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1.
Theranostics ; 11(20): 9967-9987, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34815798

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1 plays critical roles in mammary gland development and mammary tumorigenesis. And loss of BRCA1 induces mammary tumors in a stochastic manner. These tumors present great heterogeneity at both intertumor and intratumor levels. Methods: To comprehensively elucidate the heterogeneity of BRCA1 deficient mammary tumors and the underlying mechanisms for tumor initiation and progression, we conducted bulk and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) on both mammary gland cells and mammary tumor cells isolated from Brca1 knockout mice. Results: We found the BRCA1 deficient tumors could be classified into four subtypes with distinct molecular features and different sensitivities to anti-cancer drugs at the intertumor level. Whereas within the tumors, heterogeneous subgroups were classified mainly due to the different activities of cell proliferation, DNA damage response/repair and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Besides, we reconstructed the BRCA1 related mammary tumorigenesis to uncover the transcriptomes alterations during this process via pseudo-temporal analysis of the scRNA-seq data. Furthermore, from candidate markers for BRCA1 mutant tumors, we discovered and validated one oncogene Mrc2, whose loss could reduce mammary tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: Our study provides a useful resource for better understanding of mammary tumorigenesis induced by BRCA1 deficiency.

2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(15): 4176-4191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803491

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinoma (CC), the most lethal type of liver cancer, remains very difficult to treat due to an incomplete understanding of the cancer initiation and progression mechanisms and no effective therapeutic drugs. Thus, identification of genomic drivers and delineation of the underlying mechanisms are urgently needed. Here, we conducted a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening in liver-specific Smad4/Pten knockout mice (Smad4co/co;Ptenco/co;Alb-Cre, abbreviated as SPC), and identified 15 putative tumor suppressor genes, including Cullin3 (Cul3), whose deficiency increases protein levels of Nrf2 and Cyclin D1 that accelerate cholangiocytes expansion leading to the initiation of CC. Meanwhile, Cul3 deficiency also increases the secretion of Cxcl9 in stromal cells to attract T cells infiltration, and increases the production of Amphiregulin (Areg) mediated by Nrf2, which paracrinely induces inflammation in the liver, and promotes accumulation of exhausted PD1high CD8 T cells at the expenses of their cytotoxic activity, allowing CC progression. We demonstrate that the anti-PD1/PD-L1 blockade inhibits CC growth, and the effect is enhanced by combining with sorafenib selected from organoid mediated drug sensitive test. This model makes it possible to further identify more liver cancer suppressors, study molecular mechanisms, and develop effective therapeutic strategies.

3.
Theranostics ; 11(19): 9415-9430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646378

RESUMO

The feasibility of personalized medicine for cancer treatment is largely hampered by costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming models for drug discovery. Herein, establishing new pre-clinical models to tackle these issues for personalized medicine is urgently demanded. Methods: We established a three-dimensional tumor slice culture (3D-TSC) platform incorporating label-free techniques for time-course experiments to predict anti-cancer drug efficacy and validated the 3D-TSC model by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, RNA sequence analysis, histochemical and histological analysis. Results: Using time-lapse imaging of the apoptotic reporter sensor C3 (C3), we performed cell-based high-throughput drug screening and shortlisted high-efficacy drugs to screen murine and human 3D-TSCs, which validate effective candidates within 7 days of surgery. Histological and RNA sequence analyses demonstrated that 3D-TSCs accurately preserved immune components of the original tumor, which enables the successful achievement of immune checkpoint blockade assays with antibodies against PD-1 and/or PD-L1. Label-free multiphoton fluorescence imaging revealed that 3D-TSCs exhibit lipofuscin autofluorescence features in the time-course monitoring of drug response and efficacy. Conclusion: This technology accelerates precision anti-cancer therapy by providing a cheap, fast, and easy platform for anti-cancer drug discovery.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(21): e2100974, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514747

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase that mediates FGF signaling. Various FGFR2 alterations are detected in breast cancer, yet it remains unclear if activation of FGFR2 signaling initiates tumor formation. In an attempt to answer this question, a mouse model berrying an activation mutation of FGFR2 (FGFR2-S252W) in the mammary gland is generated. It is found that FGF/FGFR2 signaling drives the development of triple-negative breast cancer accompanied by epithelial-mesenchymal transition that is regulated by FGFR2-STAT3 signaling. It is demonstrated that FGFR2 suppresses BRCA1 via the ERK-YY1 axis and promotes tumor progression. BRCA1 knockout in the mammary gland of the FGFR2-S252W mice significantly accelerated tumorigenesis. It is also shown that FGFR2 positively regulates PD-L1 and that a combination of FGFR2 inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade kills cancer cells. These data suggest that the mouse models mimic human breast cancers and can be used to identify actionable therapeutic targets.

