*Nature ; 613(7944): 463-467, 2023 Jan.*

##### RESUMO

Conventional superconductivity emerges from pairing of charge carriers-electrons or holes-mediated by phonons1. In many unconventional superconductors, the pairing mechanism is conjectured to be mediated by magnetic correlations2, as captured by models of mobile charges in doped antiferromagnets3. However, a precise understanding of the underlying mechanism in real materials is still lacking and has been driving experimental and theoretical research for the past 40 years. Early theoretical studies predicted magnetic-mediated pairing of dopants in ladder systems4-8, in which idealized theoretical toy models explained how pairing can emerge despite repulsive interactions9. Here we experimentally observe this long-standing theoretical prediction, reporting hole pairing due to magnetic correlations in a quantum gas of ultracold atoms. By engineering doped antiferromagnetic ladders with mixed-dimensional couplings10, we suppress Pauli blocking of holes at short length scales. This results in a marked increase in binding energy and decrease in pair size, enabling us to observe pairs of holes predominantly occupying the same rung of the ladder. We find a hole-hole binding energy of the order of the superexchange energy and, upon increased doping, we observe spatial structures in the pair distribution, indicating repulsion between bound hole pairs. By engineering a configuration in which binding is strongly enhanced, we delineate a strategy to increase the critical temperature for superconductivity.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 129(22): 220401, 2022 Nov 23.*

##### RESUMO

We present an Ansatz for the ground states of the quantum Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, a paradigmatic model for quantum spin glasses. Our Ansatz, based on the concept of generalized coherent states, very well captures the fundamental aspects of the model, including the ground state energy and the position of the spin glass phase transition. It further enables us to study some previously unexplored features, such as the nonvanishing longitudinal field regime and the entanglement structure of the ground states. We find that the ground state entanglement can be captured by a simple ensemble of weighted graph states with normally distributed phase gates, leading to a volume law entanglement, contrasting with predictions based on entanglement monogamy.

##### Assuntos

Transição de Fase*Phys Rev Lett ; 129(23): 237002, 2022 Dec 02.*

##### RESUMO

We study the electrodynamics of spin triplet superconductors including dipolar interactions, which give rise to an interplay between the collective spin dynamics of the condensate and orbital Meissner screening currents. Within this theory, we identify a class of spin waves that originate from the coupled dynamics of the spin-symmetry breaking triplet order parameter and the electromagnetic field. In particular, we study magnetostatic spin wave modes that are localized to the sample surface. We show that these surface modes can be excited and detected using experimental techniques such as microwave spin wave resonance spectroscopy or nitrogen-vacancy magnetometry, and propose that the detection of these modes offers a means for the identification of spin triplet superconductivity.

*J Chem Phys ; 156(17): 174110, 2022 May 07.*

##### RESUMO

We introduce a new theoretical approach for analyzing pump and probe experiments in non-linear systems of optical phonons. In our approach, the effect of coherently pumped polaritons is modeled as providing time-periodic modulation of the system parameters. Within this framework, propagation of the probe pulse is described by the Floquet version of Maxwell's equations and leads to phenomena such as frequency mixing and resonant parametric production of polariton pairs. We analyze light reflection from a slab of insulating material with a strongly excited phonon-polariton mode and obtain analytic expressions for the frequency-dependent reflection coefficient for the probe pulse. Our results are in agreement with recent experiments by Cartella et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 115, 12148 (2018)], which demonstrated light amplification in a resonantly excited SiC insulator. We show that, beyond a critical pumping strength, such systems should exhibit Floquet parametric instability, which corresponds to resonant scattering of pump polaritons into pairs of finite momentum polaritons. We find that the parametric instability should be achievable in SiC using current experimental techniques and discuss its signatures, including the non-analytic frequency dependence of the reflection coefficient and the probe pulse afterglow. We discuss possible applications of the parametric instability phenomenon and suggest that similar types of instabilities can be present in other photoexcited non-linear systems.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(22): 227401, 2021 Nov 24.*

