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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The origin of sex differences in prevalence and presentation of neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits is largely unknown. Given established genetic contributions and correlations, we tested for a sex-differentiated genetic architecture within and between traits. METHODS: Using European ancestry genome-wide association summary statistics for 20 neuropsychiatric and behavioral traits, we tested for sex differences in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlation (rg < 1). For each trait, we computed per-SNP z scores from sex-stratified regression coefficients and identified genes with sex-differentiated effects using a gene-based approach. We calculated correlation coefficients between z scores to test for shared sex-differentiated effects. Finally, we tested for sex differences in across-trait genetic correlations. RESULTS: We observed no consistent sex differences in SNP-based heritability. Between-sex, within-trait genetic correlations were high, although <1 for educational attainment and risk-taking behavior. We identified 4 genes with significant sex-differentiated effects across 3 traits. Several trait pairs shared sex-differentiated effects. The top genes with sex-differentiated effects were enriched for multiple gene sets, including neuron- and synapse-related sets. Most between-trait genetic correlation estimates were not significantly different between sexes, with exceptions (educational attainment and risk-taking behavior). CONCLUSIONS: Sex differences in the common autosomal genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric and behavioral phenotypes are small and polygenic and unlikely to fully account for observed sex-differentiated attributes. Larger sample sizes are needed to identify sex-differentiated effects for most traits. For well-powered studies, we identified genes with sex-differentiated effects that were enriched for neuron-related and other biological functions. This work motivates further investigation of genetic and environmental influences on sex differences.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 576, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495439

RESUMO

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood psychiatric disorder often comorbid with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). Here, we report a GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD comorbid with DBDs (ADHD + DBDs) including 3802 cases and 31,305 controls. We identify three genome-wide significant loci on chromosomes 1, 7, and 11. A meta-analysis including a Chinese cohort supports that the locus on chromosome 11 is a strong risk locus for ADHD + DBDs across European and Chinese ancestries (rs7118422, P = 3.15×10-10, OR = 1.17). We find a higher SNP heritability for ADHD + DBDs (h2SNP = 0.34) when compared to ADHD without DBDs (h2SNP = 0.20), high genetic correlations between ADHD + DBDs and aggressive (rg = 0.81) and anti-social behaviors (rg = 0.82), and an increased burden (polygenic score) of variants associated with ADHD and aggression in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs. Our results suggest an increased load of common risk variants in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs, which in part can be explained by variants associated with aggressive behavior.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/epidemiologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
4.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(3): 201-209, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) is a common disorder affecting 10-16% of 7-year-old children globally. Nocturnal enuresis is highly heritable, but its genetic determinants remain unknown. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with nocturnal enuresis and explore its genetic architecture and underlying biology. METHODS: We did a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of nocturnal enuresis. Nocturnal enuresis cases were identified in iPSYCH2012, a large Danish population-based case cohort established to investigate mental disorders, on the basis of 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnoses and redeemed desmopressin prescriptions in Danish registers. The GWAS was done in a genetically homogeneous sample of unrelated individuals using logistic regression with relevant covariates. All genome-wide significant variants were analysed for their association with nocturnal enuresis in an independent Icelandic sample from deCODE genetics. Standardised polygenic risk scores for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder were constructed from summary statistics of large GWASs and analysed for association with nocturnal enuresis. FINDINGS: The GWAS included 3882 nocturnal enuresis cases and 31 073 controls. We found two loci at chromosome 6 and chromosome 13 significantly associated with nocturnal enuresis. Six genetic variants at the two loci (five variants at chromosome 6q16.2 and one variant at chromosome 13q22.3) surpassed the threshold for genome-wide significance (p<5 × 10-8). There were two lead variants: rs9376454 (chromosome 6q16.2), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1·199 (95% CI 1·135-1·267; p=9·91 × 10-11), and rs60721117 (chromosome 13q22.3), with an OR of 1·149 (1·095-1·205; p=1·21 × 10-8). All associated variants in the chromosome 6 locus were replicated (p<8 × 10-3) in the independent Icelandic cohort of 5475 nocturnal enuresis cases and 303 996 controls, whereas the associated variant in the chromosome 13 locus showed nominal significant association (p=0·031). The percentage of nocturnal enuresis phenotypic variance explained by the common genetic variants was 23·9-30·4%. Polygenic risk for ADHD was associated with nocturnal enuresis (OR 1·06, 95% CI, 1·01-1·10; p=0·011). Among the potential nocturnal enuresis risk genes mapped, PRDM13 and EDNRB have biological functions associated with known pathophysiological mechanisms in nocturnal enuresis, and SIM1 regulates the formation of the hypothalamic neuroendocrine lineage that produces arginine vasopressin, a well known nocturnal enuresis drug target. INTERPRETATION: This study shows that common genetic variants contribute considerably to nocturnal enuresis, and it identifies potential nocturnal enuresis risk genes with roles in sleep, urine production, and bladder function. Given that available treatments target these mechanisms, any of the identified genes and their functional gene networks are potential drug targets. FUNDING: The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Stanley Foundation.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Enurese Noturna/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Enurese Noturna/tratamento farmacológico , Fenótipo
5.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12849, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733098