5.
Oncogene ; 40(41): 6023-6033, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433910

RESUMO

Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is involved in various metabolic pathways, including fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. However, its role in initiation and progression of liver cancer remains unclear. Studying Sirt1 liver-specific knockout (LKO) mice in combination with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) treatment, we demonstrated that loss of Sirt1 rendered mice resistant to DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. RNA-seq revealed that livers from LKO mice exhibited an enrichment in glutathione metabolism eight months after DEN challenge. Sirt1 deficiency elevated the expression of glutathione-s-transferase family genes by increasing the level of Nrf2, a key regulator of glutathione metabolism. Hence, LKO livers displayed a reductive environment with an increased ratio of GSH to GSSG and an elevated GSH level. Furthermore, using CRISPR knockout techniques, we confirmed that the impairment of HCC formation in LKO mice is mainly dependent on NRF2 signaling. Meanwhile, HCC induced by DEN could be blocked by the administration of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) when administered one month after DEN challenge. However, NAC treatment starting five months after DEN injection was not able to prevent tumor development. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a reductive environment orchestrated by glutathione metabolism at an early stage can prevent the initiation of HCC.

6.
Oncogene ; 40(35): 5416-5426, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282274

RESUMO

The inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes contributes heavily to oncogenesis. The mutation of TP53 has been well-studied and recognized as a major factor in the development of tumors. Yet other means of p53 inactivation has not been well-elucidated. We previously identified a hypermethylated gene ZDHHC1 that suppresses tumor growth when the expression was restored, but the specific mechanism was yet to be found. The protein product of ZDHHC1 is an S-palmitoyltransferase and we have identified p53 as a substrate for ZDHHC1-mediated palmitoylation, specifically at the C135, C176, and C275 residues. The novel form of post-translational modification of p53 is required for the nuclear translocation of the tumor suppressor. p53 recruited DNMT3A to ZDHHC1 promoter and is responsible for the hypermethylation of ZDHHC1. The epigenetic feedback loop formed by ZDHHC1 and p53 sheds light on the inactivation of p53 without the presence of genetic mutations.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946224

RESUMO

Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), also known as amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1), is a member of the SRC family. SRC-3 regulates not only the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors but also many other transcription factors. Besides the essential role of SRC-3 in physiological functions, it also acts as an oncogene to promote multiple aspects of cancer. This review updates the important progress of SRC-3 in carcinogenesis and summarizes its mode of action, which provides clues for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/metabolismo , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Animais , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/análise , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3046, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031426

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant head and neck cancer type with high morbidity in Southeast Asia, however the pathogenic mechanism of this disease is poorly understood. Using integrative pharmacogenomics, we find that NPC subtypes maintain distinct molecular features, drug responsiveness, and graded radiation sensitivity. The epithelial carcinoma (EC) subtype is characterized by activations of microtubule polymerization and defective mitotic spindle checkpoint related genes, whereas sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC) and mixed sarcomatoid-epithelial carcinoma (MSEC) subtypes exhibit enriched epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion promoting genes, which are well correlated with their morphological features. Furthermore, patient-derived organoid (PDO)-based drug test identifies potential subtype-specific treatment regimens, in that SC and MSEC subtypes are sensitive to microtubule inhibitors, whereas EC subtype is more responsive to EGFR inhibitors, which is synergistically enhanced by combining with radiotherapy. Through combinational chemoradiotherapy (CRT) screening, effective CRT regimens are also suggested for patients showing less sensitivity to radiation. Altogether, our study provides an example of applying integrative pharmacogenomics to establish a personalized precision oncology for NPC subtype-guided therapies.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Farmacogenética/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Medicina de Precisão , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(4): 2003338, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643804

