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1.
Nature ; 607(7919): 468-473, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859194

RESUMO

Quantum many-body systems away from equilibrium host a rich variety of exotic phenomena that are forbidden by equilibrium thermodynamics. A prominent example is that of discrete time crystals1-8, in which time-translational symmetry is spontaneously broken in periodically driven systems. Pioneering experiments have observed signatures of time crystalline phases with trapped ions9,10, solid-state spin systems11-15, ultracold atoms16,17 and superconducting qubits18-20. Here we report the observation of a distinct type of non-equilibrium state of matter, Floquet symmetry-protected topological phases, which are implemented through digital quantum simulation with an array of programmable superconducting qubits. We observe robust long-lived temporal correlations and subharmonic temporal response for the edge spins over up to 40 driving cycles using a circuit of depth exceeding 240 and acting on 26 qubits. We demonstrate that the subharmonic response is independent of the initial state, and experimentally map out a phase boundary between the Floquet symmetry-protected topological and thermal phases. Our results establish a versatile digital simulation approach to exploring exotic non-equilibrium phases of matter with current noisy intermediate-scale quantum processors21.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(9): 090501, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506190

RESUMO

Non-Hermitian topological phases exhibit a number of exotic features that have no Hermitian counterparts, including the skin effect and breakdown of the conventional bulk-boundary correspondence. Here, we implement the non-Hermitian Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian, which is a prototypical model for studying non-Hermitian topological phases, with a solid-state quantum simulator consisting of an electron spin and a ^{13}C nuclear spin in a nitrogen-vacancy center in a diamond. By employing a dilation method, we realize the desired nonunitary dynamics for the electron spin and map out its spin texture in the momentum space, from which the corresponding topological invariant can be obtained directly. From the measured spin textures with varying parameters, we observe both integer and fractional winding numbers. The non-Hermitian topological phase with fractional winding number cannot be continuously deformed to any Hermitian topological phase and is intrinsic to non-Hermitian systems. Our result paves the way for further exploiting and understanding the intriguing properties of non-Hermitian topological phases with solid-state spins or other quantum simulation platforms.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(24): 240402, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213933

RESUMO

Non-Hermitian topological phases bear a number of exotic properties, such as the non-Hermitian skin effect and the breakdown of conventional bulk-boundary correspondence. In this Letter, we introduce an unsupervised machine learning approach to classify non-Hermitian topological phases based on diffusion maps, which are widely used in manifold learning. We find that the non-Hermitian skin effect will pose a notable obstacle, rendering the straightforward extension of unsupervised learning approaches to topological phases for Hermitian systems ineffective in clustering non-Hermitian topological phases. Through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of two prototypical models, we show that this difficulty can be circumvented by choosing the "on-site" elements of the projective matrix as the input data. Our results provide a valuable guidance for future studies on learning non-Hermitian topological phases in an unsupervised fashion, both in theory and experiment.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(16): 160401, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961454

RESUMO

We propose a machine-learning inspired variational method to obtain the Liouvillian gap, which plays a crucial role in characterizing the relaxation time and dissipative phase transitions of open quantum systems. By using "spin bi-base mapping," we map the density matrix to a pure restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM) state and transform the Liouvillian superoperator to a rank-two non-Hermitian operator. The Liouvillian gap can be obtained by a variational real-time evolution algorithm under this non-Hermitian operator. We apply our method to the dissipative Heisenberg model in both one and two dimensions. For the isotropic case, we find that the Liouvillian gap can be analytically obtained and in one dimension even the whole Liouvillian spectrum can be exactly solved using the Bethe ansatz method. By comparing our numerical results with their analytical counterparts, we show that the Liouvillian gap could be accessed by the RBM approach efficiently to a desirable accuracy, regardless of the dimensionality and entanglement properties.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(17): 170501, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33156669