RESUMO

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has consistently been associated with substance use, but the nature of this association is not fully understood. To inform intervention development and public health messages, a vital question is whether there are causal pathways from ADHD to substance use and/or vice versa. We applied bidirectional Mendelian randomization, using summary-level data from the largest available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on ADHD, smoking (initiation, cigarettes per day, cessation, and a compound measure of lifetime smoking), alcohol use (drinks per week, alcohol problems, and alcohol dependence), cannabis use (initiation), and coffee consumption (cups per day). Genetic variants robustly associated with the "exposure" were selected as instruments and identified in the "outcome" GWAS. Effect estimates from individual genetic variants were combined with inverse-variance weighted regression and five sensitivity analyses (weighted median, weighted mode, MR-Egger, generalized summary data-based MR, and Steiger filtering). We found evidence that liability to ADHD increases likelihood of smoking initiation and heaviness of smoking among smokers, decreases likelihood of smoking cessation, and increases likelihood of cannabis initiation. There was weak evidence that liability to ADHD increases alcohol dependence risk but not drinks per week or alcohol problems. In the other direction, there was weak evidence that smoking initiation increases ADHD risk, but follow-up analyses suggested a high probability of horizontal pleiotropy. There was no clear evidence of causal pathways between ADHD and coffee consumption. Our findings corroborate epidemiological evidence, suggesting causal pathways from liability to ADHD to smoking, cannabis use, and, tentatively, alcohol dependence. Further work is needed to explore the exact mechanisms mediating these causal effects.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 335, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009369

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the polygenic liability for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the psychosocial environment impact the risk of ADHD in interaction or independently of each other. We conducted a register- and biobank-based cohort study of 13,725 individuals with ADHD and 20,147 randomly drawn population-based controls. These 33,872 cohort members were genotyped on the Infinium PsychChip v1.0 array (Illumina). Subsequently, we calculated the polygenic risk score (PRS) for ADHD and extracted register data regarding the following risk factors pertaining to the psychosocial environment for each cohort member at the time of birth: maternal/paternal history of mental disorders, maternal/paternal education, maternal/paternal work status, and maternal/paternal income. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the main effects of the PRS for ADHD and the psychosocial environment on the risk of ADHD. Subsequently, we evaluated whether the effect of the PRS and the psychosocial environment act independently or in interaction upon the risk of ADHD. We found that ADHD was strongly associated with the PRS (odds ratio: 6.03, 95%CI: 4.74-7.70 for highest vs. lowest 2% liability). All risk factors pertaining to the psychosocial environment were associated with an increased risk of ADHD. These associations were only slightly attenuated after mutual adjustments. We found no statistically significant interaction between the polygenic liability and the psychosocial environment upon the risk of ADHD. In conclusion, we found main effects of both polygenic liability and risk factors pertaining to the psychosocial environment on the risk of ADHD-in the expected direction.

