Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Inorg Chem ; 61(36): 14377-14388, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044741

RESUMO

In this fundamental solid-state chemistry study, two sample series were investigated in depth: iron(III)-doped hydroxyapatite (HA) compounds obtained from a co-sintering process of hematite and pure HA under air and iron(III)-doped HA compounds obtained from a co-sintering process from iron(II) acetate and pure HA under an argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction, UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared, 1H and 31P NMR, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR,) and Mössbauer spectroscopy methods were coupled to unravel the Fe valence states, the interactions with other anionic species (OH- and PO43-), and finally the complex local environments in hexagonal channels in both the series. In particular, we highlighted the associated mechanism to ensure electroneutrality with a focus on deprotonation versus calcium substitution. By diverging mechanisms, Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions were found to be located in different coordinated sites: 4(+1) coordinated site for Fe3+ and 2(+3) coordinated site for Fe2+ and clearly associated with very different Mössbauer and EPR signatures as various absorption bands (leading to different sample colors).


Assuntos
Durapatita , Compostos Férricos , Compostos Férricos/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Ferro/química , Modelos Moleculares , Espectroscopia de Mossbauer
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1462, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304455

RESUMO

Intermetallics represent an important family of compounds, in which insertion of light elements (H, B, C, N) has been widely explored for decades to synthesize novel phases and promote functional materials such as permanent magnets or magnetocalorics. Fluorine insertion, however, has remained elusive so far since the strong reactivity of this atypical element, the most electronegative one, tends to produce the chemical decomposition of these systems. Here, we introduce a topochemical method to intercalate fluorine atoms into intermetallics, using perfluorocarbon reactant with covalent C-F bonds. We demonstrate the potential of this approach with the synthesis of non-stoichiometric mixed anion (Si-F) LaFeSiFx single-crystals, which are further shown to host FeSi-based superconductivity. Fluorine topochemistry on intermetallics is thus proven to be an effective route to provide functional materials where the coexistence of ionic and metallo-covalent blocks, and their interactions through inductive effects, is at the root of their functional properties.

3.
ACS Omega ; 5(30): 18651-18661, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775867

RESUMO

Cyan Ni1-x Al2+2x/3O4 single-phase pigments with various Ni/Al atomic ratios (from 1:2 down to 1:4) have been prepared by a sol-gel route (Pechini) followed by postannealing treatments. Nickel aluminates crystallize in the well-known spinel structure (Fd3m space group), where metals are located at two different Wyckoff positions: 16d (octahedron) and 8a (tetrahedron). Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) Rietveld refinements, Ni2+ cations are shown to be partially located in both tetrahedral and octahedral sites and, in addition, cationic vacancies occupy the Oh environment. In the pure-phase series, Ni/Al = 0.35, 0.40, 0.45, as the Al content increases, the Ni2+ rate in the Td site decreases for Ni/Al = 0.45, thus altering the cyan color; within this series, the most saturated cyan coloration is reached for the highest Al concentration. Inorganic pigment drawbacks are their high density and hydrophilic surface, which induce sedimentation and aggregation in nonpolar media used in electrophoretic inks. Hybrid core-shell particle pigments have been synthesized from cyan pigments using nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMRP) with methyl methacrylate monomer in Isopar G, leading to a dispersion of electrically charged hybrids in apolar media. Surface functionalization of the pigments by n-octyltrimethoxysilane (OTS) and n-dodecyltrimethoxysilane (DTS) modifiers has been compared. The inorganic pigments are successfully encapsulated by organic shells to allow a strong decrease in their density. Cyan inks, adequate for their use in e-book readers or other electrophoretic displays, taking further advantage of the high contrast ratio and reflectivity of inorganic pigments in regard to organic dyes, have been stabilized.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 59(1): 678-686, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854984

