Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 86
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











País/Região como assunto
Intervalo de ano
1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348548

RESUMO

Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) is a rare, severe, early form of osteoporosis in which young women present with fractures, usually multiple vertebral fractures, during late pregnancy or lactation. In studies of idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) in premenopausal women, we enrolled 78 women with low-trauma fractures and 40 healthy controls, all with normal menses and no secondary cause of bone loss. In 15 of the affected women, the PLO subgroup, fractures had occurred during late pregnancy or lactation. We hypothesized that clinical, bone structural, and metabolic characteristics would differ between women with PLO and those with (non-PLO) IOP and controls. All were evaluated > 12 months postpartum, when structural and remodeling characteristics would be expected to reflect baseline premenopausal status rather than transient postpartum changes. As previously reported, affected subjects (PLO and IOP) had BMD and microarchitectural deficiencies compared to controls. Women with PLO did not differ from those with IOP in terms of age, BMI, body fat, menarcheal age, parity, or age at first pregnancy. However, women with PLO had a more severe clinical presentation than those with IOP: more fractures (5.5 ± 3.3 versus 2.6 ± 2.1; p = 0.005); more vertebral fractures (80% versus 17%; p < 0.001); and higher prevalence of multiple fractures. BMD deficits were more profound and cortical width tended to be lower in PLO. PLO subjects also had significantly lower tissue-level mineral apposition rate and bone formation rates (0.005 ± 0.005 versus 0.011 ± 0.010 mm2 /mm/year; p = 0.006), as well as lower serum P1NP (33 ± 12 versus 44 ± 18 µg/L; p = 0.02) and CTX (257 ± 102 versus 355 ± 193 pg/mL; p = 0.01) than IOP. The finding that women with PLO have a low bone remodeling state assessed more than a year postpartum increases our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of PLO. We conclude that women with PLO may have underlying osteoblast functional deficits which could affect their therapeutic response to osteoanabolic medications. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 34(4): 626-631, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601581

RESUMO

Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, reduced the risk of vertebral, hip, and nonvertebral fractures in the Fracture REduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis every 6 Months (FREEDOM) trial of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis compared with placebo. Previous bone histomorphometric analysis in FREEDOM showed decreased bone resorption and turnover in cancellous bone after 2 and 3 years. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of denosumab compared with placebo in the cortical compartment from transiliac bone biopsies obtained during FREEDOM. A total of 112 specimens were evaluable for cortical histomorphometry, including 67 obtained at month 24 (37 placebo, 30 denosumab) and 45 at month 36 (25 placebo, 20 denosumab). Eroded surface, osteoclast surface, erosion depth, and wall thickness were measured on the endocortical surface. Cortical thickness and cortical porosity were also measured. Dynamic parameters of bone formation were assessed for endocortical, periosteal, and intracortical envelopes. Endocortical osteoclast surface, eroded surface, and mean and maximum erosion depth were significantly lower in the denosumab group versus placebo at months 24 and 36 (p < 0.0001 to p = 0.04). Endocortical wall thickness and intracortical measures (cortical porosity and cortical thickness) were not different between the two groups. Dynamic parameters were low with tetracycline labels in cortical bone observed in 13 (43%) and 10 (50%) of denosumab biopsies at months 24 and 36, respectively, reflecting a marked decrease in bone turnover. In conclusion, our data reveal the mechanism of action of denosumab on cortical bone: inhibition of osteoclastic resorption and reduced activation of new remodeling sites. In addition, reduced endocortical erosion depth with no change of wall thickness may contribute to increased bone strength by reducing the bone loss and fragility associated with deep resorption cavities and may likely contribute to the greater BMD gain with denosumab than with other antiresorptive agents. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

