to dysfunctions of the immune system. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) thus seem particularly interesting from a clinical perspective. The goal of this study was to determine if the response to therapy, consisting of reductions in radiologically assessed tumor burden and in inflammation-related parameters after 12 weeks of treatment with sunitinib, has a predictive value for outcome. One hundred thirty-one mRCC patients treated with the first-line sunitinib were evaluated. Inflammation-related parameters and radiologic response were correlated with treatment outcomes, progression-free, and overall survival. We found that the longest median progression-free survival of 37 months (Q1; Q3-15; not reached) and overall survival of 40 months (Q1; Q3-26; not reached) were achieved by patients who had either partial or complete response according to RECIST 1.1 and NLR lower than 1.64. In conclusion, the study confirmed that both objective response and lower grade of inflammation during treatment are predictive of better outcomes in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Sunitinibe , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Indóis , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Pirróis , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1133: 35-40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701441

RESUMO

Patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) typically receive systemic treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Side effects include the hand-foot syndrome (HFS), tiredness, nausea, decreased appetite, diarrhea, myelosuppression, and hypertension. This study seeks to define the relationship between the incidence of HFS after the first cycle of treatment with sunitinib as the first-line treatment for mRCC (50 mg/day, 6-week schedule: 4 weeks on and 2 weeks off) and progression-free survival. We found that patients, treated with sunitinib for mRCC, who did not experience HFS had the median progression-free survival of 9.8 months. HFS symptoms appeared in 20% of patients after the first treatment cycle. The appearance of HFS was a predictor of a longer progression-free survival. In fact, progression-free survival was elongated in the HFS group over and beyond the observation period of 60 months, which rendered the median progression-free survival calculation impossible. These findings reaffirm the importance of monitoring skin toxicity during treatment with TKI. We conclude that the appearance of adverse skin symptoms presages better outcomes in patients treated with sunitinib for mRCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Mão-Pé/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Sunitinibe/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Med Oncol ; 36(2): 19, 2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30666498

RESUMO

Clinical practice shows significant differences in treatment outcomes across patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). It is not known whether cabozantinib-induced adverse events are predictive factors of survival as in case of drugs such as sunitinib or axitinib. The study participants were 30 adult patients with mRCC treated with cabozantinib as a second- or further line setting. All adverse events were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Progression-free survival (PFS) values were calculated by taking the beginning of cabozantinib treatment as the start date and either disease progression or death as the end date. PFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and compared using the log-rank test. We identified independent PFS predictors using multiple Cox proportional hazards models and reported hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. The median observation time cabozantinib treatment was 7.5 months, with a range of 2-15 months. During that time, 11 (37%) of the patients had mRCC progression. Median PFS on cabozantinib was not reached, and lower quartile was 6 months. All patients developed at least one adverse event in the course of cabozantinib therapy. Hypertension, hypothyroidism and HFS were observed most frequently, in about two-thirds of the patients. The co-incidence of multiple adverse events was common. Hypertension, hypothyroidism, diarrhea and liver toxicity were significantly associated with longer PFS values. Patients with three or more side effects had significantly longer PFS than those with two or fewer. Even though this study was conducted in a small patient sample and the observation time was relatively short our results confirm the predictive value of the incidence of adverse events during cabozantinib treatment in mRCC patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of this kind conducted in this group of patients.


Assuntos
Anilidas/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Sex Health ; 16(1): 32-38, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532994

RESUMO

Background Surgery is the standard treatment for organ-restricted penile cancer, but it is also a disfiguring procedure that can profoundly affect quality of life. Using a survey, in this study we assessed the effect of different surgical invasiveness on satisfaction in selected life domains of patients who underwent penile-sparing surgery and partial penectomy. METHODS: Forty patients who underwent penile-sparing surgery (n=13) or partial penectomy (n=27) were enrolled in the study. The response rate was 71%. Information was obtained after surgery on sexuality, self-esteem, masculinity and partner relationships using the International Index of Erectile Function, the Self-Esteem Scale and the Conformity to Masculinity Norms Inventory questionnaires. We evaluated the effect of primary surgery type on selected domains of quality of life and correlations between study variables after surgery. RESULTS: High self-esteem, satisfactory erectile function and masculinity results in both groups were comparable to those in the published literature. Men who underwent less disfiguring treatment had a significantly higher sense of masculinity than those who underwent partial penectomy (P=0.05). No significant differences were observed in erectile dysfunction and self-esteem. The level of aggressiveness of a surgical procedure was a predictor of sense of masculinity (P=0.01), but was not associated with self-esteem and sexual dysfunction (P=0.28 and P=0.55 respectively); 83% of patients were able to satisfactorily maintain partner relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Disfiguring treatments for penile cancer significantly interfere with the sense of masculinity, but sexual functioning and self-esteem do not differ according to the type of surgical procedure. Most men maintained stable partner relationships after surgery, regardless of surgery type.