RESUMO

A low content of chromium (≤5 mol %) has been incorporated into a SnO2 cassiterite by a coprecipitation route in a basic medium, followed by an annealing step under an O2 flow at T = 800 °C and T = 1000 °C. Accurate UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy investigations show the coexistence of isolated Cr4+ and Cr3+ ions as well as ferromagnetic Cr4+-Cr3+ and antiferromagnetic Cr3+-Cr3+ interactions. The strong purple hue is related to the isolated Cr4+ ions stabilized in a distorted octahedral site. This is thanks to the second-order Jahn-Teller (SOJT) effect with a crystal field splitting 10Dq value around 2.4 eV, whereas the 10Dq value is around 2 eV for isotropic Cr3+ ions, partially substituted for Sn4+ ions in cassiterite. Just after the coprecipitation process, only Cr3+ species are stabilized in this rutile network with a poor crystallinity. The isolated Cr4+ content remains high after annealing at 800 °C for 2 days especially for the highest Cr rate (2 and 5 mol %), leading to a darker purple color, but unfortunately the Cr3+ content also increases for a higher Cr concentration. A lighter purple hue can be reached after calcination at a higher temperature (T = 1000 °C) for a shorter time (4 h) but with a lower Cr content to avoid Cr clusters. This is due to stabilizing a high content of isolated Cr4+ species and limiting the Cr4+-Cr3+ ferromagnetic interactions, which are optimal for a 2% Cr content and also cause the color to darken. The key roles of the Cr4+ rate and the Cr4+-Cr3+ clusters create local defects whose concentration strongly varies with a total Cr content, which have then been demonstrated to strongly influence the optical and magnetic properties.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 58(11): 7499-7510, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083992

RESUMO

New inorganic pigments with intense and saturated coloration have been prepared by a solid-state route and exhibit a large color scale from magenta to yellow. Indeed, yellow and magenta are two of the three subtractive model's colors with wide application in printing or displays as e-book readers. To develop yellow and magenta hue, we focused on cobalt- and nickel-based orthophosphates thanks to the chemical stability, low density, low price, and easy preparation of such a pigment class. All of these orthophosphates crystallize with the well-known olivine-type structure (orthorhombic Pnma space group) where transition metals are stabilized in a distorted octahedral site. This paper deals with the optical absorption properties of various orthophosphates, the correlations with structural features, and their colorimetric parameters (in L*a*b* color space). The LiCo1- xMg xPO4 series show near-magenta color with tunable luminosity, while the LiNiPO4 compound exhibits a frank yellow coloration. Co2+ (4T1) and Ni2+ (4A2) chromophore ions occupy a more or less distorted octahedral site, leading to tuning of the intensity of the d-d electronic transitions in the visible and near-IR ranges and providing a subtractive color scale; i.e., a LiCo1- xNi xPO4 solid solution possesses a very rich panel of colors between the two yellow and magenta extremes. It is worth noting that the crystal-field splitting and B Racah parameter have been estimated in a first approximation on the basis of the Tanabe-Sugano diagram and lead to the conclusion of a slightly higher crystal-field splitting of around 0.9 eV for Ni2+ ions and similar ß covalent parameters, despite the same crystallographic sites of both of these transition metals.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(12): 11384-11390, 2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843391

RESUMO

The ability to control the size and morphology is crucial in optimizing nanoceria catalytic activity as this is governed by the atomistic arrangement of species and structural features at the surfaces. Here, we show that cuboidal cerium oxide nanoparticles can be obtained via microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis in highly alkaline media. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that the cube edges were truncated by CeO2{110} surfaces and the cube corners were truncated by CeO2{111} surfaces. When adjusting synthesis conditions by increasing NaOH concentration, the average particle size increased. Although this was accompanied by an increase of the cube faces, CeO2{100}, the cube edges, CeO2{110}, and cube corners, CeO2{111}, remained of constant size. Molecular dynamics (MD) was used to rationalize this behavior and revealed that energetically, the corners and edges cannot be atomically sharp, rather they are truncated by {111} and {110} surfaces, respectively, to stabilize the nanocube; both the experiment and simulation showed agreement regarding the minimum size of ∼1.6 nm associated with this truncation. Moreover, HRTEM and MD revealed {111}/{110} faceting of the {110} edges, which balances the surface energy associated with the exposed surfaces, which follows {111} > {110} > {100}, although only the {110} surface facets because of the ease of extracting oxygen from its surface and follows {111} > {100} > {110}. Finally, MD revealed that the {100} surfaces are "liquid-like" with a surface oxygen mobility 5 orders of magnitude higher than that on the {111} surfaces; this arises from the flexibility of the surface species network that can access many different surface arrangements because of very small energy differences. This finding has implications for understanding the surface chemistry of nanoceria and provides avenues to rationalize the design of catalytically active materials at the nanoscale.