3.
Bone ; 120: 246-253, 2018 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated if equivalent doses of TPTD given cyclically over 4-years could increase BMD >2-years of daily TPTD in 2 cohorts of women; previously untreated (Rx-Naïve) and women previously treated with ALN (ALN-Rx). METHODS: In Rx-Naïve, women were randomized to daily TPTD for 24 months (Daily; n = 23) or cyclic TPTD for 48 months (3 months on, 3 months off; Cyclic; n = 25). In ALN-Rx, women were randomized to continued ALN plus daily TPTD for 24 months, followed by ALN alone for 24 months (Daily; n = 21) or TPTD for 48 months (3 months on, 3 months off) while ALN was continued (Cyclic; n = 20). BMD (DXA) was measured at spine (LS), total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN). The primary analysis compared 4 years of cyclic therapy to 2 years of daily therapy in RX-naïve and ALN-RX cohorts. RESULTS: In Rx-Naïve, BMD changes at 24 months after Daily TPTD vs. 48 months after Cyclic TPTD were: LS 8.6% vs. 6.9%; TH 2.5% vs. 2.6%, and FN 1.6% vs. 2.2%. None of the BMD changes differed significantly between groups but all changes were significant over time within each group (p < 0.01 except for FN where p = 0.17 Daily; p = 0.09 Cyclic). In ALN-Rx, BMD changes at 24 months after Daily TPTD vs. 48 months after Cyclic TPTD were: LS 7.5% vs. 7.2%; TH 3.8% vs. 4.1%, and FN 3.2% vs. 2.5%. There were no differences between groups but all changes were significant within each group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The same cumulative dose of TPTD given cyclically for 4-years, does not increase BMD more than standard daily TPTD over 2-years in either Rx-Naïve or ALN-Rx women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00668941.

4.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(11): 1931-1939, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29972871

RESUMO

Hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder that is associated with abnormal bone properties. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-84) [rhPTH(1-84)] in short-term studies has beneficial skeletal effects. Although rhPTH(1-84) will likely be used indefinitely, long-term effects on skeletal microstructure are unknown. We therefore studied histomorphometric changes with transiliac crest bone biopsies before and after 8.3 ± 1 years of rhPTH(1-84) in 13 hypoparathyroid subjects compared with 45 controls. Before institution of rhPTH(1-84), skeletal remodeling indices were markedly suppressed. With long-term treatment, indices of bone remodeling increased. Mineralizing surface increased by 26-fold (0.3 ± 1 to 7.9 ± 7%, p = 0.003), bone formation rate increased by 15-fold (0.003 ± 0.01 to 0.047 ± 0.05 µm2 /µm/day, p = 0.007), osteoid width doubled (1.9 ± 1 to 4.3 ± 1 lamellae, p = 0.017), and osteoid surface tripled (3.3 ± 3 to 10.8 ± 6%, p = 0.011). Bone resorption as measured by eroded surface increased (4.6 ± 2 to 7.5 ± 3%, p = 0.021). Structural changes demonstrated intratrabecular tunneling, with increases in cancellous bone volume (19.6 ± 5 to 29.1 ± 11%, p = 0.017) and trabecular number (1.8 ± 1 to 2.5 ± 1 #/mm, p = 0.025). Cortical porosity tended to increase (6.3 ± 5 to 9.5 ± 3%, p = 0.07). Mineralizing surface, osteoid surface, and eroded surface surpassed control levels, as did cancellous bone volume, trabecular number, and cortical porosity. These data, the first to reflect such long exposure of any PTH for any disease, illustrate that PTH establishes and maintains a new skeletal state for at least 8 years in hypoparathyroidism. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(7): 2498-2509, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672714

