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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778390

RESUMO

Public parks are leisure environments widely used by both, adults and children, often accompained by their pets. Soil contamination of these environments by enteric viruses and intestinal parasites occurs through these animals feces. The aim of this work was to detect Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPV-1) and different species of Mastadenovirus in soils samples from a park located in a medium-sized city in Brazil and evaluate the presence of helminth eggs and larvae in 18 points of a public park soil samples, as well as feces found on this site during six months. Parasitological analyzes were conducted through flotation and sedimentation techniques, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for viral detection. Of the 216 soil and 16 feces samples, 49% (106/216) and 12% (2/16) were positivefor nematodes larvae, respectively, through sedimentation techniques. Toxocara spp eggs were found in one soil sample and one feces sample, Trichuris spp eggs were found in only one feces sample and Hookworms eggs were found in four soil samples. After reconstruction work in the streets near the park, 30% (64/216) of the samples were positive for Human Mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), 1.4% (3/216) for HAdV-E and 0.4% (1/216) for Canine Mastadenovirus A (CAdV-A). The parasitic forms found in this study have demonstrated that the contamination of the park's soil pose a threat to human and animal health. This was the first study to report the presence of HAdVs and CAdVs in soil samples.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/parasitologia , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/classificação , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Animais , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Mastadenovirus/classificação , Mastadenovirus/genética , Parques Recreativos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/genética
2.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(4): 1145, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321738

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The term "mortality rate" should be rather read as "morbidity rate" in the following fragment of the "Discussion" section.

3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 335-349, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232312

RESUMO

Anthropogenic contamination of beaches in the south of Brazil was assessed by detection of Escherichia coli, human mastadenovirus species C (HAdV-C) and F (HAdV-F) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Sampling was carried out in October (2016), and in January, April and July (2017). Water, sediment, sea surface microlayer (SML), bivalves, and air sentinel samples were evaluated. Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) was used to estimate the probability of swimmer infection. HAdV-C was present in 26% of the samples, for both qPCR and viral isolation. The highest rates of detection in genomic copies (GC) were in water (2.42E+10 GC/L), SML (2.08E+10 GC/L), sediment (3.82E+08 GC/g) and bivalves (3.91E+07 GC/g). QMRA estimated daily and annual risks with a maximum value (9.99E-01) in almost all of the samples. Viable HAdV-C was often detected in the SML, pointing that this is a source of infection for people bathing in these waters.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Bivalves/virologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/virologia , Água do Mar/virologia , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Animais , Praias , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Medição de Risco/métodos , Natação , Microbiologia da Água
4.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(3): 677-684, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030411

RESUMO

Human mastadenovirus (HAdV) genus is related to several diseases, among them upper and lower respiratory tract illness. HAdV species B, C, D, and E are mainly associated with respiratory infections. The goal of this work was to identify the HAdV species associated with respiratory infections in hospitalized patients from southern Brazil. Samples were collected from 1996 to 2004 and 2011 to 2017. During this period, 28,524 samples were collected, and 9983 were positive for respiratory viruses, being 435 for HAdV. From these 435 samples, 57 were selected for characterization of HAdV species. For screening the presence of HAdV, a partial sequence of the DNA polymerase gene (DNApol gene) was amplified by nested PCR. Partial nucleotide sequencing was performed in positive samples, and HAdV (DNApol gene) was detected in 53 samples: species B (28; 49.1%), C (16; 28.0%), D (2; 3.5%), E (5; 8.7%), and untyped (2; 3.5%). Specie D was found only in 2017 and specie E in 2011 and 2012. The age of the patients ranged from < 1 to 81 years old, and 62.3% were male. No relationship between gender or age and identified HAdV species were observed. In addition, in the period of 2013-2017, 18 samples from patients who died were analyzed: 11 were related to species B, 4 to C, and 2 to D and 1 remained untyped. Circulation of HAdV species D and E varied over the years, but species B and C were present throughout the evaluated period. In addition, respiratory infections by HAdV affect elderly and children mainly.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mastadenovirus/classificação , Mastadenovirus/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 1): 298-308, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240914