7.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(1): 107-112, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565946

RESUMO

The properties of crystalline solids can be significantly modified by deliberately introducing point defects. Understanding these effects, however, requires understanding the changes in geometry and electronic structure of the host material. Here we report the effect of forming anion vacancies, via dehydroxylation, in a hexagonal tungsten-bronze-structured iron oxyfluoride, which has potential use as a lithium-ion battery cathode. Our combined pair distribution function and density functional theory analysis indicates that oxygen vacancy formation is accompanied by spontaneous rearrangement of fluorine anions and vacancies, producing dual pyramidal (FeF4)-O-(FeF4) structural units containing 5-fold-coordinated Fe atoms. The addition of lattice oxygen introduces new electronic states above the top of the valence band, with a corresponding reduction in the optical band gap from 4.05 to 2.05 eV. This band gap reduction relative to the FeF3 parent material is correlated with a significant improvement in lithium insertion capability relative to a defect-free compound.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 47(2): 382-393, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218338

RESUMO

The synthesis of a Co-doped or Fe-doped La(Ga,Al)O3 perovskite via the Pechini process aimed to achieve a color change induced by temperature and associated with spin crossover (SCO). In Fe-doped samples, iron was shown to be in the high-spin state, whereas SCO from the low-spin to the high-spin configuration was detected in Co-doped compounds when the temperature increased. Fe-doped compounds clearly adopted the high-spin configuration even down to 4 K on the basis of Mössbauer spectroscopic analysis. The original SCO phenomenon in the Co-doped compounds LaGa1-xCoxO3 (0 < x < 0.1) was evidenced and discussed on the basis of in situ X-ray diffraction analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy. This SCO is progressive as a function of temperature and occurs over a broad range of temperatures between roughly 300 °C and 600 °C. The determination of a crystal field strength of about 2 eV and a Racah parameter B of about 500 cm-1 for Co3+ (3d6) ions show that these values allow the occurrence of SCO. Hence, this study shows the possibility of using LaGa1-xCoxO3 compounds as thermal sensors at low Co contents (x = 0.02). The competition between steric and electronic effects in LaGaO3 in which Co3+ is stabilized in the LS state shows that electronic effects with the creation of M-O covalent bonds are predominant and contribute to the stabilization of a high crystal field around Co3+ (LS) although its ionic radius is smaller in comparison with that of Ga3+.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 56(8): 4496-4504, 2017 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383884

RESUMO

The defective fluorite-related Y3NbO7 host lattice was doped with Eu3+ ions to understand the influence of spark plasma sintering (SPS) process on this host lattice. The intrinsic disorder due to the occurrence of oxygen vacancies results in amorphous-type responses of the luminescent cations, and the spectral distribution varies as a function of the niobium content. Two spectral fingerprints of europium emissions were clearly enhanced. The correlation between luminescence, X-ray diffraction, and electron diffraction characterizations shows the existence of local inhomogeneity. Indeed, the particular nonequilibrium sintering conditions allowed pointing out a lack of miscibility within the Y3NbO7 solid solution domain. Thus, the SPS pellet is a composite of two extreme compositions. This phase demixing is mainly induced by the pressure coupled with a current effect that makes possible ionic migration in this Y3NbO7 ionic conductive matrix.

10.
Dalton Trans ; 46(11): 3761-3769, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28262874

RESUMO

Pure tysonite-type Ce1-xSrxF3-x solid solutions for 0 ≤ x < 0.15 were prepared by a solid-state route at 900 °C. The cell parameters follow Vegard's laws for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 and the solubility limit is identified (0.10 < xlimit < 0.15). For 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05, the F2-(Ce,Sr) and F3-(Ce,Sr) bond distances into [Ce1-xSrxF](2-x)+ slabs strongly vary with x. This slab buckling is maximum around x = 0.025 and strongly affects the more mobile F1 fluoride ions located between the slabs. The 19F MAS NMR spectra show the occurrence of F1-F2,3 exchange at 64 °C. The fraction of mobile F2,3 atoms deduced from the relative intensity of the NMR resonance is maximum for Ce0.99Sr0.01F2.99 (22% at 64 °C) while this fraction linearly increases with x for La1-xAExF3-x (AE = Ba, Sr). The highest conductivity found for Ce0.975Sr0.025F2.975 (3 × 10-4 S cm-1 at RT, Ea = 0.31 eV) is correlated to the largest dispersion of F2-(Ce,Sr) and F3-(Ce,Sr) distances which induces the maximum sheet buckling. Such a relationship between composition, structural features and fluoride ion conductivity is extended to other tysonite-type fluorides. The key role of the difference between AE2+ and RE3+ ionic radii and of the thickness of the slab buckling is established and could allow designing new ionic conductors.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 45(11): 4647-58, 2016 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26857127