RESUMO

Context: Denosumab is a potent antiresorptive agent that reduces fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Objective: Determine effects of up to 10 years of denosumab on bone histology, remodeling, and matrix mineralization characteristics. Design and Setting: International, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial [Fracture Reduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis Every 6 Months (FREEDOM)] with a long-term open-label extension. Patients: Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (92 women in FREEDOM, 46 in extension) who provided iliac bone biopsies, including 11 who provided biopsies at multiple time points. Interventions: FREEDOM subjects were randomized 1:1 to subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg or placebo every 6 months for 3 years. Long-term extension subjects continued receiving denosumab, open-label, for 7 additional years. Outcomes: Bone histology, histomorphometry, matrix mineralization. Results: Ten-year denosumab biopsies showed normal histology. Bone histomorphometry indicated normal bone structure and reduced bone remodeling after 10 years of denosumab, similar to levels after 2 and/or 3 and 5 years of denosumab. The degree of mineralization of bone was increased and mineralization heterogeneity was reduced in the denosumab years 2/3 group vs placebo. Changes in these mineralization variables progressed from years 2/3 to year 5 of denosumab, but not thereafter. Conclusions: Denosumab for 2/3, 5, and 10 years was associated with normal histology, low bone remodeling rate, increased matrix mineralization, and lower mineralization heterogeneity compared with placebo. These variables were unchanged from year 5 to year 10. These data, in combination with the maintenance of low fracture rates for up to 10 years as previously reported with denosumab therapy, suggest that strong, prolonged remodeling inhibition does not impair bone strength.

6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(4): 627-633, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29194749

RESUMO

Previously, we reported on bone histomorphometry, biochemical markers, and bone mineral density distribution after 6 and 24 months of treatment with teriparatide (TPTD) or zoledronic acid (ZOL) in the SHOTZ study. The study included a 12-month primary study period, with treatment (TPTD 20 µg/d by subcutaneous injection or ZOL 5 mg/yr by intravenous infusion) randomized and double-blind until the month 6 biopsy (TPTD, n = 28; ZOL, n = 30 evaluable), then open-label, with an optional 12-month extension receiving the original treatment. A second biopsy (TPTD, n = 10; ZOL, n = 9) was collected from the contralateral side at month 24. Here we present data on remodeling-based bone formation (RBF), modeling-based bone formation (MBF), and overflow modeling-based bone formation (oMBF, modeling overflow adjacent to RBF sites) in the cancellous, endocortical, and periosteal envelopes. RBF was significantly greater after TPTD versus ZOL in all envelopes at 6 and 24 months, except the periosteal envelope at 24 months. MBF was significantly greater with TPTD in all envelopes at 6 months but not at 24 months. oMBF was significantly greater at 6 months in the cancellous and endocortical envelopes with TPTD, with no significant differences at 24 months. At 6 months, total bone formation surface was also significantly greater in each envelope with TPTD treatment (all p < 0.001). For within-group comparisons from 6 to 24 months, no statistically significant changes were observed in RBF, MBF, or oMBF in any envelope for either the TPTD or ZOL treatment groups. Overall, TPTD treatment was associated with greater bone formation than ZOL. Taken together the data support the view that ZOL is a traditional antiremodeling agent, wheareas TPTD is a proremodeling anabolic agent that increases bone formation, especially that associated with bone remodeling, including related overflow modeling, with substantial modeling-based bone formation early in the course of treatment. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

7.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(2): 298-306, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024120