RESUMO

Radiotherapy (RT) based on DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been clinically validated in various types of cancer. However, high dose-dependent induced toxicity to tissues, non-selectivity, and radioresistance greatly limit the application of RT. Herein, an oxygen-enriched X-ray nanoprocessor Hb@Hf-Ce6 nanoparticle is developed for improving the therapeutic effect of RT-radiodynamic therapy (RDT), enhancing modulation of hypoxia tumor microenvironment (TME) and promoting antitumor immune response in combination with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint blockade. All functional molecules are integrated into the nanoparticle based on metal-phenolic coordination, wherein one high-Z radiosensitizer (hafnium, Hf) coordinated with chlorin e6 (Ce6) modified polyphenols and a promising oxygen carrier (hemoglobin, Hb) is encapsulated for modulation of oxygen balance in the hypoxia TME. Specifically, under single X-ray irradiation, radioluminescence excited by Hf can activate photosensitizer Ce6 for ROS generation by RDT. Therefore, this combinatory strategy induces comprehensive antitumor immune response for cancer eradication and metastasis inhibition. This work presents a multifunctional metal-phenolic nanoplatform for efficient X-ray mediated RT-RDT in combination with immunotherapy and may provide a new therapeutic option for cancer treatment.

11.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(3): 689-701, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767581

RESUMO

Although germline mutations in BRCA1 highly predispose women towards breast and ovarian cancer, few substantial improvements in preventing or treating such cancers have been made. Importantly, BRCA1 function is closely associated with DNA damage repair, which is required for genetic stability. Here, we examined the efficacy of radiotherapy, assessing the accumulation of genetic instabilities, in the treatment of BRCA1-associated breast cancer using a Brca1-mutant mouse model. Treatment of Brca1-mutant tumor-engrafted mice with X-rays reduced tumor progression by 27.9% compared with untreated controls. A correlation analysis of irradiation responses and biomarker profiles in tumors at baseline identified differences between responders and non-responders at the protein level (pERα, pCHK2, p53, and EpCAM) and at the SOX2 target expression level. We further demonstrated that combined treatment of Brca1-mutant mammary tumors with irradiation and AZD2281, which inhibits PARP, significantly reduced tumor progression and extended survival. Our findings enhance the understanding of DNA damage and biomarker responses in BRCA1-associated mammary tumors and provide preclinical evidence that radiotherapy with synthetic DNA damage is a potential strategy for the therapeutic management of BRCA1-associated breast cancer.

12.
Theranostics ; 11(5): 2442-2459, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500735

RESUMO

Cancer growth is usually accompanied by metastasis which kills most cancer patients. Here we aim to study the effect of cisplatin at different doses on breast cancer growth and metastasis. Methods: We used cisplatin to treat breast cancer cells, then detected the migration of cells and the changes of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers by migration assay, Western blot, and immunofluorescent staining. Next, we analyzed the changes of RNA expression of genes by RNA-seq and confirmed the binding of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) to cytoskeleton related genes by ChIP-seq. Thereafter, we combined cisplatin and paclitaxel in a neoadjuvant setting to treat xenograft mouse models. Furthermore, we analyzed the association of disease prognosis with cytoskeletal genes and ATF3 by clinical data analysis. Results: When administered at a higher dose (6 mg/kg), cisplatin inhibits both cancer growth and metastasis, yet with strong side effects, whereas a lower dose (2 mg/kg) cisplatin blocks cancer metastasis without obvious killing effects. Cisplatin inhibits cancer metastasis through blocking early steps of EMT. It antagonizes transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) signaling through suppressing transcription of many genes involved in cytoskeleton reorganization and filopodia formation which occur early in EMT and are responsible for cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, TGFß and fibronectin-1 (FN1) constitute a positive reciprocal regulation loop that is critical for activating TGFß/SMAD3 signaling, which is repressed by cisplatin induced expression of ATF3. Furthermore, neoadjuvant administration of cisplatin at 2 mg/kg in conjunction with paclitaxel inhibits cancer growth and blocks metastasis without causing obvious side effects by inhibiting colonization of cancer cells in the target organs. Conclusion: Thus, cisplatin prevents breast cancer metastasis through blocking early EMT, and the combination of cisplatin and paclitaxel represents a promising therapy for killing breast cancer and blocking tumor metastasis.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
13.
Theranostics ; 11(4): 1672-1689, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408774