7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1032-1045, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33096046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in liability to cannabis use disorder has a strong genetic component (estimated twin and family heritability about 50-70%) and is associated with negative outcomes, including increased risk of psychopathology. The aim of the study was to conduct a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants associated with cannabis use disorder. METHODS: To conduct this GWAS meta-analysis of cannabis use disorder and identify associations with genetic loci, we used samples from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Substance Use Disorders working group, iPSYCH, and deCODE (20 916 case samples, 363 116 control samples in total), contrasting cannabis use disorder cases with controls. To examine the genetic overlap between cannabis use disorder and 22 traits of interest (chosen because of previously published phenotypic correlations [eg, psychiatric disorders] or hypothesised associations [eg, chronotype] with cannabis use disorder), we used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate genetic correlations. FINDINGS: We identified two genome-wide significant loci: a novel chromosome 7 locus (FOXP2, lead single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7783012; odds ratio [OR] 1·11, 95% CI 1·07-1·15, p=1·84 × 10-9) and the previously identified chromosome 8 locus (near CHRNA2 and EPHX2, lead SNP rs4732724; OR 0·89, 95% CI 0·86-0·93, p=6·46 × 10-9). Cannabis use disorder and cannabis use were genetically correlated (rg 0·50, p=1·50 × 10-21), but they showed significantly different genetic correlations with 12 of the 22 traits we tested, suggesting at least partially different genetic underpinnings of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use disorder was positively genetically correlated with other psychopathology, including ADHD, major depression, and schizophrenia. INTERPRETATION: These findings support the theory that cannabis use disorder has shared genetic liability with other psychopathology, and there is a distinction between genetic liability to cannabis use and cannabis use disorder. FUNDING: National Institute of Mental Health; National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine and the Centre for Integrative Sequencing; The European Commission, Horizon 2020; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Health Research Council of New Zealand; National Institute on Aging; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; UK Research and Innovation Medical Research Council (UKRI MRC); The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation; National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Australia; Tobacco-Related Disease Research Program of the University of California; Families for Borderline Personality Disorder Research (Beth and Rob Elliott) 2018 NARSAD Young Investigator Grant; The National Child Health Research Foundation (Cure Kids); The Canterbury Medical Research Foundation; The New Zealand Lottery Grants Board; The University of Otago; The Carney Centre for Pharmacogenomics; The James Hume Bequest Fund; National Institutes of Health: Genes, Environment and Health Initiative; National Institutes of Health; National Cancer Institute; The William T Grant Foundation; Australian Research Council; The Virginia Tobacco Settlement Foundation; The VISN 1 and VISN 4 Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Centers of the US Department of Veterans Affairs; The 5th Framework Programme (FP-5) GenomEUtwin Project; The Lundbeck Foundation; NIH-funded Shared Instrumentation Grant S10RR025141; Clinical Translational Sciences Award grants; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute of General Medical Sciences.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8622, 2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451437

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an impairing neurodevelopmental condition highly prevalent in current populations. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this paradox, mainly in the context of the Paleolithic versus Neolithic cultural shift but especially within the framework of the mismatch theory. This theory elaborates on how a particular trait once favoured in an ancient environment might become maladaptive upon environmental changes. However, given the lack of genomic data available for ADHD, these theories have not been empirically tested. We took advantage of the largest GWAS meta-analysis available for this disorder consisting of over 20,000 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,000 controls, to assess the evolution of ADHD-associated alleles in European populations using archaic, ancient and modern human samples. We also included Approximate Bayesian computation coupled with deep learning analyses and singleton density scores to detect human adaptation. Our analyses indicate that ADHD-associated alleles are enriched in loss of function intolerant genes, supporting the role of selective pressures in this early-onset phenotype. Furthermore, we observed that the frequency of variants associated with ADHD has steadily decreased since Paleolithic times, particularly in Paleolithic European populations compared to samples from the Neolithic Fertile Crescent. We demonstrate this trend cannot be explained by African admixture nor Neanderthal introgression, since introgressed Neanderthal alleles are enriched in ADHD risk variants. All analyses performed support the presence of long-standing selective pressures acting against ADHD-associated alleles until recent times. Overall, our results are compatible with the mismatch theory for ADHD but suggest a much older time frame for the evolution of ADHD-associated alleles compared to previous hypotheses.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Homem de Neandertal/genética , Alelos , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/história , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Aprendizado Profundo , Evolução Molecular , História Antiga , Humanos
9.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(10): 1617-1626, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279069