RESUMO

There has been renewed interest of late in the role of modeling-based formation (MBF) during osteoporosis therapy. Here we describe early effects of an established anabolic (teriparatide) versus antiresorptive (denosumab) agent on remodeling-based formation (RBF), MBF, and overflow MBF (oMBF) in human transiliac bone biopsies. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis received subcutaneous teriparatide (n = 33, 20 µg/d) or denosumab (n = 36, 60 mg once/6 months), open-label for 6 months at 7 US and Canadian sites. Subjects received double fluorochrome labeling at baseline and before biopsy at 3 months. Sites of bone formation were designated as MBF if the underlying cement line was smooth, RBF if scalloped, and oMBF if formed over smooth cement lines adjacent to scalloped reversal lines. At baseline, mean RBF/bone surface (BS), MBF/BS, and oMBF/BS were similar between the teriparatide and denosumab groups in each bone envelope assessed (cancellous, endocortical, periosteal). All types of formation significantly increased from baseline in the cancellous and endocortical envelopes (differences p < 0.001) with teriparatide (range of changes 2.9- to 21.9-fold), as did MBF in the periosteum (p < 0.001). In contrast, all types of formation were decreased or not significantly changed with denosumab, except MBF/BS in the cancellous envelope, which increased 2.5-fold (difference p = 0.048). These data highlight mechanistic differences between these agents: all 3 types of bone formation increased significantly with teriparatide, whereas formation was predominantly decreased or not significantly changed with denosumab, except for a slight increase in MBF/BS in the cancellous envelope. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(7): 1389-1390, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498616
9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 5(7): 513-523, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28546097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy of osteoporosis treatment are important because of the chronic nature of the disease. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of denosumab, which is widely used for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: In the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 FREEDOM trial, postmenopausal women aged 60-90 years with osteoporosis were enrolled in 214 centres in North America, Europe, Latin America, and Australasia and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 60 mg subcutaneous denosumab or placebo every 6 months for 3 years. All participants who completed the FREEDOM trial without discontinuing treatment or missing more than one dose of investigational product were eligible to enrol in the open-label, 7-year extension, in which all participants received denosumab. The data represent up to 10 years of denosumab exposure for women who received 3 years of denosumab in FREEDOM and continued in the extension (long-term group), and up to 7 years for women who received 3 years of placebo and transitioned to denosumab in the extension (crossover group). The primary outcome was safety monitoring, comprising assessments of adverse event incidence and serious adverse event incidence, changes in safety laboratory analytes (ie, serum chemistry and haematology), and participant incidence of denosumab antibody formation. Secondary outcomes included new vertebral, hip, and non-vertebral fractures as well as bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and one-third radius. Analyses were done according to the randomised FREEDOM treatment assignments. All participants who received at least one dose of investigational product in FREEDOM or the extension were included in the combined safety analyses. All participants who enrolled in the extension with observed data were included in the efficacy analyses. The FREEDOM trial (NCT00089791) and its extension (NCT00523341) are both registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. FINDINGS: Between Aug 3, 2004, and June 1, 2005, 7808 women were enrolled in the FREEDOM study. 5928 (76%) women were eligible for enrolment in the extension, and of these, 4550 (77%) were enrolled (2343 long-term, 2207 crossover) between Aug 7, 2007, and June 20, 2008. 2626 women (1343 long-term; 1283 crossover) completed the extension. The yearly exposure-adjusted participant incidence of adverse events for all individuals receiving denosumab decreased from 165·3 to 95·9 per 100 participant-years over the course of 10 years. Serious adverse event rates were generally stable over time, varying between 11·5 and 14·4 per 100 participant-years. One atypical femoral fracture occurred in each group during the extension. Seven cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported in the long-term group and six cases in the crossover group. The yearly incidence of new vertebral fractures (ranging from 0·90% to 1·86%) and non-vertebral fractures (ranging from 0·84% to 2·55%) remained low during the extension, similar to rates observed in the denosumab group during the first three years of the FREEDOM study, and lower than rates projected for a virtual long-term placebo cohort. In the long-term group, BMD increased from FREEDOM baseline by 21·7% at the lumbar spine, 9·2% at total hip, 9·0% at femoral neck, and 2·7% at the one-third radius. In the crossover group, BMD increased from extension baseline by 16·5% at the lumbar spine, 7·4% at total hip, 7·1% at femoral neck, and 2·3% at one-third radius. INTERPRETATION: Denosumab treatment for up to 10 years was associated with low rates of adverse events, low fracture incidence compared with that observed during the original trial, and continued increases in BMD without plateau. FUNDING: Amgen.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Cell Metab ; 25(3): 661-672, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28162969

RESUMO

Intermittent PTH administration builds bone mass and prevents fractures, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We genetically deleted the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) in mesenchymal stem cells using Prx1Cre and found low bone formation, increased bone resorption, and high bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Bone marrow adipocytes traced to Prx1 and expressed classic adipogenic markers and high receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (Rankl) expression. RANKL levels were also elevated in bone marrow supernatant and serum, but undetectable in other adipose depots. By cell sorting, Pref1+RANKL+ marrow progenitors were twice as great in mutant versus control marrow. Intermittent PTH administration to control mice reduced BMAT significantly. A similar finding was noted in male osteoporotic patients. Thus, marrow adipocytes exhibit osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics, are uniquely responsive to PTH, and secrete RANKL. These studies reveal an important mechanism for PTH's therapeutic action through its ability to direct mesenchymal cell fate.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Linhagem da Célula/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/farmacologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos , Contagem de Células , Humanos , Integrases/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoporose/patologia , Fenótipo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Hormônio Paratireóideo/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Crânio/citologia
12.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(6): 1267-1273, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28218468