7.
Eur J Cancer ; 107: 186-195, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30573277

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) is expressed in primary prostate adenocarcinoma and in associated skeletal metastases. Olaratumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds PDGFRα and blocks downstream signalling. This phase II study assessed the efficacy and safety of olaratumab in combination with mitoxantrone and prednisone (M/P) versus M/P alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who progressed after docetaxel. METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive 21-d cycles of olaratumab (15 mg/kg, Days 1 and 8) plus mitoxantrone (12 mg/m2, Day 1) and prednisone (5 mg, twice daily) or M/P alone. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary end-point. Secondary end-points included overall survival (OS), safety, and circulating tumour cell (CTC) counts. RESULTS: A total of 123 patients were randomised, 63 to olaratumab + M/P and 60 to M/P. Median PFS was 2.3 months for olaratumab + M/P and 2.4 months for M/P (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87-1.90). Median OS was 14.2 months for olaratumab + M/P and 12.8 months for M/P (HR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.72-1.61). Both treatment arms had similar toxicity profiles; neutropenia (24% versus 15%), anaemia (13% versus 14%) and fatigue (11% versus 9%) (olaratumab + M/P versus M/P, respectively) were the most common grade ≥3 events. High CTC count was associated with poorer OS in both arms. Patients with very high cell counts (>37 cells/7.5 ml) exhibited improved OS with olaratumab + M/P (interaction P = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Olaratumab + M/P had an acceptable safety profile but did not improve the efficacy of M/P chemotherapy. Further study with selected patient populations and earlier in the disease course might be considered.

8.
Med Oncol ; 35(12): 153, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367327

RESUMO

Testicular teratomas represent a specific entity within the group of germ-cell tumours. They may comprise elements of all three germ layers. In contrast to prepubertal benign teratomas observed in infants and adolescents, postpubertal teratomas originate from the malignant germ-cell precursor. Given the good prognosis and curability of most patients with germ-cell tumour, medical oncologists and urological surgeons must be well acquainted with the principles of teratomas management. Surgery plays the decisive part in teratomas treatment, as these tumours are resistant to radio- and, to some extent, chemotherapy. In this article we concentrate on the management of post-chemotherapy resection of teratomatous masses, with special attention to the phenomenon of 'growing teratoma syndrome' and somatic-type transformation of teratomas. To understand the nature of teratomas better, we begin with a glimpse of their biological, molecular and immunohistochemical features. Managing germ-cell tumours, teratomas in particular, in high-volume reference centres is of utmost importance to maintain and increase the survivorship rate in these patients.


Assuntos
Teratoma/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Med Oncol ; 35(12): 156, 2018 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368624

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma is the 14th most common cancer worldwide. It is a heterogeneous group of histopathological entities, of which the most common is clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Approximately 20-30% of patients present initially with metastatic disease and an additional 20% will progress after radical surgical treatment. Metastatic disease that is non-feasible for surgical treatment remains incurable. Numerous studies have demonstrated that-with the introduction of new drugs-the treatment outcomes of metastatic disease have improved. The development of new therapies as well as the optimization and individualization of procedures allow us to hope for further progress in this area.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1114: 19-29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884920

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications are a significant problem in systemically treated cancer patients. One such complication is Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Takotsubo syndrome. It is most frequently defined as a sudden and transient left or right ventricular systolic dysfunction; mimicking acute coronary syndrome, but without the associated changes in coronary arteries. Takotsubo syndrome is a relatively little known complication that appears in the course of oncological treatment, and its incidence has not yet been established. In this study, we reviewed Medline database according to case reports concerning takotsubo syndrome appearing after systemic treatment in oncological patients. We took into consideration all types of anticancer drugs. We reviewed the changes reported in the electrocardiography, echocardiography, and coronary angiography, and also the level of troponin, a marker of acute coronary syndrome elevation. In view of the increasing frequency of cardiac complications reported in patients receiving systemic oncological treatment, Takotsubo syndrome appears to be underdiagnosed. However, the syndrome may be linked to potentially fatal complications such as cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest. Therefore, it seems essential to carry out appropriate diagnostic procedures for every patient experiencing clinical side effects of onco-pharmacotherapy. In patients with chest pain and dyspnea during or after treatment, Takotsubo syndrome should be considered, particularly that the syndrome requires a different therapy approach than that used in a coronary syndrome. Diagnostic procedures should include echocardiogram and the assessment of myocardial necrosis markers and natriuretic peptides.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/induzido quimicamente , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos
11.
Am J Cancer Res ; 7(11): 2275-2289, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218250