RESUMO

Quantum compiling, a process that decomposes the quantum algorithm into a series of hardware-compatible commands or elementary gates, is of fundamental importance for quantum computing. We introduce an efficient algorithm based on deep reinforcement learning that compiles an arbitrary single-qubit gate into a sequence of elementary gates from a finite universal set. It generates near-optimal gate sequences with given accuracy and is generally applicable to various scenarios, independent of the hardware-feasible universal set and free from using ancillary qubits. For concreteness, we apply this algorithm to the case of topological compiling of Fibonacci anyons and obtain near-optimal braiding sequences for arbitrary single-qubit unitaries. Our algorithm may carry over to other challenging quantum discrete problems, thus opening up a new avenue for intriguing applications of deep learning in quantum physics.

6.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 076401, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491126

RESUMO

We study amorphous systems with completely random sites and find that, through constructing and exploring a concrete model Hamiltonian, such a system can host an exotic phase of topological amorphous metal in three dimensions. In contrast to the traditional Weyl semimetals, topological amorphous metals break translational symmetry, and thus they cannot be characterized by the first Chern number defined based on the momentum space band structures. Instead, their topological properties will manifest in the Bott index and the Hall conductivity as well as the surface states. By studying the energy band and quantum transport properties, we find that topological amorphous metals exhibit a diffusive metal behavior. We further introduce a practical experimental proposal with electric circuits where the predicted phenomena can be observed using state-of-the-art technologies. Our results open the door to exploring topological gapless phenomena in amorphous systems.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(21): 210503, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283312

RESUMO

We report an experimental demonstration of a machine learning approach to identify exotic topological phases, with a focus on the three-dimensional chiral topological insulators. We show that the convolutional neural networks-a class of deep feed-forward artificial neural networks with widespread applications in machine learning-can be trained to successfully identify different topological phases protected by chiral symmetry from experimental raw data generated with a solid-state quantum simulator. Our results explicitly showcase the exceptional power of machine learning in the experimental detection of topological phases, which paves a way to study rich topological phenomena with the machine learning toolbox.

8.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaav2761, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746476

RESUMO

Generative adversarial learning is one of the most exciting recent breakthroughs in machine learning. It has shown splendid performance in a variety of challenging tasks such as image and video generation. More recently, a quantum version of generative adversarial learning has been theoretically proposed and shown to have the potential of exhibiting an exponential advantage over its classical counterpart. Here, we report the first proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of quantum generative adversarial learning in a superconducting quantum circuit. We demonstrate that, after several rounds of adversarial learning, a quantum-state generator can be trained to replicate the statistics of the quantum data output from a quantum channel simulator, with a high fidelity (98.8% on average) so that the discriminator cannot distinguish between the true and the generated data. Our results pave the way for experimentally exploring the intriguing long-sought-after quantum advantages in machine learning tasks with noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 120(24): 240402, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957001

RESUMO

Machine learning, the core of artificial intelligence and big data science, is one of today's most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields. Recently, machine learning tools and techniques have been adopted to tackle intricate quantum many-body problems. In this Letter, we introduce machine learning techniques to the detection of quantum nonlocality in many-body systems, with a focus on the restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM) architecture. Using reinforcement learning, we demonstrate that RBM is capable of finding the maximum quantum violations of multipartite Bell inequalities with given measurement settings. Our results build a novel bridge between computer-science-based machine learning and quantum many-body nonlocality, which will benefit future studies in both areas.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(24): 245701, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608760

RESUMO

The breaking of ergodicity in isolated quantum systems with a single-particle mobility edge is an intriguing subject that has not yet been fully understood. In particular, whether a nonergodic but metallic phase exists or not in the presence of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic potential is currently under active debate. In this Letter, we develop a neural-network-based approach to investigate the existence of this nonergodic metallic phase in a prototype model using many-body entanglement spectra as the sole diagnostic. We find that such a method identifies with high confidence the existence of a nonergodic metallic phase in the midspectrum at an intermediate quasiperiodic potential strength. Our neural-network-based approach shows how supervised machine learning can be applied not only in locating phase boundaries but also in providing a way to definitively examine the existence or not of a novel phase.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 121(25): 250404, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608853