RESUMO

In this study, total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli, enterovirus (EV), rotavirus (RV), and human mastadenovirus species C and F (HAdV-C and HAdV-F) were evaluated in water samples from Belo Stream. For HAdV-C and F, the infectivity was assessed by integrated cell culture quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (ICC-qPCR). Samples were collected monthly (May/2015 to April/2016) at four sites. Viral analyses were performed for both ultracentrifuge-concentrated and unconcentrated samples. For site P4 (used for recreational purposes), QMRA was applied to estimate health risks associated with exposure to E. coli and HAdV-C and F. TC and E. coli were present throughout the collection period. EV and RV were not detected. HAdV-C were present in 8.51% (1.89E + 06 to 2.28E + 07 GC (Genomic Copies)/L) and 21.27% (2.36E + 05 to 1.29E + 07 GC/L) for unconcentrated and concentrated samples, respectively. For HAdV-F were 12.76% (2.77E + 07 to 3.31E + 08 GC/L) and 48.93% (1.10E + 05 to 4.50E + 08 GC/L) for unconcentrated and concentrated samples, respectively. For unconcentrated samples, infectivity for HAdV-C was detected in 37.20% (1st ICC-qPCR) and 25.58% (2nd ICC-qPCR). For HAdV-F, infectivity was detected in 6.97% (1st ICC-qPCR) and 6.97% (2nd ICC-qPCR). For concentrated samples, HAdV-C infectious was observed in 17.02% (1st ICC-qPCR) and in 8.51% (2nd ICC-qPCR). For HAdV-F, were present in 8.51% for both 1st and 2nd ICC-qPCR. Statistical analyzes showed significant difference between the collection sites when analyzed the molecular data of HAdV-F, data of TC and E. coli. Correlation tests showed direct correlation between HAdV-F with E. coli and TC. E. coli concentrations translated to the lowest estimates of infection risks (8.58E-05 to 2.17E-03). HAdV-F concentrations were associated with the highest infection risks at 9.99E-01 and for group C, 1.29E-01 to 9.99E-01. These results show that commonly used bacterial indicators for water quality may not infer health risks associated with viruses in recreational freshwaters.


Assuntos
Medição de Risco , Rios/microbiologia , Qualidade da Água , Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Recreação , Rios/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18063, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039055

RESUMO

Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus are noteworthy among the several existing plant species displaying medicinal properties, due to the potential pharmacological activity of these species, including antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-trypanosomal activities. The objective of this study was to carry out in vitro toxicity tests of plant extracts from both species and analyze potential antiviral activity against Human mastadenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5). Two cell lines (A549 and VERO) were used and mitochondrial and lysosomal viability were determined by the MTT and neutral red assay, respectively, after two exposure times (24 hours and six days). The aim of these assays was to counteract the behavior of the extracts against the different cell lines and determine their non-toxic concentration range, in order to evaluate possible antiviral activity against HAdV-5. Plaque reduction and inhibition index of viral titer assays were performed using the maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations (MNCC) of each extract. The results indicate MNCC at 625 µg/mL for all extracts, except for Cymbopogon nardus obtained with 80% ethanol (CN80), which showed toxicity at concentrations higher than 312.5 µg/mL. CN80 was the only extract that displayed potential activity against HAdV-5, at a concentration of 75 µg/mL, becoming a candidate for extract fraction purification and/or the isolation of substances related to the observed antiviral activity


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/análise , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Cymbopogon/toxicidade , Antivirais/análise , Técnicas In Vitro , Sobrevivência Celular
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(16): 15774-15784, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582324