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1), and mutations in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Additionally, in about 40% of ccRCC cases the mutation in PBRM1 (POLYBROMO1) gene coding for a non-core subunit of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex was found suggesting potential impairment of this complex function in ccRCC. In this study we assessed the extent to which the core SWI/SNF complex subunit - INI1 (hSNF5/SMARCB1) is affected in ccRCC and whether it has any consequences on the development of this type of cancer. The evaluation of INI1 protein level in samples from 50 patients with diagnosed ccRCC, including three displaying rhabdoid features, showed the INI1 positive staining in rhabdoid cells while the conventional ccRCC cells exhibited reduced INI1 level. This indicated the rhabdoid component of ccRCC as distinct from other known rhabdoid tumors. The reduced INI1 protein level observed in all conventional ccRCC cases used in this study correlated with decreased SMARCB1 gene expression at the transcript level. Consistently, the overexpression of INI1 protein in A498 ccRCC cell line resulted in the elevation of endogenous SMARCB1 transcript level indicating that the INI1-dependent regulatory feedback loop controlling expression of this gene is affected in ccRCC Moreover, the set of INI1 target genes including i.e. CXCL12/CXCR7/CXCR4 chemokine axis was identified to be affected in ccRCC. In summary, we demonstrated that the inactivation of INI1 may be of high importance for ccRCC development and aggressiveness.

12.
Contemp Oncol (Pozn) ; 21(3): 203-208, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180926

RESUMO

Testicular germ cell tumours (GCT) represent about 1-2% of malignant in men. The essential therapeutic option for early-stage GCT is radical orchiectomy (RO), except in situations that require immediate chemotherapy in patients with a massive dissemination and unequivocally elevated levels of tumour markers. Postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) in patients with testicular seminoma in Clinical Stage I (CS I) is one of the treatment options next to active surveillance (AS) and chemotherapy (CHTH). Regardless of the procedure, five-year survival in this group of patients ranges between 97% and 100%. In the article, we present the literature review pertinent to therapeutic options, with a focus on radiotherapy. We have searched MEDLINE (PubMed) for all studies on patients with GCT treated with radiation therapy during the last 20 years, and the current therapeutic recommendations. We used the following keywords: germ cell tumours, testis, seminoma, non-seminoma, radiotherapy, outcome.

13.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 31: 1-5, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173821

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluations are being increasingly used for clinical assessment of cancer treatment outcomes. For a patient, not only is life expectancy important, but also a general sense of sustained global health. Intuitively, the more disfiguring the treatment, the more pronounced could be the deterioration in the QoL. We aimed to compare various aspects of QoL in three groups of patients surgically treated for penile cancer by local excision, partial penectomy, or total penectomy. METHODS: HRQoL was assessed in 51 patients surgically treated for penile cancer. Total penectomy, partial penectomy, or wide local excision was performed in 11, 27, and 13 patients, respectively. The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire was used for HRQoL assessment. Relations between the patients and their partners were also assessed. RESULTS: Statistically significant negative correlation was found between aggressiveness of the surgical procedure and both, assessment of global health status (p = 0.04) and physical functioning (p = 0.047). The more aggressive the surgery, the lower was the patients' assessment of their QoL. Among the patients who maintained their partner relations postsurgery, 58.9% declared that their relations postoperatively were not inferior compared to those preoperatively. There was no statistically significant effect of the surgery type on relations with female partners (p = 0.619). CONCLUSION: The magnitude of disfigurement caused by surgical treatment of penile cancer had a significant impact on the selected QoL domains assessed by the EORTC QLQ C-30 questionnaire. There was no correlation between the scope of surgical intervention and partner relations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Penianas/psicologia , Neoplasias Penianas/cirurgia , Pênis/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos Masculinos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cent European J Urol ; 70(2): 206-211, 2017 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721291

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic diseases such as cancer have a strong influence on both physical health and quality of life, which together comprise the concept of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) - in other words, the complete state of physical, social, and psychological functioning. Herein, we review the literature on the theory of HRQoL in relation to oncological diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search of English-language publications that included an analysis of the conceptual models of HRQoL was performed using PubMed. The data were screened and synthesized by all authors and relevant papers were selected. RESULTS: We outline the theoretical models most often used to conceptualize HRQoL, including the Centre for Health Promotion model from the University of Toronto, the conceptual model of Wilson and Cleary and the contextual model of Ashing-Giwa formulated specifically for cancer patients. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the theoretical basis of HRQoL is indispensable for valid research in this area.