RESUMO

New Ca(0.66)Mn(2-x)Al(x)O4 (x≤ 0.4) solid solutions crystallizing with the CaFe2O4-type structure (SG: Pnma) were synthesized for the first time by the glycine-nitrate process. The structures were determined on the basis of XRD Rietveld analysis and electron diffraction investigation. While the CaMn3O6 ('Ca(0.66)Mn2O4') oxide adopts a monoclinic unit cell, the Al substitution for Mn (x = 0.2, 0.4) leads to an orthorhombic cell with only two Mn atomic positions, with different valence states, and 33% of Ca sites empty. The Ca molar concentration decreases down to 0.6 in order to increase the Mn valence leading to a phase mixture, whereas a slight Ca content increase up to 0.7 leads to a decrease of Mn valence in the pure phase. The Al(3+) ions are located at a specific Mn site because their ionic radii are close to that of Mn(4+) and a more isotropic environment. The unit cell parameters and volume strongly decrease for a low Al content and tend to an asymptotic value of x = 0.33-0.4, around the limit of solubility. As the Al content increases, the Mn valence state in the same slightly distorted octahedral site increases up to 4+ whereas the other octahedral site is highly elongated and corresponds mainly to Jahn-Teller Mn(3+). At x = 0.33, these two Mn sites correspond to Mn(4+) and Mn(3+) respectively. Moreover, the aluminium content increase induces a weakening of the global antiferromagnetic long range interactions between the ferromagnetic chains. The Al substitution leads to the change of the Mn valence distribution as well as the unit cell symmetry of the CaMn3O6 phase. These 1D tunnel networks stabilizing the Mn(3+)/Mn(4+) valence states can be reduced under Ar/5%H2 between T = 300 °C and T = 600 °C (heating rate = 2 °C min(-1)) into pure Mn(2+) rocksalt solid solution despite the large difference in ionic radii. The re-oxidation leads to the same CaFe2O4-type structure and several redox cycles can be operated. The relationship between the two double chains of the edge-sharing octahedral sites and the rocksalt-type framework is clear and should appear as the driving force for the structural transformation during the reduction/oxidation processes. Finally, Al substitution allows an increasing of the Mn-O bond covalence and consequently the reduction in temperature.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 54(19): 9619-25, 2015 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26378743

RESUMO

Iron fluoride trihydrate can be used to prepare iron hydroxyfluoride with the hexagonal-tungsten-bronze (HTB) type structure, a potential cathode material for batteries. To understand this phase transformation, a structural description of ß-FeF3·3H2O is first performed by means of DFT calculations and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The structure of this compound consists of infinite chains of [FeF6]n and [FeF2(H2O)4]n. The decomposition of FeF3·3H2O induces a collapse and condensation of these chains, which lead to the stabilization, under specific conditions, of a hydroxyfluoride network FeF3-x(OH)x with the HTB structure. The release of H2O and HF was monitored by thermal analysis and physical characterizations during the decomposition of FeF3·3H2O. An average distribution of FeF4(OH)2 distorted octahedra in HTB-FeF3-x(OH)x was obtained subsequent to the thermal hydrolysis/olation of equatorial anionic positions involving F(-) and H2O. This study provides a clear understanding of the structure and thermal properties of FeF3·3H2O, a material that can potentially bridge the recycling of pickling sludge from the steel industry by preparing battery electrodes.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 44(45): 19625-35, 2015 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246328

RESUMO

Pure tysonite La1-xBaxF3-x solid solutions for x < 0.15 were prepared by solid state synthesis in a platinum tube under an azote atmosphere with subsequent quenching for 0.07 ≤x < 0.15. The solid solutions were studied by X-ray, electron and neutron diffractions and by (19)F NMR and impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of the cell parameters obeying Vegard's rule was determined for 0 < x≤ 0.15 and atomic position parameters were accurately refined for x = 0.03, 0.07 and 0.10. The chemical pressure induced by large Ba(2+) cations leads to an increase of the unit cell parameters. Fluorine environment and mobilities are discussed on the basis of the results of neutron diffraction and (19)F solid state NMR. The F1 subnetwork is lacunar; fluorine exchange occurs according to the order: F1-F1 and F1-F2,3. 2D EXSY NMR spectra of La0.97Ba0.03F2.97 reveal, for the first time, a chemical exchange between F2 and F3 sites that requires two successive jumps. The ionic conductivity was evaluated from sintered pellets and different shaping methods were compared. The only structural features which could explain the conductivity maximum are a crossover together with a smaller dispersion of F1-F1,2,3 distances at x = 0.05-0.07.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(13): 7112-7, 2015 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25768036