RESUMO

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive and devastating cancers without effective treatments. Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a member of the steroid receptor coactivator family that mediates the transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors. While AIB1 is associated with the initiation and progression of multiple cancers, the mechanism by which AIB1 contributes to PDAC progression remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of AIB1 in the progression of PDAC and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The clinical significance and mRNA level of AIB1 in PDAC were studied by database analysis. To demonstrate whether AIB1 mediates the malignant features of PDAC cells, namely, proliferation, migration, invasion, we performed real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, established xenograft models and used in vivo metastasis assay. With insights into the mechanism of AIB1, we performed RNA sequencing (Seq), ChIP-Seq, luciferase reporter assays and pull-down assays. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between AIB1 expression and its target expression in PDAC cells and patients and explored whether PDAC cells with high AIB1 levels are sensitive to inhibitors of its target. Results: We found that AIB1 was significantly upregulated in PDAC and associated with its malignancy. Silencing AIB1 impaired hedgehog (Hh) activation by reducing the expression of smoothened (SMO), leading to cell cycle arrest and the inhibition of PDAC cell proliferation. In addition, AIB1, via upregulation of integrin αv (ITGAV) expression, promoted extracellular matrix (ECM) signaling, which played an important role in PDAC progression. Further studies showed that AIB1 preferably bound to AP-1 related elements and served as a coactivator for enhancing the transcriptional activity of MafB, which promoted the expression of SMO and ITGAV. PDAC cells with high AIB1 levels were sensitive to Hh signaling inhibitors, suggesting that blocking Hh activation is an effective treatment against PDAC with high AIB1 expression. Conclusions: These findings reveal that AIB1 is a crucial oncogenic regulator associated with PDAC progression via Hh and ECM signaling and suggest potential therapeutic targets for PDAC treatment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Coativador 3 de Receptor Nuclear/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 981-996, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617965

RESUMO

Cancer cells metabolize glucose through glycolysis to promote cell proliferation even with abundant oxygen. Multiple glycolysis genes are deregulated during cancer development. Despite intensive effort, the cause of their deregulation remains incompletely understood. Here in this study, we discovered that DHX33 plays a critical role in Warburg effect of cancer cells. DHX33 deficient cells have markedly reduced glycolysis activity. Through RNA-seq analysis, we found multiple critical genes involved in Warburg effect were downregulated after DHX33 deficiency. These genes include lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), pyruvate kinase muscle isoform 2 (PKM2), enolase 1 (ENO1), ENO2, hexokinase 1/2, among others. With LDHA, PDK1, and PKM2 as examples, we further revealed that DHX33 altered the epigenetic marks around the promoter of glycolytic genes. This is through DHX33 in complex with Gadd45a-a growth arrest and DNA damage protein. DHX33 is required for the loading of Gadd45a and DNA dioxygenase Tet1 at the promoter sites, which resulted in active DNA demethylation and enhanced histone H4 acetylation. We conclude that DHX33 changes local epigenetic marks in favor of the transcription of glycolysis genes to promote cancer cell proliferation. Our study highlights the significance of RNA helicase DHX33 in Warburg effect and cancer therapeutics.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Glicólise/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Efeito Warburg em Oncologia
15.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(23): 2001914, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304752

RESUMO

Resistance to therapeutic drugs occurs in virtually all types of cancers, and the tolerance to one drug frequently becomes broad therapy resistance; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Combining a whole whole-genome-wide RNA interference screening and an evolutionary drug pressure model with MDA-MB-231 cells, it is found that enhanced protein damage clearance and reduced mitochondrial respiratory activity are responsible for cisplatin resistance. Screening drug-resistant cancer cells and human patient-derived organoids for breast and colon cancers with many anticancer drugs indicates that activation of mitochondrion protein import surveillance system enhances proteasome activity and minimizes caspase activation, leading to broad drug resistance that can be overcome by co-treatment with a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib. It is further demonstrated that cisplatin and bortezomib encapsulated into nanoparticle further enhance their therapeutic efficacy and alleviate side effects induced by drug combination treatment. These data demonstrate a feasibility for eliminating broad drug resistance by targeting its common mechanism to achieve effective therapy for multiple cancers.