##### RESUMO

Engineering novel states of matter with light is at the forefront of materials research. An intensely studied direction is to realize broken-symmetry phases that are "hidden" under equilibrium conditions but can be unleashed by an ultrashort laser pulse. Despite a plethora of experimental discoveries, the nature of these orders and how they transiently appear remain unclear. To this end, we investigate a nonequilibrium charge density wave (CDW) in rare-earth tritellurides, which is suppressed in equilibrium but emerges after photoexcitation. Using a pump-pump-probe protocol implemented in ultrafast electron diffraction, we demonstrate that the light-induced CDW consists solely of order parameter fluctuations, which bear striking similarities to critical fluctuations in equilibrium despite differences in the length scale. By calculating the dynamics of CDW fluctuations in a nonperturbative model, we further show that the strength of the light-induced order is governed by the amplitude of equilibrium fluctuations. These findings highlight photoinduced fluctuations as an important ingredient for the emergence of transient orders out of equilibrium. Our results further suggest that materials with strong fluctuations in equilibrium are promising platforms to host hidden orders after laser excitation.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 127(18): 185302, 2021 Oct 29.*

##### RESUMO

The challenge of understanding the dynamics of a mobile impurity in an interacting quantum many-body medium comes from the necessity of including entanglement between the impurity and excited states of the environment in a wide range of energy scales. In this Letter, we investigate the motion of a finite mass impurity injected into a three-dimensional quantum Bose fluid as it starts shedding Bogoliubov excitations. We uncover a transition in the dynamics as the impurity's velocity crosses a critical value that depends on the strength of the interaction between the impurity and bosons as well as the impurity's recoil energy. We find that in injection experiments, the two regimes differ not only in the character of the impurity velocity abatement but also exhibit qualitative differences in the Loschmidt echo, density ripples excited in the Bose-Einstein condensate, and momentum distribution of scattered bosonic particles. The transition is a manifestation of a dynamical quantum Cherenkov effect and should be experimentally observable with ultracold atoms using Ramsey interferometry, rf spectroscopy, absorption imaging, and time-of-flight imaging.

*Nature ; 595(7865): 48-52, 2021 07.*

##### RESUMO

One of the first theoretically predicted manifestations of strong interactions in many-electron systems was the Wigner crystal1-3, in which electrons crystallize into a regular lattice. The crystal can melt via either thermal or quantum fluctuations4. Quantum melting of the Wigner crystal is predicted to produce exotic intermediate phases5,6 and quantum magnetism7,8 because of the intricate interplay of Coulomb interactions and kinetic energy. However, studying two-dimensional Wigner crystals in the quantum regime has often required a strong magnetic field9-11 or a moiré superlattice potential12-15, thus limiting access to the full phase diagram of the interacting electron liquid. Here we report the observation of bilayer Wigner crystals without magnetic fields or moiré potentials in an atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide heterostructure, which consists of two MoSe2 monolayers separated by hexagonal boron nitride. We observe optical signatures of robust correlated insulating states at symmetric (1:1) and asymmetric (3:1, 4:1 and 7:1) electron doping of the two MoSe2 layers at cryogenic temperatures. We attribute these features to bilayer Wigner crystals composed of two interlocked commensurate triangular electron lattices, stabilized by inter-layer interaction16. The Wigner crystal phases are remarkably stable, and undergo quantum and thermal melting transitions at electron densities of up to 6 × 1012 per square centimetre and at temperatures of up to about 40 kelvin. Our results demonstrate that an atomically thin heterostructure is a highly tunable platform for realizing many-body electronic states and probing their liquid-solid and magnetic quantum phase transitions4-8,17.