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that persist into adulthood in the majority of the diagnosed children. Despite several risk factors during childhood predicting the persistence of ADHD symptoms into adulthood, the genetic architecture underlying the trajectory of ADHD over time is still unclear. We set out to study the contribution of common genetic variants to the risk for ADHD across the lifespan by conducting meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies on persistent ADHD in adults and ADHD in childhood separately and jointly, and by comparing the genetic background between them in a total sample of 17,149 cases and 32,411 controls. Our results show nine new independent loci and support a shared contribution of common genetic variants to ADHD in children and adults. No subgroup heterogeneity was observed among children, while this group consists of future remitting and persistent individuals. We report similar patterns of genetic correlation of ADHD with other ADHD-related datasets and different traits and disorders among adults, children, and when combining both groups. These findings confirm that persistent ADHD in adults is a neurodevelopmental disorder and extend the existing hypothesis of a shared genetic architecture underlying ADHD and different traits to a lifespan perspective.

10.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(6): 526-536, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. ADHD often co-occurs with intellectual disability, and shared overlapping genetics have been suggested. The aim of this study was to identify novel ADHD genes by investigating whether genes carrying rare mutations linked to intellectual disability contribute to ADHD risk through common genetic variants. Validation and characterization of candidates were performed using Drosophila melanogaster. METHODS: Common genetic variants in a diagnostic gene panel of 396 autosomal intellectual disability genes were tested for association with ADHD risk through gene set and gene-wide analyses, using ADHD meta-analytic data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium for discovery (N=19,210) and ADHD data from the Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research for replication (N=37,076). The significant genes were functionally validated and characterized in Drosophila by assessing locomotor activity and sleep upon knockdown of those genes in brain circuits. RESULTS: The intellectual disability gene set was significantly associated with ADHD risk in the discovery and replication data sets. The three genes most consistently associated were MEF2C, ST3GAL3, and TRAPPC9. Performing functional characterization of the two evolutionarily conserved genes in Drosophila melanogaster, the authors found that their knockdown in dopaminergic (dMEF2) and circadian neurons (dTRAPPC9) resulted in increased locomotor activity and reduced sleep, concordant with the human phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that a large set of intellectual disability-related genes contribute to ADHD risk through effects of common alleles. Utilizing this continuity, the authors identified TRAPPC9, MEF2C, and ST3GAL3 as novel ADHD candidate genes. Characterization in Drosophila suggests that TRAPPC9 and MEF2C contribute to ADHD-related behavior through distinct neural substrates.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Locomoção/genética , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/genética , Sialiltransferases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/metabolismo , Sono/genética
11.
Addiction ; 115(7): 1368-1377, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803957

RESUMO

AIMS: 1) To investigate whether genetic liability to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), indexed by polygenic risk scores for ADHD (PRS-ADHD), is associated with substance use disorders (SUD) in individuals with ADHD. 2) To investigate whether other individual- or family-related risk factors for SUD could mediate or confound this association. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: ADHD cases in the iPSYCH sample (a Danish case-cohort sample of genotyped cases with specific mental disorders), born in Denmark between 1981 and 2003 (N = 13 116). Register-based information on hospital diagnoses of SUD was available until December 31, 2016. MEASUREMENTS: We estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for any SUD as well as for different SUD types (alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs) and severities (use, abuse, and addiction), with effect sizes corresponding to a comparison of the highest PRS-ADHD decile to the lowest. FINDINGS: PRS-ADHD were associated with any SUD (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.51). Estimates were similar across different types and severity levels of SUD. Other risk factors for SUD (male sex, age at ADHD diagnosis, comorbid conduct problems, and parental factors including SUD, mental disorders, and socio-economic status) were independently associated with increased risk of SUD. PRS-ADHD explained a minor proportion of the variance in SUD (0.2% on the liability scale) compared to the other risk factors. The association between PRS-ADHD and any SUD was slightly attenuated (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03-1.41) after adjusting for the other risk factors for SUD. Furthermore, associations were nominally higher in females than in males (ORfemales  = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.19-2.12, ORmales  = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.98-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: A higher genetic liability to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder appears to be associated with higher risks of substance use disorders in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(10): 2493-2503, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610198