16.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(13): 2477-2478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760915

RESUMO

Recent studies showed that glucocorticoid drugs, which are easily available as pills on pharmacy shelves worldwide, could save lives of COVID-19 patients. With the swiftly increasing infections of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic at a lethality rate of about 4.7% countless lives may be saved globally.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Glucocorticoides , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mol Cell Biol ; 40(17)2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601106

RESUMO

Transcription factors C/EBPß and C/EBPδ are induced within hours after initiation of adipogenesis in culture. They directly promote the expression of master adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and C/EBPα and are required for adipogenesis in vivo However, the mechanism that controls the induction of C/EBPß and C/EBPδ remains elusive. We previously showed that histone methyltransferases MLL3/MLL4 and associated PTIP are required for the induction of PPARγ and C/EBPα during adipogenesis. Here, we show MLL3/MLL4/PTIP-associated protein PAGR1 (also known as PA1) cooperates with phosphorylated CREB and ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptor to directly control the induction of C/EBPß and C/EBPδ in the early phase of adipogenesis. Deletion of Pagr1 in white and brown preadipocytes prevents the induction of C/EBPß and C/EBPδ and leads to severe defects in adipogenesis. Adipogenesis defects in PAGR1-deficient cells can be rescued by the ectopic expression of C/EBPß or PPARγ. Finally, the deletion of Pagr1 in Myf5+ precursor cells impairs brown adipose tissue and muscle development. Thus, by controlling the induction of C/EBPß and C/EBPδ, PAGR1 plays a critical role in adipogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/fisiologia , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteína delta de Ligação ao Facilitador CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Histona Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica
18.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(8): 2279-2290, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-derived organoid (PDO) models are highly valuable and have potentially widespread clinical applications. However, limited information is available regarding organoid models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to characterize the consistency between primary tumors in NSCLC and PDOs and to explore the applications of PDOs as preclinical models to understand and predict treatment response during lung cancer. METHODS: Fresh tumor samples were harvested for organoid culture. Primary tumor samples and PDOs were analyzed via whole-exome sequencing. Paired samples were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. There were 26 antineoplastic drugs tested in the PDOs. Cell viability was assessed using the Cell Titer Glo assay 7-10 days after drug treatment. A heatmap of log-transformed values of the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations was generated on the basis of drug responses of PDOs through nonlinear regression (curve fit). A total of 12 patients (stages I-III) were enrolled, and 7 paired surgical tumors and PDOs were analyzed. RESULTS: PDOs retained the histological and genetic characteristics of the primary tumors. The concordance between tumors and PDOs in mutations in the top 20 NSCLC-related genes was >80% in five patients. Sample purity was significantly and positively associated with variant allele frequency (Pearson r = 0.82, P = 0.0005) and chromosome stability. The in vitro response to drug screening with PDOs revealed high correlation with the mutation profiles in the primary tumors. CONCLUSIONS: PDOs are highly credible models for detecting NSCLC and for prospective prediction of the treatment response for personalized precision medicine. KEY POINTS: Lung cancer organoid models could save precious time of drug testing on patients, and accurately select anticancer drugs according to the drug sensitivity results, so as to provide a powerful supplement and verification for the gene sequencing.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Organoides/patologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3256, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591500

RESUMO

BRCA1 mutation carriers have a higher risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is a refractory disease due to its non-responsiveness to current clinical targeted therapies. Using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system in Brca1-deficient mice, we identified 169 putative cancer drivers, among which Notch1 is a top candidate for accelerating TNBC by promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and regulating the cell cycle. Activation of NOTCH1 suppresses mitotic catastrophe caused by BRCA1 deficiency by restoring S/G2 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints, which may through activation of ATR-CHK1 signalling pathway. Consistently, analysis of human breast cancer tissue demonstrates NOTCH1 is highly expressed in TNBCs, and the activated form of NOTCH1 correlates positively with increased phosphorylation of ATR. Additionally, we demonstrate that inhibition of the NOTCH1-ATR-CHK1 cascade together with cisplatin synergistically kills TNBC by targeting the cell cycle checkpoint, DNA damage and EMT, providing a potent clinical option for this fatal disease.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/deficiência , Carcinogênese/patologia , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Progressão da Doença , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitose , Mutação/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
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