15.
Med Oncol ; 34(7): 123, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573637

RESUMO

Cancer and its treatment can lead in men to testosterone deficiency, accompanied by somatic and mental symptoms. Germ cell tumours and their treatment may disturb the pituitary-gonadal axis, hence leading to significant clinical abnormalities. In some prostate cancer patients, castration, temporary or permanent, is a desired therapeutic condition. Yet, it is burdened with various side effects of complex intensity and significance. Last but not least, patients in the terminal stage of a malignancy present with low testosterone concentrations as a part of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Oncological management of such patients disturbs their homeostasis, androgen metabolism included, which results in numerous complications and worsens their quality of life. In the present paper, we analysed the frequency and sequelae of testosterone deficiency in some clinical scenarios, on the basis of original papers, meta-analyses and reviews available in PubMed. Androgen secretion disorders in male cancer patients depend on a cancer type, stage and methods of treatment. Number of testicular cancer survivors is increasing, and as a consequence, more patients cope with late complications, testosterone deficiency included. Hormone therapy in prostate cancer patients significantly prolongs survival, and then numerous men experience long-term adverse effects of androgen deficiency. Those, in turn, particularly the metabolic syndrome, may contribute to increased mortality. Androgen deficiency is a part of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. The role of androgen deficiency in cancer patients is still under debate, and further studies are urgently needed to establish appropriate clinical guidelines.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Caquexia/etiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias Testiculares/complicações , Castração , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/complicações , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Testosterona/deficiência
16.
Med Oncol ; 34(5): 84, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389909

RESUMO

Testicular tumors and their treatment interfere with homeostasis, hormonal status included. The aim of the study was to evaluate hormonal disorders of the pituitary-gonadal axis in men treated for testicular tumors. One hundred twenty-eight men treated for a unilateral testicular tumor at our institution were included. The hormonal status was prospectively evaluated in 62 patients before orchiectomy, 120 patients 1 month after orchiectomy and 110 patients at least 1 year after the treatment. The concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), testosterone (T), estradiol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were measured. The clinically significant testosterone deficiency was defined either as testosterone <2.31 ng/mL or testosterone within the range of 2.31-3.46 ng/mL but simultaneous with T/LH ratio ≤1. Changes in hormone levels were significant: LH and FSH rose in the course of observation, and the concentration of hCG, testosterone, estradiol decreased. PRL concentration was the lowest at 1 month after orchiectomy. In multivariate analysis, the risk of the clinically significant testosterone deficiency was 0.2107 (95% CI 0.1206-0.3419) prior to orchiectomy, 0.3894 (95% CI 0.2983-0.4889) 1 month after surgery and 0.4972 (95% CI 0.3951-0.5995) 1 year after the treatment. The estradiol concentration was elevated in 40% of patients with recently diagnosed testicular cancer and that was correlated with a higher risk of testosterone deficiency after the treatment completion. Hormonal disorders of the pituitary-gonadal axis in men treated for testicular tumors are frequent. The malignant tissue triggers paraneoplastic disorders that additionally disturb the hormonal equilibrium.