*Nature ; 595(7865): 53-57, 2021 07.*

##### RESUMO

When the Coulomb repulsion between electrons dominates over their kinetic energy, electrons in two-dimensional systems are predicted to spontaneously break continuous-translation symmetry and form a quantum crystal1. Efforts to observe2-12 this elusive state of matter, termed a Wigner crystal, in two-dimensional extended systems have primarily focused on conductivity measurements on electrons confined to a single Landau level at high magnetic fields. Here we use optical spectroscopy to demonstrate that electrons in a monolayer semiconductor with density lower than 3 × 1011 per centimetre squared form a Wigner crystal. The combination of a high electron effective mass and reduced dielectric screening enables us to observe electronic charge order even in the absence of a moiré potential or an external magnetic field. The interactions between a resonantly injected exciton and electrons arranged in a periodic lattice modify the exciton bandstructure so that an umklapp resonance arises in the optical reflection spectrum, heralding the presence of charge order13. Our findings demonstrate that charge-tunable transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers14 enable the investigation of previously uncharted territory for many-body physics where interaction energy dominates over kinetic energy.

*Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3905, 2021 06 23.*

##### RESUMO

Image-like data from quantum systems promises to offer greater insight into the physics of correlated quantum matter. However, the traditional framework of condensed matter physics lacks principled approaches for analyzing such data. Machine learning models are a powerful theoretical tool for analyzing image-like data including many-body snapshots from quantum simulators. Recently, they have successfully distinguished between simulated snapshots that are indistinguishable from one and two point correlation functions. Thus far, the complexity of these models has inhibited new physical insights from such approaches. Here, we develop a set of nonlinearities for use in a neural network architecture that discovers features in the data which are directly interpretable in terms of physical observables. Applied to simulated snapshots produced by two candidate theories approximating the doped Fermi-Hubbard model, we uncover that the key distinguishing features are fourth-order spin-charge correlators. Our approach lends itself well to the construction of simple, versatile, end-to-end interpretable architectures, thus paving the way for new physical insights from machine learning studies of experimental and numerical data.

*Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.*

##### RESUMO

Scattering experiments have revolutionized our understanding of nature. Examples include the discovery of the nucleus [R. G. Newton, Scattering Theory of Waves and Particles (1982)], crystallography [U. Pietsch, V. Holý, T. Baumback, High-Resolution X-Ray Scattering (2004)], and the discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA [J. D. Watson, F. H. C. Crick, Nature 171, 737-738]. Scattering techniques differ by the type of particles used, the interaction these particles have with target materials, and the range of wavelengths used. Here, we demonstrate a two-dimensional table-top scattering platform for exploring magnetic properties of materials on mesoscopic length scales. Long-lived, coherent magnonic excitations are generated in a thin film of yttrium iron garnet and scattered off a magnetic target deposited on its surface. The scattered waves are then recorded using a scanning nitrogen vacancy center magnetometer that allows subwavelength imaging and operation under conditions ranging from cryogenic to ambient environment. While most scattering platforms measure only the intensity of the scattered waves, our imaging method allows for spatial determination of both amplitude and phase of the scattered waves, thereby allowing for a systematic reconstruction of the target scattering potential. Our experimental results are consistent with theoretical predictions for such a geometry and reveal several unusual features of the magnetic response of the target, including suppression near the target edges and a gradient in the direction perpendicular to the direction of surface wave propagation. Our results establish magnon scattering experiments as a platform for studying correlated many-body systems.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(17): 177204, 2021 Apr 30.*

##### RESUMO

Motivated by recent experiments on the Kitaev honeycomb magnet α-RuCl_{3}, we introduce time-domain probes of the edge and quasiparticle content of non-Abelian spin liquids. Our scheme exploits ancillary quantum spins that communicate via time-dependent tunneling of energy into and out of the spin liquid's chiral Majorana edge state. We show that the ancillary-spin dynamics reveals the edge-state velocity and, in suitable geometries, detects individual non-Abelian anyons and emergent fermions via a time-domain counterpart of quantum-Hall anyon interferometry. We anticipate applications to a wide variety of topological phases in solid-state and cold-atoms settings.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(15): 153603, 2021 Apr 16.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum light-matter systems at strong coupling are notoriously challenging to analyze due to the need to include states with many excitations in every coupled mode. We propose a nonperturbative approach to analyze light-matter correlations at all interaction strengths. The key element of our approach is a unitary transformation that achieves asymptotic decoupling of light and matter degrees of freedom in the limit where light-matter interaction becomes the dominant energy scale. In the transformed frame, truncation of the matter or photon Hilbert space is increasingly well justified at larger coupling, enabling one to systematically derive low-energy effective models, such as tight-binding Hamiltonians. We demonstrate the versatility of our approach by applying it to concrete models relevant to electrons in crystal potential and electric dipoles interacting with a cavity mode. A generalization to the case of spatially varying electromagnetic modes is also discussed.