RESUMO

The presence of caffeine in environmental water samples is almost entirely human-related, given that there are virtually no industrial or agricultural releases. Caffeine has already been proposed as an anthropogenic marker for wastewater contamination of surface waters. The aim of this study was to evaluate if caffeine concentrations in water can be a predictor of virological and bacteriological contamination. Water samples were taken at three sampling sites from urban water streams from the hydrographic basin of the Sinos River (Brazil) monthly in the period of May 9th, 2016 to April 11th, 2017 (n = 36). Concentrations of Human mastadenovirus (HAdV-F and HAdV-C), fecal coliforms, and caffeine were measured in all collected samples. Concentrations of caffeine in water were strongly correlated with HAdV-F (rs = 0.704, p = 0.000). This study, for the first time, characterized caffeine concentrations in water as predictors of virus presence, with cut-off values presenting 92.9% specificity and 95.5% sensitivity for HAdV-F and 66.7% specificity and 80% sensitivity for HAdV-C. Considering its marked chemical stability and ease of quantification, caffeine concentrations can be used as a comprehensive marker of human contamination of water resources, also being predictive of bacteriological and virological concentrations.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/isolamento & purificação , Cafeína/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/virologia , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Brasil
8.
J Water Health ; 16(1): 102-111, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29424724

RESUMO

Adenoviruses (AdV) are related to respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in animals and human beings. Their wide genetic diversity in water bodies and their resistance to environmental conditions allow the use of AdV as a reliable marker for detection of fecal contamination. In this work, the diversity of AdV along Belo Stream - in the city of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil - was evaluated. Samples were compared in both concentrated and unconcentrated forms. The identification of different AdV species was performed by amplifying a partial sequence of the DNA polymerase gene. AdV was detected in 24 out of 55 concentrated samples (43.6%) and the following species were identified: human adenovirus (HAdV) species C (4/55; 7.2%), D (6/55; 10.9%), E (2/55; 3.6%), and F (9/55; 16.3%). AdV related to other mammalian hosts, such as bovine adenovirus (1/55, 1.8%) and murine adenovirus (2/55, 3.6%), have also been identified; 23.6% (13/55) of the unconcentrated samples were positive, and identified as HAdV species C (6/55, 10.9%), D (1/55, 1.8%), and F (6/55, 10.9%). Results obtained evidenced the presence and the great diversity of AdV, mainly of human origin, circulating in Belo Stream. As expected, the concentration step performed helped to detect AdV in more samples.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Variação Genética , Rios , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 586: 304-312, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28185736

RESUMO

Rio de Janeiro's inner and coastal waters are heavily impacted by human sewage pollution for decades. Enteric viruses, including human adenoviruses (HAdV), human enterovirus (EV), group A rotavirus (RV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are more likely to be found in contaminated surface waters. The present work aimed to assess the frequency and loads of EV, HAdV-C and -F species, RV and HAV in sand and water samples from venues used during the 2016 Summer Olympics and by tourists attending the event. Sixteen monthly collections were carried out from March 2015 to July 2016 in 12 different sites from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Total and thermotolerant coliform counting was performed along molecular detection of virus was performed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Analyses of all samples were further investigated by integrated cell culture PCR to check about the presence of HAdV infectious virus particles. The results show that 95.9% of water samples showed contamination with at least one type of virus. Regarding the viruses individually (% for water and sand respectively): HAdV-C (93.1%-57.8%), HAdV-F (25.3%-0%), RV (12.3%-4.4%), EV (26.7%-8.8%) and HAV (0%). The viral loads ranged from 103gc/L up to 109gc/L (water), and 103gc/g to 106gc/g (sand). In the phylogenetic tree, were classified into four main clusters, referring to species C, D, F and BAdV. And up to 90% of sites studied presented at least once presence of infectious HAdV-C. The most contaminated points were the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, where Olympic rowing took place, and the Marina da Glória, the starting point for the sailing races, demonstrating serious problem of fecal contamination of water resources and threatens the health of Olympic athletes, tourists and residents.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/classificação , Enterovirus/classificação , Microbiologia da Água , Poluição da Água , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes , Humanos , Filogenia , Esportes
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