RESUMO

We have previously reported that premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) have profound microarchitectural deficiencies and heterogeneous bone remodeling. Those with the lowest bone formation rate have higher baseline serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and less robust response to teriparatide. Because IGF-1 stimulates bone formation and is critical for teriparatide action on osteoblasts, these findings suggest a state of IGF-1 resistance in some IOP women. To further investigate the hypothesis that osteoblast and IGF-1-related mechanisms mediate differential responsiveness to teriparatide in IOP, we studied circulating osteoblast progenitor (COP) cells and their IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression. In premenopausal women with IOP, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained at baseline (n = 25) and over 24 months of teriparatide treatment (n = 11). Flow cytometry was used to identify and quantify COPs (non-hematopoetic lineage cells expressing osteocalcin and RUNX2) and to quantify IGF-1R expression levels. At baseline, both the percent of PBMCs that were COPs (%COP) and COP cell-surface IGF-1R expression correlated directly with several histomorphometric indices of bone formation in tetracycline-labeled transiliac biopsies. In treated subjects, both %COP and IGF-1R expression increased promptly after teriparatide, returning toward baseline by 18 months. Although neither baseline %COP nor increase in %COP after 3 months predicted the bone mineral density (BMD) response to teriparatide, the percent increase in IGF-1R expression on COPs at 3 months correlated directly with the BMD response to teriparatide. Additionally, lower IGF-1R expression after teriparatide was associated with higher body fat, suggesting links between teriparatide resistance, body composition, and the GH/IGF-1 axis. In conclusion, these assays may be useful to characterize bone remodeling noninvasively and may serve to predict early response to teriparatide and possibly other bone formation-stimulating medications. These new tools may also have utility in the mechanistic investigation of teriparatide resistance in premenopausal IOP and perhaps in other populations. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(2): 198-202, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27925287

RESUMO

The effects of anabolic medications (teriparatide [TPTD] and parathyroid hormone [PTH]) differ in patients who have received recent treatment with potent antiresorptives. This perspective reviews studies evaluating bone density (BMD) and histomorphometric effects of treatment sequences beginning with TPTD/PTH followed by potent antiresorptives and those beginning with potent antiresorptives followed by switching to or adding TPTD. Effect of treatment sequence on spine BMD outcome is minor, with modest quantitative differences. However, when individuals established on potent bisphosphonates are switched to TPTD, hip BMD declines below baseline for at least the first 12 months after the switch to TPTD. This transient hip BMD loss is more prominent when the antiresorptive is denosumab; in this setting, hip BMD remains below baseline for almost a full 24 months. In a controlled comparison of those who switched from alendronate to TPTD versus those who added TPTD to ongoing alendronate, the effect on hip BMD was improved with combination therapy. Furthermore, hip strength improved with the addition of TPTD to ongoing alendronate, whereas it was neutral after switching from alendronate to TPTD, primarily due to the effect on cortical bone. Bone biopsy studies indicate that TPTD stimulates bone formation in patients who have not been treated previously as well as in patients on prior and ongoing bisphosphonates. Histomorphometric evidence suggests that use of alendronate with TPTD blocks the TPTD-induced increase in cortical porosity. When possible, we suggest anabolic therapy first, followed by potent antiresorptive therapy. The common practice of switching to TPTD only after patients have an inadequate response to antiresorptives (intercurrent fracture or inadequate BMD effect) is not the optimal utilization of anabolic treatment. In fact, this may result in transient loss of hip BMD and strength. In this setting, continuing a potent antiresorptive while starting TPTD might improve hip outcomes. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Quadril/patologia , Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico
14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 31(8): 1527-35, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931279