*Science ; 374(6563): 82-86, 2021 Oct.*

##### RESUMO

The competition between antiferromagnetism and hole motion in two-dimensional Mott insulators lies at the heart of a doping-dependent transition from an anomalous metal to a conventional Fermi liquid. We observe such a crossover in Fermi-Hubbard systems on a cold-atom quantum simulator and reveal the transformation of multipoint correlations between spins and holes upon increasing doping at temperatures around the superexchange energy. Conventional observables, such as spin susceptibility, are furthermore computed from the microscopic snapshots of the system. Starting from a magnetic polaron regime, we find the system evolves into a Fermi liquid featuring incommensurate magnetic fluctuations and fundamentally altered correlations. The crossover is completed for hole dopings around 30%. Our work benchmarks theoretical approaches and discusses possible connections to lower-temperature phenomena.

*Nature ; 588(7838): 403-407, 2020 12.*

##### RESUMO

Simple models of interacting spins have an important role in physics. They capture the properties of many magnetic materials, but also extend to other systems, such as bosons and fermions in a lattice, gauge theories, high-temperature superconductors, quantum spin liquids, and systems with exotic particles such as anyons and Majorana fermions1,2. To study and compare these models, a versatile platform is needed. Realizing such systems has been a long-standing goal in the field of ultracold atoms. So far, spin transport has only been studied in systems with isotropic spin-spin interactions3-12. Here we realize the Heisenberg model describing spins on a lattice, with fully adjustable anisotropy of the nearest-neighbour spin-spin couplings (called the XXZ model). In this model we study spin transport far from equilibrium after quantum quenches from imprinted spin-helix patterns. When spins are coupled only along two of three possible orientations (the XX model), we find ballistic behaviour of spin dynamics, whereas for isotropic interactions (the XXX model), we find diffusive behaviour. More generally, for positive anisotropies, the dynamics ranges from anomalous superdiffusion to subdiffusion, whereas for negative anisotropies, we observe a crossover in the time domain from ballistic to diffusive transport. This behaviour is in contrast with expectations from the linear-response regime and raises new questions in understanding quantum many-body dynamics far away from equilibrium.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(23): 230601, 2020 Dec 04.*

##### RESUMO

We study the far from equilibrium prethermal dynamics of magnons in Heisenberg ferromagnets. We show that such systems exhibit universal self-similar scaling in momentum and time of the quasiparticle distribution function, with the scaling exponents independent of microscopic details or initial conditions. We argue that the SU(2) symmetry of the Hamiltonian, which leads to a strong momentum-dependent magnon-magnon scattering amplitude, gives rise to qualitatively distinct prethermal dynamics from that recently observed in Bose gases. We compute the scaling exponents using the Boltzmann kinetic equation and incoherent initial conditions that can be realized with microwave pumping of magnons. We also compare our numerical results with analytic estimates of the scaling exponents and demonstrate the robustness of the scaling to variations in the initial conditions. Our predictions can be tested in quench experiments of spin systems in optical lattices and pump-probe experiments in ferromagnetic insulators such as yttrium iron garnet.