Assuntos
Hormônios Gonadais/metabolismo , Orquiectomia/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Hipofisários/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Gonadotropina Coriônica/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Orquiectomia/métodos , Hipófise/metabolismo , Prolactina/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/deficiência , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Minerva Urol Nefrol ; 69(5): 409-420, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of patients' expectations and quality of life in uro-oncology is considered an important outcome of treatment efficacy and satisfaction. Aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the most frequently adopted tools in uro-oncology to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic literature search until October 2015 was performed on MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed combining the following terms: "quality of life," "health-related quality of life," "kidney cancer," "bladder cancer," "prostate cancer." Additional references were obtained from the reference list of full-text manuscripts. Data were synthesized using meta-analytic methods conformed to the PRISMA statement. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: HRQoL is a fundamental step in evaluating treatment outcome in patients with urological cancers. HRQoL is mostly measured through several questionnaires, which are generally categorized in generic questionnaires, exploring the patient's well-being en bloc; specific questionnaires, assessing each single domain of health status; and uro-oncological specific questionnaires, mainly characterized by a modular approach. Although different questionnaires have been proposed and validated, the standard method to be adopted in urology is far from the solution and further studies should investigate the strength and weakness of the different questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: HRQoL questionnaires should become a standard method to evaluate medical/surgical outcomes in uro-oncology. Their implementation may significantly improve patients' satisfaction and help physicians in the decision-making process and possibly reduce health care costs.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Urológicas/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias Urológicas/terapia
18.
BJU Int ; 119(6): 846-853, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27981711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of sorafenib dose escalation in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Intra-patient dose escalation may enhance the clinical benefit of targeted anticancer agents in metastatic disease. In this non-randomised, open-label, Phase 2b study, treatment-naïve patients with mRCC were initially treated with the standard oral sorafenib dose [400 mg twice daily (BID)]. Two dose escalations were planned, each 200 mg BID after 28 days at the prior level. Dose reductions, interruptions, or delayed escalations were used to manage adverse events (AEs). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population, which comprised patients with ≥6 months of treatment including ≥4 months of therapy at their highest tolerated dose. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. RESULTS: In all, 83 patients received sorafenib. The dose received for the longest duration was 400, 600, and 800 mg BID in 48.2%, 15.7%, and 24.1% of patients, respectively. The ORR was 44.4% [n = 8/18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 21.5-69.2] and 17.9% (n = 12/67; 95% CI 9.6-29.2) in the mITT and ITT populations, respectively. The median (95% CI) PFS was 7.4 (6.0-11.7) months (ITT). The most common AEs of any grade were hand-foot skin reaction (66.3%) and diarrhoea (63.9%). CONCLUSION: Sorafenib demonstrated clinical benefit in treatment-naïve patients with mRCC. However, relatively few patients could sustain doses of >400 mg BID. There was evidence that, where tolerated, escalation from the standard sorafenib dose may have enhanced clinical benefit. However, this study does not support dose escalation for most patients with treatment-naïve mRCC. Alternative protocols for sorafenib dose escalation could be explored.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sorafenibe , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cent European J Urol ; 69(2): 204-11, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Total amputation, as a treatment for advanced penile cancer, significantly debilitates the patient's quality of life and sexual function. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life in patients who had undergone total penectomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaires EORTC QLQ C-30, SES, CMNI, and a modified IIEF-15 questionnaire, were sent to 11 patients. RESULTS: A total of 10 patients returned the questionnaires completed. The results of the overall quality of life, the median result in individual domains, as assessed by the EORT QLQ C-30 questionnaire, were clearly lower than the reference results. There were statistically significant differences in the results of the QLQ C-30, concerning the role-functioning domain in relation to age (p = 0.008) and education (p = 0.032), in the domain of emotional functioning in relation to education (p = 0.008) and in the domains of physical functioning in relation to the partner relationship (p = 0.032). A significant number of patients were sexually inactive. Sexual activity as defined by touching the area of the pubic symphysis at the scars of the penis, touching and fondling perianal areas or the scrotum and watching things/people that cause excitement was observed in 2/10, 1/10 and 2/10 of patients respectively. In 5/6 of these patients, partnership relationships did not deteriorate, including one patient for whom the relationship actually improved. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained indicate that total amputation of the penis significantly affects one's sex life and overall quality of life. However, this does not have negative implications in terms of partnership relations, self-assessment or the evaluation of masculinity.

20.
Cent European J Urol ; 69(4): 377-383, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28127454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment of penile cancer is usually associated with mutilation; alterations in self-esteem and body image; affecting sexual and urinary functions; and declined health-related quality of life. Recently, organ sparing treatment has appeared and led to limiting these complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An extensive review of the literature concerning penile-preserving strategies was conducted. The focus was put on indications, general principles of management, surgical options and reconstructive techniques, the most common complications, as well as functional and oncological outcomes. RESULTS: Analyzed methods, e.g.: topical chemotherapy, laser ablation therapy, radiotherapy, Moh's microscopic surgery, circumcision, wide local excision, glans resurfacing and glansectomy are indicated in low-stage tumors (Tis, Ta-T2). After glansectomy, reconstruction is also possible. CONCLUSIONS: Organ sparing techniques may achieve good anatomical, functional, and psychological outcomes without compromising local cancer control, which depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Penile sparing strategies are acceptable treatment approaches in selected patients with low-stage penile cancer after establishing disease-risk and should be considered in this population.

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