RESUMO

A mixture of two piezochromic compounds can be used as a universal shock detector, i.e., to determine the shock pressure without knowing a priori the temperature at which the shock occurred. For this purpose, both piezochromic compounds must exhibit different temperature influences in their transition-pressure values. This demonstration uses two piezochromic compounds (CoMoO4 and CuMoO4-type oxides) that exhibit a first-order phase transition between their two allotropic forms associated with a drastic color change. The colorimetric coordinates of the mixture indicate the pressure and temperature of a shock.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 54(5): 2176-84, 2015 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25664488

RESUMO

Fe1-xMgxMoO4 compounds with x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 were obtained after annealing under inert gas at T = 700 °C. All of the compounds exhibit a pressure-induced and/or temperature-induced phase transition between the two polymorphs adopted by AMoO4 compounds (A = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). For the FeMoO4 compound, for both the α and the ß allotropic forms, the structural features have been correlated to the magnetic properties, the Mössbauer signals, and the optical absorption properties to gain a better understanding of the phenomena at the origin of the piezo(thermo)chromic behavior. The different contributions of the Mössbauer signals were attributed to the different Fe(2+) ions or Fe(3+) ions from the structural data (Wyckoff positions, bond distances and angles) and were quantified. Furthermore, the low Fe(3+) concentration (9 and 4 mol %, respectively, in the α and the ß allotropic forms) was also quantified based on the magnetic susceptibility measurements. The net increase in the Fe(3+) quantity in the α-form in comparison to the ß-form, which is associated with the occurrence of Fe-Mo charge transfer, is at the origin of the important divergence of coloration of the two forms. To design new piezo(thermo)chromic oxides and to control the pressure (temperature) of this first-order phase transition, FeMoO4-MgMoO4 solid solutions were synthesized. The optical contrast between the two allotropic forms was increased due to magnesium incorporation, and the phase transition (ß â†’ α) pressure increased steadily with the Mg content. A new generation of nontoxic and chemically stable piezochromic compounds that are sensible to various pressures was proposed.

16.
Dalton Trans ; 42(37): 13622-7, 2013 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23900636

RESUMO

Sub-micrometric ß-CoMoO4 rods have been obtained after thermal treatment of CoMoO4·H2O previously prepared by the precipitation method. The color of the sub-micrometric particles has been investigated through diffuse reflectance in the VIS-IR range and the spectra have been compared with those corresponding to samples with larger isotropic particles. The O(2-)→Mo(6+) charge transfer band shifts to the UV region with decreasing the particle size, revealing a more covalent bond. This can be justified under the consideration of a higher proportion of surface-atoms in sub-micrometric particles that present lower coordination number. The piezochromic behavior of the sub-micrometric ß-CoMoO4 rods has been investigated. As the sub-micrometric size of the particles stabilizes the low-coordination phase (ß-phase), the transition pressure to the α-phase is higher in comparison with that corresponding to larger particles. In addition, it was not possible to obtain a 100% transformation of the ß-phase in the sample with sub-micrometric particles. A similar temperature influence on the transition pressure regardless of particle size has also been observed.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(34): 13240-3, 2011 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21809881

RESUMO

The electrochemical reaction of lithium with a vacancy-containing titanium hydroxyfluoride was studied. On the basis of pair distribution function analysis, NMR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we propose that the material undergoes partitioning upon initial discharge to form a nanostructured composite containing crystalline Li(x)TiO(2), surrounded by a Ti(0) and LiF layer. The Ti(0) is reoxidized upon reversible charging to an amorphous TiF(3) phase via a conversion reaction. The crystalline Li(x)TiO(2) is involved in an insertion reaction. The resulting composite electrode, Ti(0)-LiF/Li(x)TiO(2) ⇔ TiF(3)/ Li(y)TiO(2), allows reaction of more than one Li per Ti, providing a route to higher capacities while improving the energy efficiency compared to pure conversion chemistries.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 49(15): 6853-8, 2010 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20593782