*Nat Mach Intell ; 2(7): 396-402, 2020 Jul.*

##### RESUMO

Recent technological advances may lead to the development of small scale quantum computers capable of solving problems that cannot be tackled with classical computers. A limited number of algorithms has been proposed and their relevance to real world problems is a subject of active investigation. Analysis of many-body quantum system is particularly challenging for classical computers due to the exponential scaling of Hilbert space dimension with the number of particles. Hence, solving problems relevant to chemistry and condensed matter physics are expected to be the first successful applications of quantum computers. In this paper, we propose another class of problems from the quantum realm that can be solved efficiently on quantum computers: model inference for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which is important for biological and medical research. Our results are based on three interconnected studies. Firstly, we use methods from classical machine learning to analyze a dataset of NMR spectra of small molecules. We perform a stochastic neighborhood embedding and identify clusters of spectra, and demonstrate that these clusters are correlated with the covalent structure of the molecules. Secondly, we propose a simple and efficient method, aided by a quantum simulator, to extract the NMR spectrum of any hypothetical molecule described by a parametric Heisenberg model. Thirdly, we propose a simple variational Bayesian inference procedure for extracting Hamiltonian parameters of experimentally relevant NMR spectra.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(18): 180602, 2020 Oct 30.*

##### RESUMO

We introduce an equation for density matrices that ensures a monotonic decrease of the free energy and reaches a fixed point at the Gibbs thermal. We build a variational approach for many-body systems that can be applied to a broad class of states, including all bosonic and fermionic Gaussian, as well as their generalizations obtained by unitary transformations, such as polaron transformations in electron-phonon systems. We apply it to the Holstein model on 20×20 and 50×50 square lattices, and predict phase separation between the superconducting and charge-density wave phases in the strong interaction regime.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(7): 073601, 2020 Feb 21.*

##### RESUMO

Dominant multiparticle interactions can give rise to exotic physical phases with anyonic excitations and phase transitions without local order parameters. In spin systems with a global SU(N) symmetry, cyclic ring-exchange couplings constitute the first higher-order interaction in this class. In this Letter, we propose a protocol showing how SU(N)-invariant multibody interactions can be implemented in optical tweezer arrays. We utilize the flexibility to rearrange the tweezer configuration on short timescales compared to the typical lifetimes, in combination with strong nonlocal Rydberg interactions. As a specific example, we demonstrate how a chiral cyclic ring-exchange Hamiltonian can be implemented in a two-leg ladder geometry. We study its phase diagram using density-matrix renormalization group simulations and identify phases with dominant vector chirality, a ferromagnet, and an emergent spin-1 Haldane phase. We also discuss how the proposed protocol can be utilized to implement the strongly frustrated J-Q model, a candidate for hosting a deconfined quantum critical point.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(18): 183001, 2019 Nov 01.*

##### RESUMO

We consider dynamics of a Rydberg impurity in a cloud of ultracold bosonic atoms in which the Rydberg electron undergoes spin-changing collisions with surrounding atoms. This system realizes a new type of quantum impurity problems that compounds essential features of the Kondo model, the Bose polaron, and the central spin model. To capture the interplay of the Rydberg-electron spin dynamics and the orbital motion of atoms, we employ a new variational method that combines an impurity-decoupling transformation with a Gaussian ansatz for the bath particles. We find several unexpected features of this model that are not present in traditional impurity problems, including interaction-induced renormalization of the absorption spectrum that eludes simple explanations from molecular bound states, and long-lasting oscillations of the Rydberg-electron spin. We discuss generalizations of our analysis to other systems in atomic physics and quantum chemistry, where an electron excitation of high orbital quantum number interacts with a spinful quantum bath.

*Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaav7444, 2019 10.*

##### RESUMO

From the standard model of particle physics to strongly correlated electrons, various physical settings are formulated in terms of matter coupled to gauge fields. Quantum simulations based on ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide a promising avenue to study these complex systems and unravel the underlying many-body physics. Here, we demonstrate how quantized dynamical gauge fields can be created in mixtures of ultracold atoms in optical lattices, using a combination of coherent lattice modulation with strong interactions. Specifically, we propose implementation of â¤2 lattice gauge theories coupled to matter, reminiscent of theories previously introduced in high-temperature superconductivity. We discuss a range of settings from zero-dimensional toy models to ladders featuring transitions in the gauge sector to extended two-dimensional systems. Mastering lattice gauge theories in optical lattices constitutes a new route toward the realization of strongly correlated systems, with properties dictated by an interplay of dynamical matter and gauge fields.