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severely impairing neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 5% in children and adolescents and of 2.5% in adults. Comorbid conditions in ADHD play a key role in symptom progression, disorder course and outcome. ADHD is associated with a significantly increased risk for substance use, abuse and dependence. ADHD and cannabis use are partly determined by genetic factors; the heritability of ADHD is estimated at 70-80% and of cannabis use initiation at 40-48%. In this study, we used summary statistics from the largest available meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ADHD (n = 53,293) and lifetime cannabis use (n = 32,330) to gain insights into the genetic overlap and causal relationship of these two traits. We estimated their genetic correlation to be r2 = 0.29 (P = 1.63 × 10-5) and identified four new genome-wide significant loci in a cross-trait analysis: two in a single variant association analysis (rs145108385, P = 3.30 × 10-8 and rs4259397, P = 4.52 × 10-8) and two in a gene-based association analysis (WDPCP, P = 9.67 × 10-7 and ZNF251, P = 1.62 × 10-6). Using a two-sample Mendelian randomization approach we found support that ADHD is causal for lifetime cannabis use, with an odds ratio of 7.9 for cannabis use in individuals with ADHD in comparison to individuals without ADHD (95% CI (3.72, 15.51), P = 5.88 × 10-5). These results substantiate the temporal relationship between ADHD and future cannabis use and reinforce the need to consider substance misuse in the context of ADHD in clinical interventions.

13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 1961-1965, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768057

RESUMO

The exome sequences of approximately 8,000 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 5,000 controls were analyzed, finding that individuals with ASD and individuals with ADHD had a similar burden of rare protein-truncating variants in evolutionarily constrained genes, both significantly higher than controls. This motivated a combined analysis across ASD and ADHD, identifying microtubule-associated protein 1A (MAP1A) as a new exome-wide significant gene conferring risk for childhood psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 242, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582733

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetics is crucial to lasting changes in gene expression in the brain. Recent studies suggest a role for DNA methylation in ADHD. We explored the contribution to ADHD of allele-specific methylation (ASM), an epigenetic mechanism that involves SNPs correlating with differential levels of DNA methylation at CpG sites. We selected 3896 tagSNPs reported to influence methylation in human brain regions and performed a case-control association study using the summary statistics from the largest GWAS meta-analysis of ADHD, comprising 20,183 cases and 35,191 controls. We observed that genetic risk variants for ADHD are enriched in ASM SNPs and identified associations with eight tagSNPs that were significant at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). These SNPs correlated with methylation of CpG sites lying in the promoter regions of six genes. Since methylation may affect gene expression, we inspected these ASM SNPs together with 52 ASM SNPs in high LD with them for eQTLs in brain tissues and observed that the expression of three of those genes was affected by them. ADHD risk alleles correlated with increased expression (and decreased methylation) of ARTN and PIDD1 and with a decreased expression (and increased methylation) of C2orf82. Furthermore, these three genes were predicted to have altered expression in ADHD, and genetic variants in C2orf82 correlated with brain volumes. In summary, we followed a systematic approach to identify risk variants for ADHD that correlated with differential cis-methylation, identifying three novel genes contributing to the disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização de Receptores de Domínio de Morte/genética , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
15.
Genetics ; 213(2): 633-650, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455722