RESUMO

Two sets of Ga-doped ZnO powders were synthesized via solid-state and Pechini routes with a substitution rate varying from 0 to 4 mol %. The gallium solubility limit is strongly dependent on the synthesis history. Indeed, a low temperature annealing allows incorporating about 1.5 mol % (X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductive coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), optical properties) whereas under 0.1% of dopant is introduced after thermal treatment at high temperature: 1500 degrees C (from XRD and pellets conductivity). The incorporation of gallium leads to an anisotropic distortion of the zincite crystal lattice (a and c parameters increase and decrease, respectively, versus the Ga content leading to a decrease of the c/a ratio) which can be explained from the valence bond model. XRD analysis, chemical titration by ICP, and conductivity measurements (on pellets obtained at high temperature) allow determining accurately the maximum Ga content in the zincite. The optical properties (IR absorption efficiency) linked to electron carriers are directly correlated to the gallium rate introduced in ZnO oxide; nevertheless, the non linear correlation between these two parameters tends to show that the concentration of charge carriers in the system is not equal to the amount of Ga(3+) atoms inserted per ZnO volume unit. A saturation regime is observed and was here explained once again on the basis of the valence band model by the increase of inhibiting p type defects with the increase of (n-type donors) Ga(3+) concentration.

19.
Chemistry ; 14(20): 6205-12, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18491305

RESUMO

A non-aqueous sol-gel Al-based fluoride has been subjected to the microwave solvothermal process. The final material depends on the temperature heat treatment used. Three types of material have been prepared: 1) for low temperature heat treatment (90 degrees C) X-ray amorphous alkoxy fluoride was obtained; 2) for the highest temperature used (200 degrees C) the metastable form beta-AlF3 was obtained with a very large surface area of 125 m2 g(-1). The mechanism of the amorphous=crystalline transformation has been rationalised by the occurrence of a decomposition reaction of the gel fluoride induced by the microwave irradiation. 3) Finally, at intermediate temperature (180 degrees C) a multi-component material mixture exhibiting a huge surface area of 525 m2 g(-1) has been obtained and further investigated after mild post-treatment fluorination using F2 gas. The resulting aluminium-based fluoride still possesses a high-surface-area of 330 m2 g(-1). HRTEM revealed that the solid is built from large particles (50 nm) identified as alpha-AlF3, and small ones (10 nm), relative to an unidentified phase. This new high-surface-area material exhibits strong Lewis acidity as revealed by pyridine adsorption and catalytic tests. By comparison with other materials, it has been shown that whatever the composition/structure of the Al-based fluoride materials, the number of strong Lewis acid sites is related to the surface area, highlighting the role of surface reconstruction occurring on a nanoscopic scale on the formation of the strongest Lewis acid sites.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 46(10): 4067-78, 2007 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17417834

RESUMO

Zn1-xCuxAl2O4 (0 < or = x < 0.30) compounds have been synthesized by polyesterification using metallic salts and annealing at low temperatures as well as by conventional solid state. XRD-powder data refinements (Rietveld method) have demonstrated that both compound series crystallize in the spinel structure (Fd3m) and exhibit similar inversion rates. This low-temperature route lead to metastable phases with crystallite sizes around 40 nm whereas particle sizes are larger than 1 moicrom in the case of solid-state route. This preparative method largely described in the literature allows stabilizing reduced copper states thanks to the presence of reductive organic species, which are decomposed below T = 700 degrees C. The absorption spectra of the x = 0.15 composition exhibit strong differences depending on the synthesis route. These differences can be explained by the occurrence of Cu2+/Cu+ mixed valencies in compounds prepared by the low-temperature route; 33% of monovalent copper has been identified in the x = 0.15 composition prepared by low-temperature process, whereas the solid-state compound contains only divalent copper. Reductive properties of polyesterification reaction implying citric acid and low annealing temperature (T = 700 degrees C) are mainly responsible of the occurrence of the Cu2+/Cu+ mixed valencies. Actually, the annealing under air at T = 1000 degrees C of divided zinc-copper aluminates prepared at low temperatures (T = 700 degrees C) leads to the oxidation reaction Cu+ --> Cu2+ + e- confirmed by the evolution of magnetic measurements, ESR spectra, and optical absorption properties. Defects such as oxygen vacancies in the anionic network leading to reduction in the cations coordination number could also explain the strong evolution of optical absorption spectra especially around lambda = 700 nm where intervalencies transfer (Cu+/Cu2+) as well as intra-atomic d-d transitions (Cu2+ in a 5-fold coordination) can occur. Finally the occurrence of monovalent and divalent copper at the surface of such divided oxides, probably in tetrahedral sites, has been demonstrated by FTIR spectroscopy using the co-adsorption of CO and NO as probe molecules.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...