RESUMO

We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of Abelian anyons in a one-dimensional system. We find that the interplay of anyonic statistics and interactions gives rise to spatially asymmetric particle transport together with a novel dynamical symmetry that depends on the anyonic statistical angle and the sign of interactions. Moreover, we show that anyonic statistics induces asymmetric spreading of quantum information, characterized by asymmetric light cones of out-of-time-ordered correlators. Such asymmetric dynamics is in sharp contrast to the dynamics of conventional fermions or bosons, where both the transport and information dynamics are spatially symmetric. We further discuss experiments with cold atoms where the predicted phenomena can be observed using state-of-the-art technologies. Our results pave the way toward experimentally probing anyonic statistics through nonequilibrium dynamics.

12.
Sci Rep ; 4: 4291, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24598858

RESUMO

In comparison with entanglement and Bell nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a newly emerged research topic and in its incipient stage. Although Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering has been explored via violations of steering inequalities both theoretically and experimentally, the known inequalities in the literatures are far from well-developed. As a result, it is not yet possible to observe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for some steerable mixed states. Recently, a simple approach was presented to identify Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on all-versus-nothing argument, offering a strong condition to witness the steerability of a family of two-qubit (pure or mixed) entangled states. In this work, we show that the all-versus-nothing proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering can be tested by measuring the projective probabilities. Through the bound of probabilities imposed by local-hidden-state model, the proposed test shows that steering can be detected by the all-versus-nothing argument experimentally even in the presence of imprecision and errors. Our test can be implemented in many physical systems and we discuss the possible realizations of our scheme with non-Abelian anyons and trapped ions.

13.
Sci Rep ; 3: 2492, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23966132

RESUMO

Bell's inequality is established based on local realism. The violation of Bell's inequality by quantum mechanics implies either locality or realism or both are untenable. Leggett's inequality is derived based on nonlocal realism. The violation of Leggett's inequality implies that quantum mechanics is neither local realistic nor nonlocal realistic. The incompatibility of nonlocal realism and quantum mechanics has been currently confirmed by photon experiments. In our work, we propose to test Leggett's inequality using the Aharonov-Casher effect. In our scheme, four entangled particles emitted from two sources manifest a two-qubit-typed correlation that may result in the violation of the Leggett inequality, while satisfying the no-signaling condition for spacelike separation. Our scheme is tolerant to some local inaccuracies due to the topological nature of the Aharonov-Casher phase. The experimental implementation of our scheme can be possibly realized by a calcium atomic polarization interferometer experiment.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(7): 070401, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25166352

RESUMO

Using a single trapped ion, we have experimentally demonstrated state-independent violation of a recent version of the Kochen-Specker inequality in a three-level system (qutrit) that is intrinsically indivisible. Three ground states of the (171)Yb(+) ion representing a qutrit are manipulated with high fidelity through microwaves and detected with high efficiency through a two-step quantum jump technique. Qutrits constitute the most fundamental system to show quantum contextuality and our experiment represents the first one that closes the detection efficiency loophole for experimental tests of quantum contextuality in such a system.

15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(6): 060402, 2010 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20867962

RESUMO

We propose a scheme to test the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox based on braidings of non-Abelian anyons, which are exotic quasiparticle excitations of topological states of matter. Because topological ordered states are robust against local perturbations, this scheme is in some sense "fault-tolerant" and might close the detection inefficiency loophole problem in previous experimental tests of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox. In turn, the construction of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox reveals the nonlocal property of non-Abelian anyons. Our results indicate that the non-Abelian fractional statistics is a pure quantum effect and cannot be described by local realistic theories. Finally, we present a possible experimental implementation of the scheme based on the anyonic interferometry technologies.

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