RESUMO

The Skeletal Histomorphometry in Patients on Teriparatide or Zoledronic Acid Therapy (SHOTZ) study assessed the progressive effects of teriparatide (TPTD) and zoledronic acid (ZOL) on bone remodeling and material properties in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Previously, we reported that biochemical and histomorphometric bone formation indices were significantly higher in patients receiving TPTD versus ZOL. Here we report bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) results based on quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI). The 12-month primary study was randomized and double blind until the month 6 biopsy, then open label. Patients (TPTD, n = 28; ZOL, n = 31) were then eligible to enter a 12-month open-label extension with their original treatment: TPTD 20 µg/d (subcutaneous injection) or ZOL 5 mg/yr (intravenous infusion). A second biopsy was collected from the contralateral side at month 24 (TPTD, n = 10; ZOL, n = 10). In cancellous bone, ZOL treatment was associated at 6 and 24 months with significantly higher average degree of mineralization (CaMEAN, +2.2%, p = 0.018; +3.9%, p = 0.009, respectively) and with lower percentage of low mineralized areas (CaLOW , -34.6%, p = 0.029; -33.7%, p = 0.025, respectively) and heterogeneity of mineralization CaWIDTH (-12.3%, p = 0.003; -9.9%, p = 0.012, respectively), indicating higher mineralization density and more homogeneous mineral content versus TPTD. Within the ZOL group, significant changes were found in all parameters from month 6 to 24, indicating a progressive increase in mineralization density. In sharp contrast, mineralization density did not increase over time with TPTD, reflecting ongoing deposition of new bone. Similar results were observed in cortical bone. In this study, TPTD stimulated new bone formation, producing a mineralized bone matrix that remained relatively heterogeneous with a stable mean mineral content. ZOL slowed bone turnover and prolonged secondary mineralization, producing a progressively more homogeneous and highly mineralized bone matrix. Although both TPTD and ZOL increase clinical measures of bone mineral density (BMD), this study shows that the underlying mechanisms of the BMD increases are fundamentally different. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Osso Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Cortical/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Cortical/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Zoledrônico
16.
J Bone Miner Res ; 31(8): 1518-26, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916877

RESUMO

There is little information on the effects of combination therapy for osteoporosis at the tissue level. Using quadruple tetracycline-labeled bone biopsies, we have compared the bone formation response to teriparatide (TPTD) in treatment-naïve subjects (Rx-Naïve) and in subjects on prior and ongoing alendronate (ALN) treatment (ALN-Rx). Three bone envelopes were analyzed: cancellous, endocortical, and intracortical. TPTD was given as a standard, continuous daily injection or as a cyclic regimen (3 months on daily TPTD, 3 months off, 3 months on daily TPTD). Subjects were biopsied at 7 weeks and at 7 months to allow comparison of the bone formation response to the first and second cycles of TPTD. Baseline values for dynamic bone formation indices were lower in ALN-Rx than Rx-Naïve subjects. Both Rx-Naïve and ALN-RX subjects responded to TPTD with significant increases in bone formation indices at both time points. With cyclic TPTD treatment, the first and second cycles of TPTD stimulated bone formation rate in the cancellous and endocortical envelopes to a similar extent in ALN-Rx and Rx-Naïve subjects. However, in Rx-Naïve patients, bone formation rate (BFR/BS) was higher in patients receiving daily treatment compared with those receiving cyclic TPTD treatment in all three envelopes in the 7-month biopsies. This suggests that the cyclic approach does not provide a skeletal benefit in treatment-naive patients. In the 7-month biopsies, cortical porosity was higher in the Rx-Naïve group receiving daily TPTD than in all other groups. These data provide supporting evidence at the tissue level for previous biochemical and densitometric data suggesting that addition of either cyclic or daily TPTD to ongoing ALN treatment may be an effective approach for patients with severe osteoporosis already treated with ALN who remain at high risk of fracture. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Alendronato/farmacologia , Ílio/fisiologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Osso Cortical/efeitos dos fármacos , Demografia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Ílio/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porosidade
17.
J Bone Miner Res ; 31(7): 1429-39, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841258