RESUMO

Knowledge of the genetic basis underlying variation in response to environmental exposures or treatments is important in many research areas. For example, knowing the set of causal genetic variants for drug responses could revolutionize personalized medicine. We used Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the genetic signature underlying behavioral variability in response to methylphenidate (MPH), a drug used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We exposed a wild-type D. melanogaster population to MPH and a control treatment, and observed an increase in locomotor activity in MPH-exposed individuals. Whole-genome transcriptomic analyses revealed that the behavioral response to MPH was associated with abundant gene expression alterations. To confirm these patterns in a different genetic background and to further advance knowledge on the genetic signature of drug response variability, we used a system of inbred lines, the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). Based on the DGRP, we showed that the behavioral response to MPH was strongly genotype-dependent. Using an integrative genomic approach, we incorporated known gene interactions into the genomic analyses of the DGRP, and identified putative candidate genes for variability in drug response. We successfully validated 71% of the investigated candidate genes by gene expression knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that MPH has cross-generational behavioral and transcriptomic effects. Our findings establish a foundation for understanding the genetic mechanisms driving genotype-specific responses to medical treatment, and highlight the opportunities that integrative genomic approaches have in optimizing medical treatment of complex diseases.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Genômica , Locomoção/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Epistasia Genética/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma de Inseto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Tentativa de Suicídio , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
19.
Acta Oncol ; 58(5): 537-547, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822178

RESUMO

Background: Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a commonly reported complaint among non-CNS cancer patients. Even subtle CRCI may have detrimental effects on quality of life and identifying patients at increased risk for CRCI to improve survivorship care is important. In the present paper, we systematically reviewed available studies of possible genetic risk factors for developing CRCI. Methods: Keyword-based systematic searches were undertaken on 24 July 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, and CINAHL. Three authors independently evaluated full-texts of identified papers and excluded studies with registration of reasons. Seventeen studies reporting results from 14 independent samples were included for review. Two authors independently quality assessed the included studies. The review was preregistered with PROSPERO (CRD42018107689). Results: Ten studies investigated apolipoprotein E (APOE), with four studies reporting that carrying at least one risk allele (APOE4 (ε4)) was associated with CRCI, while six studies found no association. The remaining identified genetic risk variants associated with CRCI located in: COMT, four DNA repair genes, five oxidative stress genes, 22 genes related to breast cancer phenotype, and GNB3. No associations were found between CRCI and genes coding for interleukin-6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). With the exception of APOE, the genetic risk factors had only been investigated in one or two studies each. Conclusions: Overall, the available evidence of possible genetic risk factors for CRCI is limited. While some research suggests a role for the ε4 allele, the literature is generally inconsistent, and the currently available evidence does not allow clear-cut conclusions regarding the role of genetic factors in the development of CRCI. Larger genetic studies and studies investigating additional genetic variants are needed to uncover genetic risk factors for CRCI.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Neoplasias/complicações , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Dano ao DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética
20.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(3): 228-238, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex pathophysiology. Intracranial volume (ICV) and volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and putamen are smaller in people with ADHD compared with healthy individuals. The authors investigated the overlap between common genetic variation associated with ADHD risk and these brain volume measures to identify underlying biological processes contributing to the disorder. METHODS: The authors combined genome-wide association results from the largest available studies of ADHD (N=55,374) and brain volumes (N=11,221-24,704), using a set of complementary methods to investigate overlap at the level of global common variant genetic architecture and at the single variant level. RESULTS: Analyses revealed a significant negative genetic correlation between ADHD and ICV (rg=-0.22). Meta-analysis of single variants revealed two significant loci of interest associated with both ADHD risk and ICV; four additional loci were identified for ADHD and volumes of the amygdala, caudate nucleus, and putamen. Exploratory gene-based and gene-set analyses in the ADHD-ICV meta-analytic data showed association with variation in neurite outgrowth-related genes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first genome-wide study to show significant genetic overlap between brain volume measures and ADHD, both on the global and the single variant level. Variants linked to smaller ICV were associated with increased ADHD risk. These findings can help us develop new hypotheses about biological mechanisms by which brain structure alterations may be involved in ADHD disease etiology.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Núcleo Accumbens/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Putamen/patologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
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