RESUMO

Previously, we reported the effects of teriparatide (TPTD) and zoledronic acid (ZOL) on bone formation based on biochemical markers and bone histomorphometry of the cancellous envelope at month 6 in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who participated in the 12-month primary Skeletal Histomorphometry in Subjects on Teriparatide or Zoledronic Acid Therapy (SHOTZ) study. Patients were eligible to enter a 12-month extension on their original treatment regimen: TPTD 20 µg/day (s.c. injection) or ZOL 5 mg/year (i.v. infusion). A second biopsy was performed at month 24. Here we report longitudinal changes between and within each treatment group in the cancellous, endocortical, intracortical, and periosteal bone envelopes in patients with evaluable biopsies at months 6 and 24 (paired data set: TPTD, n = 10; ZOL, n = 9). Between-group differences are also reported in the larger set of patients with evaluable biopsies at month 6 (TPTD, n = 28; ZOL, n = 30). Data from the cancellous envelope at month 6 or month 24 provided a reference to compare differences across envelopes within each treatment group. The 24-month results extend our earlier report that TPTD and ZOL possess different tissue-level mechanisms of action. Moreover, these differences persisted for at least 2 years in all four bone envelopes. Few longitudinal differences were observed within or across bone envelopes in ZOL-treated patients, suggesting that the low bone formation indices at month 6 persisted to month 24. Conversely, the magnitude of the effect of TPTD on bone formation varied across individual envelopes: median values for mineralizing surface (MS/BS) and bone formation rate (BFR/BS) at month 6 were approximately 3-fold to 5-fold higher in the endocortical and intracortical envelopes compared to the cancellous envelope. Although MS/BS and BFR/BS declined in these envelopes at month 24, median values continued to exceed, or were not significantly different from, those in the cancellous envelope. This study demonstrates for the first time that bone formation indices are higher with TPTD treatment than with ZOL in all four bone envelopes and the difference persists for at least 2 years. Moreover, the magnitude of the effect of TPTD in cortical bone remains robust at 24 months. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Osso Esponjoso , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Periósteo , Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Teriparatida/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/metabolismo , Osso Esponjoso/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/patologia , Periósteo/metabolismo , Periósteo/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ácido Zoledrônico
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 101(4): 1498-505, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26900640

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Teriparatide (TPTD) improves bone mass and microstructure resulting in reduced risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. However, hip bone mineral density improvements are modest and there are no data confirming that TPTD reduces hip fracture risk. To study the effects of TPTD on the proximal femur, we performed a double-blind trial of TPTD vs placebo (PBO) in patients with osteoarthritis from whom femoral neck (FN) samples were obtained at total hip replacement (THR) surgery. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to receive TPTD or PBO for an average of 40 days before THR. Double tetracycline labeling was initiated 21 days prior to THR to allow histomorphometric assessment of bone formation. During the THR, an intact sample of the FN was procured, fixed, and sectioned transversely. Serum levels of bone turnover markers were measured at baseline and during the THR. Standard histomorphometric parameters were measured and calculated on four bone envelopes (cancellous, endocortical, intracortical, and periosteal). The primary outcome measure was bone formation rate/bone surface (BFR/BS). RESULTS: Forty individuals were enrolled (25 women, mean age, 71.5 ± 8.0 y and 15 men, mean age, 68.9 ± 7.7 y). In cancellous and endocortical envelopes, BFR/BS was 100% higher in the TPTD vs PBO group (P < .05). Bone turnover markers measured at the time of THR correlated with BFR/BS. CONCLUSIONS: TPTD stimulates bone formation rapidly in cancellous and endocortical envelopes of the FN. Our findings provide a mechanistic basis for TPTD-mediated improvement in FN bone mass and ultimately hip strength. This study is the first demonstration of the effect of any osteoporosis medication on osteoblast activity in the human proximal femur.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Colo do Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/prevenção & controle , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Bone Miner Res ; 31(5): 1082-8, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26724790

RESUMO

The microstructural skeletal phenotype of hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT), a disorder of inadequate parathyroid hormone secretion, is altered trabecular microarchitecture with increased trabecular bone volume and thickness. Using 2-D histomorphometric analysis, we previously found that 2 years of PTH(1-84) in HypoPT is associated with reduced trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and an increase in trabecular number (Tb.N). We have now utilized direct 3-D microstructural analysis to determine the extent to which these changes may be related to bone strength. Iliac crest bone biopsies from HypoPT subjects (n = 58) were analyzed by microcomputed tomography (µCT) and by microfinite element (µFE) analysis. Biopsies were performed at baseline and at 1 or 2 years of recombinant human PTH(1-84) [rhPTH(1-84)]. In a subset of subjects (n = 13) at 3 months, we demonstrated a reduction in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, 0.64 ± 0.1 to 0.56 ± 0.1 mm; p = 0.005) and in the variance of trabecular separation (Tb.SD, 0.19 ± 0.1 to 0.17 ± 0.1 mm; p = 0.01), along with an increase in bone volume/total volume (BV/TV, 26.76 ± 10.1 to 32.83 ± 13.5%; p = 0.02), bone surface/total volume (BS/TV, 3.85 ± 0.7 to 4.49 ± 1.0 mm(2) /mm(3) ; p = 0.005), Tb.N (1.84 ± 0.5 versus 2.36 ± 1.3 mm(-1) ; p = 0.02) and Young's modulus (649.38 ± 460.7 to 1044.81 ± 1090.5 N/mm(2) ; p = 0.049). After 1 year of rhPTH(1-84), Force increased (144.08 ± 102.4 to 241.13 ± 189.1 N; p = 0.04) and Young's modulus tended to increase (662.15 ± 478.2 to 1050.80 ± 824.1 N/m(2) ; p = 0.06). The 1-year change in cancellous mineralizing surface (MS/BS) predicted 1-year changes in µCT variables. The biopsies obtained after 2 years of rhPTH(1-84) showed no change from baseline. These data suggest that administration of rhPTH(1-84) in HypoPT is associated with transient changes in key parameters associated with bone strength. The results indicate that rhPTH(1-84) improves skeletal quality in HypoPT early in treatment. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso , Módulo de Elasticidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoparatireoidismo , Hormônio Paratireóideo/administração & dosagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Adulto , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Esponjoso/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipoparatireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoparatireoidismo/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 8(6): 225-235, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28255336

RESUMO

The adult skeleton is renewed by remodeling throughout life. Bone remodeling is a process where osteoclasts and osteoblasts work sequentially in the same bone remodeling unit. After the attainment of peak bone mass, bone remodeling is balanced and bone mass is stable for one or two decades until age-related bone loss begins. Age-related bone loss is caused by increases in resorptive activity and reduced bone formation. The relative importance of cortical remodeling increases with age as cancellous bone is lost and remodeling activity in both compartments increases. Bone modeling describes the process whereby bones are shaped or reshaped by the independent action of osteoblast and osteoclasts. The activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are not necessarily coupled anatomically or temporally. Bone modeling defines skeletal development and growth but continues throughout life. Modeling-based bone formation contributes to the periosteal expansion, just as remodeling-based resorption is responsible for the medullary expansion seen at the long bones with aging. Existing and upcoming treatments affect remodeling as well as modeling. Teriparatide stimulates bone formation, 70% of which is remodeling based and 20-30% is modeling based. The vast majority of modeling represents overflow from remodeling units rather than de novo modeling. Denosumab inhibits bone remodeling but is permissive for modeling at cortex. Odanacatib inhibits bone resorption by inhibiting cathepsin K activity, whereas modeling-based bone formation is stimulated at periosteal surfaces. Inhibition of sclerostin stimulates bone formation and histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that bone formation is predominantly modeling based. The bone-mass response to some osteoporosis treatments in humans certainly suggests that nonremodeling mechanisms contribute to this response and bone modeling may be such a mechanism. To date, this has only been demonstrated for teriparatide, however, it is clear that rediscovering a phenomenon that was first observed more half a century ago will have an important impact on our understanding of how new antifracture treatments work.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA