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1.
Elife ; 112022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503096

RESUMO

Wnt/ß-catenin signaling has been well established as a potent inhibitor of adipogenesis. Here, we identified a population of adipocytes that exhibit persistent activity of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, as revealed by the Tcf/Lef-GFP reporter allele, in embryonic and adult mouse fat depots, named as Wnt+ adipocytes. We showed that this ß-catenin-mediated signaling activation in these cells is Wnt ligand- and receptor-independent but relies on AKT/mTOR pathway and is essential for cell survival. Such adipocytes are distinct from classical ones in transcriptomic and genomic signatures and can be induced from various sources of mesenchymal stromal cells including human cells. Genetic lineage-tracing and targeted cell ablation studies revealed that these adipocytes convert into beige adipocytes directly and are also required for beige fat recruitment under thermal challenge, demonstrating both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous roles in adaptive thermogenesis. Furthermore, mice bearing targeted ablation of these adipocytes exhibited glucose intolerance, while mice receiving exogenously supplied such cells manifested enhanced glucose utilization. Our studies uncover a unique adipocyte population in regulating beiging in adipose tissues and systemic glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , beta Catenina , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Animais , Glucose/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , beta Catenina/genética , beta Catenina/metabolismo
2.
Mol Ther ; 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526094

RESUMO

As one of the most prevalent post-transcriptional epigenetic modifications, N5-methylcytosine (m5C), plays an essential role in various cellular processes and disease pathogenesis. Therefore, it is important accurately identify m5C modifications in order to gain a deeper understanding of cellular processes and other possible functional mechanisms. Although a few computational methods have been proposed, their respective models have been developed using small training datasets. Hence, their practical application is quite limited in genome-wide detection. To overcome the existing limitations, we propose Deepm5C, a bioinformatics method to identify RNA m5C sites in the throughout human genome. To develop Deepm5C, we constructed a novel benchmarking dataset and investigated a mixture of three conventional feature encoding algorithms and a feature derived from word embedding approaches. Afterwards, four variants of deep learning classifiers and four commonly used conventional classifiers were employed and trained with the four encodings, ultimately obtaining 32 baseline models. A stacking strategy is effectively utilized by integrating the predicted output of the optimal baseline models and trained with a 1-D convolutional neural network. As a result, the Deepm5C predictor achieved excellent performance during cross-validation with a Matthews correlation coefficient and accuracy of 0.697 and 0.855, respectively. The corresponding metrics during the independent test were 0.691 and 0.852, respectively. Overall, Deepm5C achieved a more accurate and stable performance than the baseline models and significantly outperformed the existing predictors, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed hybrid framework. Furthermore, Deepm5C is expected to assist community-wide efforts in identifying putative m5Cs and formulate the novel testable biological hypothesis.

3.
Hum Genomics ; 16(1): 15, 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex, multifactorial condition in which genetic play an important role. Most of the systematic studies currently focuses on individual omics aspect and provide insightful yet limited knowledge about the comprehensive and complex crosstalk between various omics levels. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we performed a most comprehensive trans-omics study with various omics data from 104 subjects, to identify interactions/networks and particularly causal regulatory relationships within and especially those between omic molecules with the purpose to discover molecular genetic mechanisms underlying obesity etiology in vivo in humans. RESULTS: By applying differentially analysis, we identified 8 differentially expressed hub genes (DEHGs), 14 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 12 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) for obesity individually. By integrating those multi-omics biomarkers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and network MR analyses, we identified 18 causal pathways with mediation effect. For the 20 biomarkers involved in those 18 pairs, 17 biomarkers were implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity or related diseases. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of trans-omics and MR analyses may provide us a holistic understanding of the underlying functional mechanisms, molecular regulatory information flow and the interactive molecular systems among different omic molecules for obesity risk and other complex diseases/traits.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 896, 2022 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the associations between physical activity, obesity, and sarcopenia in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 8, 919 study participants aged between 45 to 97 (mean age = 57.2 ± 8.8) from a Southern state in the United States. Self-reported physical activity was classified to regular exercise ≥ 3 times/week, < 3 times/week, and no regular exercise. Associations between physical activity, obesity and sarcopenia were explored with generalized linear models and ordinal logistic regressions stratified by age (middle-aged and older adults) and gender adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: In middle-aged and older adults, all examined obesity related traits (e.g., body mass index, waist circumference) were inversely associated with physical activity levels (p < 0.01) in both genders. Exercising ≥ 3 times/week was negatively associated with lean mass indicators (e.g., appendicular lean mass) in middle-aged and older females (p < 0.01), while the negative associations become positive after adjusting for weight. Positive associations between physical activity and grip strength were only found in middle-aged males (p < 0.05). Ordinal logistic regression revealed that those exercising ≥ 3 times/week were less likely to have obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenia obesity in all groups (p < 0.01), except for sarcopenia in older males and females (p > 0.05). Positive associations of exercising < 3 times/week with sarcopenia and sarcopenia obesity were only found in middled adults. CONCLUSION: The associations of exercise frequency with obesity and sarcopenia vary considerably across gender and age groups. Exercise programs need to be individualized to optimize health benefits. Future research exploring physical activity strategies to balance weight reduction and lean mass maintaining is warranted in middle-aged and especially older adults.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Sarcopenia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura
5.
Front Physiol ; 13: 760404, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370760

RESUMO

Cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET) has been regarded as a revolution in structural biology and can reveal molecular sociology. Its unprecedented quality enables it to visualize cellular organelles and macromolecular complexes at nanometer resolution with native conformations. Motivated by developments in nanotechnology and machine learning, establishing machine learning approaches such as classification, detection and averaging for Cryo-ET image analysis has inspired broad interest. Yet, deep learning-based methods for biomedical imaging typically require large labeled datasets for good results, which can be a great challenge due to the expense of obtaining and labeling training data. To deal with this problem, we propose a generative model to simulate Cryo-ET images efficiently and reliably: CryoETGAN. This cycle-consistent and Wasserstein generative adversarial network (GAN) is able to generate images with an appearance similar to the original experimental data. Quantitative and visual grading results on generated images are provided to show that the results of our proposed method achieve better performance compared to the previous state-of-the-art simulation methods. Moreover, CryoETGAN is stable to train and capable of generating plausibly diverse image samples.

6.
Exp Cell Res ; 417(1): 113161, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447102

RESUMO

Breast cancer, the most prevalent malignancy in women, is also the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The activation of the Wnt pathway plays a pivotal role in the metastatic abilities of breast cancer. In this study, IL1F6, MRGPRX1, and SEC14L3 were significantly correlated to breast cancer patients'overall survival based on TCGA-BRCA dataset. Although IL1F6, MRGPRX1 and SEC14L3 high expression were associated with better survival in breast cancer patients, SEC14L3 had the biggest survival benefit for breast cancer; therefore, SEC14L3 was selected for the subsequent investigation. SEC14L3 mRNA expression and protein levels within breast cancer cell lines decreased compared with normal human breast epithelial cells. Overexpressing SEC14L3 in breast cancer cells inhibited the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including the capacity of cells to migrate and invade. SEC14L3 overexpression decreased the levels of mesenchymal markers, whereas SEC14L3 knockdown facilitated the malignant behaviors of breast cancer cells. SEC14L3 overexpression also inhibited Wnt/ß-catenin activation. The Wnt agonist strengthened the malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells; moreover, the anti-tumor effects of SEC14L3 overexpression were partially attenuated by the Wnt agonist. Conclusively, SEC14L3, which is underexpressed in breast cancer cells and tissues, could play a tumor-suppressive role in a Wnt/ß-catenin-related way.

7.
Comput Biol Med ; 145: 105433, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378437

RESUMO

Accurate identification of DNA-binding proteins (DBPs) is critical for both understanding protein function and drug design. DBPs also play essential roles in different kinds of biological activities such as DNA replication, repair, transcription, and splicing. As experimental identification of DBPs is time-consuming and sometimes biased toward prediction, constructing an effective DBP model represents an urgent need, and computational methods that can accurately predict potential DBPs based on sequence information are highly desirable. In this paper, a novel predictor called DeepDNAbP has been developed to accurately predict DBPs from sequences using a convolutional neural network (CNN) model. First, we perform three feature extraction methods, namely position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM), pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and tripeptide composition (TPC), to represent protein sequence patterns. Secondly, SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) are employed to remove the redundant and irrelevant features for predicting DBPs. Finally, the best features are provided to the CNN classifier to construct the DeepDNAbP model for identifying DBPs. The final DeepDNAbP predictor achieves superior prediction performance in K-fold cross-validation tests and outperforms other existing predictors of DNA-protein binding methods. DeepDNAbP is poised to be a powerful computational resource for the prediction of DBPs. The web application and curated datasets in this study are freely available at: http://deepdbp.sblog360.blog/.

8.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; : 1-8, 2022 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) for short-term prognosis of Hepatitis B virus-related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure (HBV-ACLF) patients treated with plasma exchange (PE). METHODS: A total of 108 patients with HBV-ACLF treated with PE were retrospectively enrolled between January 2014 to December 2020. Based on survival at 28 days, patients were divided into survival (N = 87) and death groups (N = 21). Clinical data and laboratory indicators were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with the survival group, the death group was associated with higher ACLF grade and incidence of HE. The levels of total bilirubin, prothrombin time, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, MELD score, and Chinese Group on the Study of Severe Hepatitis B-ACLF II (COSSH II) score were significantly higher in the death group than in the survival group (p < .05). Grade 1 ACLF and the MELD score after PE treatment at one week were independent risk factors for 28-day liver transplantation-free mortality (OR = 0.062, 95%CI: 0.005-0.768; OR = 1.328, 95%CI: 1.153-1.531). A MELD score at one week of at least 25.5 was associated with a poor short-term prognosis. Of note, HE was a strong independent risk factor for a decline in MELD score at one week. (OR = 11.815, 95%CI: 3.187-43.796, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We found patients with HE at admission and MELD score of at least 25.5 at one week after PE treatment had a poor short-term prognosis and should prompt preparation for liver transplantation. Trial Registration: The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (CT.gov identifier: NCT04231565). Registered 13 May 2020.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 853499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35372129

RESUMO

While the gut microbiome has been reported to play a role in bone metabolism, the individual species and underlying functional mechanisms have not yet been characterized. We conducted a systematic multi-omics analysis using paired metagenomic and untargeted serum metabolomic profiles from a large sample of 499 peri- and early post-menopausal women to identify the potential crosstalk between these biological factors which may be involved in the regulation of bone mineral density (BMD). Single omics association analyses identified 22 bacteria species and 17 serum metabolites for putative association with BMD. Among the identified bacteria, Bacteroidetes and Fusobacteria were negatively associated, while Firmicutes were positively associated. Several of the identified serum metabolites including 3-phenylpropanoic acid, mainly derived from dietary polyphenols, and glycolithocholic acid, a secondary bile acid, are metabolic byproducts of the microbiota. We further conducted a supervised integrative feature selection with respect to BMD and constructed the inter-omics partial correlation network. Although still requiring replication and validation in future studies, the findings from this exploratory analysis provide novel insights into the interrelationships between the gut microbiome and serum metabolome that may potentially play a role in skeletal remodeling processes.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Fatores Biológicos , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Metaboloma
10.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e054079, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Both the pharmacological characteristics of blonanserin and its related small sample size studies suggest that blonanserin could alleviate social and cognitive dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia. However, no large sample size studies have been performed so far. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of blonanserin in improving social and cognitive functions in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a prospective, multicentre, single-arm clinical trial. A total of 188 patients with first-episode schizophrenia will be enrolled and will undergo a 0-7 day washout period before blonanserin administration. Doses of blonanserin will first be set to 4 mg P.O. twice per day after meals and gradually increased to 8-16 mg/d P.O., depending on patient's age and symptoms, for 26 weeks. Maximum dose of blonanserin will not be exceeding 24 mg/day. The primary endpoint of the study is the changes of Personal and Social Performance (PSP) score in patients from baseline to week 26. Secondary endpoints include changes in MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), grooved pegboard test (GPT), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score and PANSS 5-factor subscale scores. Other endpoints include changes of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) at corresponding visits and MRI results. Moreover, incidence of adverse events, changes in endocrine and metabolic profiles, renal, hepatic and sexual functions and extrapyramidal symptoms will be strictly monitored and recorded. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the ethics committee of the leading site Peking University Sixth Hospital (No. 2018-18), and all included patients are requested to provide written informed consent before enrolment. The study will be conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and follow the principles for clinical research. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03784222.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Piperazinas , Piperidinas , Esquizofrenia , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Interação Social , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 100(5): 723-734, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314877

RESUMO

An increasing number of epidemiological studies have suggested that birth weight (BW) may be a determinant of bone health later in life, although the underlying genetic mechanism remains unclear. Here, we applied a pleiotropic conditional false discovery rate (cFDR) approach to the genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics for lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD) and BW, aiming to identify novel susceptibility variants shared between these two traits. We detected 5 novel potential pleiotropic loci which are located at or near 7 different genes (NTAN1, PDXDC1, CACNA1G, JAG1, FAT1P1, CCDC170, ESR1), among which PDXDC1 and FAT1P1 have not previously been linked to these phenotypes. To partially validate the findings, we demonstrated that the expression of PDXDC1 was dramatically reduced in ovariectomized (OVX) mice in comparison with sham-operated (SHAM) mice in both the growth plate and trabecula bone. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry assay with serial sections showed that both osteoclasts and osteoblasts express PDXDC1, supporting its potential role in bone metabolism. In conclusion, our study provides insights into some shared genetic mechanisms for BMD and BW as well as a novel potential therapeutic target for the prevention of OP in the early stages of the disease development. KEY MESSAGES : We investigated pleiotropy-informed enrichment between LS BMD and BW. We identified genetic variants related to both LS BMD and BW by utilizing a cFDR approach. PDXDC1 is a novel pleiotropic gene which may be related to both LS BMD and BW. Elevated expression of PDXDC1 is related to higher BMD and lower ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA indicating a bone protective effect of PDXDC1.

12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 15: 673-683, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256849

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) are both important public health problems. The effect of concomitant MAFLD on patients with CHB is still unclear. This study aimed to explore the influence of MAFLD on liver fibrosis and inflammation in CHB patients with different hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively collected the clinical data of 399 treatment-naïve CHB patients who underwent liver biopsy. All patients were divided into two groups (HBeAg± group). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with liver inflammatory activity and significant fibrosis in patients with CHB. Multivariable logistic regressions were repeated in subgroups stratified by HBeAg status. Results: In patients with CHB, MAFLD was independently associated with a risk of moderate-to-severe liver activity and significant fibrosis (P <0.05). In the HBeAg-negative group, patients with MAFLD had significantly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P <0.05) and more severe liver inflammatory activity and fibrosis (P <0.05) compared to those without MAFLD. MAFLD was independently associated with a risk of moderate-to-severe liver activity (A ≥3: OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.71-9.22, P =0.001) and significant fibrosis (F ≥2: OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.09-3.73, P =0.026). In the HBeAg-positive group, MAFLD was found to be independently associated with moderate-to-severe liver activity (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.03-5.79, P =0.044) but not fibrosis (P =0.618). Conclusion: MAFLD is associated with the risk of liver fibrosis and inflammatory activity in HBeAg-negative CHB patients. Sufficient attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of MAFLD in patients with CHB, especially in HBeAg-negative patients.

13.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 14(5): 2101-2112, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235538

RESUMO

We aimed to validate two metabolites, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, which were associated with sarcopenia-related traits, muscle mass and strength, in our previous untargeted metabolomics study and to identify novel metabolites from five metabolic pathways involving these two metabolites. We included a discovery cohort of 136 white women aged 20-40 years (used for the previous untargeted metabolomics analysis) and a validation cohort of 174 subjects aged ≥ 60 years, including men and women of white and black. A targeted LC-MS assay successfully detected 12 important metabolites from these pathways. Aspartic acid was associated with muscle mass and strength in the discovery cohort, but not in the validation cohort. However, glutamic acid was associated with these sarcopenia traits in both cohorts. Additionally, N-acetyl-L-aspartic acid and carnosine were the newly identified metabolites that were associated with muscle strength in the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. We did not observe any significant sex and race differences in the associations of these metabolites with sarcopenia traits in the validation cohort. Our findings indicated that glutamic acid might be consistently associated with sarcopenia-related traits across age, sex, and race. They also suggested that age-specific metabolites and metabolic pathways might be involved in muscle regulation.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Ácido Aspártico , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico , Humanos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Força Muscular
14.
Exp Mol Med ; 54(3): 334-345, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35354913

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by infiltration of immune cells in the synovium. However, the crosstalk of immune cells and synovial fibroblasts is still largely unknown. Here, global miRNA screening in plasma exosomes was carried out with a custom microarray (RA patients vs. healthy controls = 9:9). A total of 14 exosomal miRNAs were abnormally expressed in the RA patients. Then, downregulated expression of exosomal miR-204-5p was confirmed in both the replication (RA patients vs. healthy controls = 30:30) and validation groups (RA patients vs. healthy controls = 56:60). Similar to the findings obtained in humans, a decreased abundance of exosomal miR-204-5p was observed in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Furthermore, Spearman correlation analysis indicated that plasma exosomal miR-204-5p expression was inversely correlated with disease parameters of RA patients, such as rheumatoid factor, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein. In vitro, our data showed that human T lymphocytes released exosomes containing large amounts of miR-204-5p, which can be transferred into synovial fibroblasts, inhibiting cell proliferation. Overexpression of miR-204-5p in synovial fibroblasts suppressed synovial fibroblast activation by targeting genes related to cell proliferation and invasion. In vivo assays found that administration of lentiviruses expressing miR-204-5p markedly alleviated the disease progression of the mice with CIA. Collectively, this study identified a novel RA-associated plasma exosomal miRNA-204-5p that mediates the communication between immune cells and synovial fibroblasts and can be used as a potential biomarker for RA diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Exossomos , MicroRNAs , Animais , Artrite Experimental/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Exossomos/genética , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo
15.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(6)2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335496

RESUMO

Citral is a typical UV-irritation and acid-sensitive active and here we develop a mild method for the encapsulation of citral in calcium alginate microcapsules, in which UV irritation or acetic acid is avoided. Monodispersed oil-in-water-in-oil (O/W/O) emulsions are generated in a capillary microfluidic device as precursors. The middle aqueous phase of O/W/O emulsions contains sodium alginate, calcium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-Ca) complex as the calcium source, and D-(+)-Gluconic acid δ-lactone (GDL) as the acidifier. Hydrolysis of GDL will decrease the pH value of the middle aqueous solution, which will trigger the calcium ions released from the EDTA-Ca complex to cross-link with alginate molecules. After the gelling process, the O/W/O emulsions will convert to alginate microcapsules with a uniform structure and monodispersed size. The preparation conditions for alginate microcapsules are optimized, including the constituent concentration in the middle aqueous phase of O/W/O emulsions and the mixing manner of GDL with the alginate-contained aqueous solution. Citral-containing alginate microcapsules are successfully prepared by this mild method and the sustained-release characteristic of citral from alginate microcapsules is analyzed. Furthermore, a typical application of citral-containing alginate microcapsules to delay the oxidation of oil is also demonstrated. The mild gelling method provides us a chance to encapsulate sensitive hydrophobic actives with alginate, which takes many potential applications in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic areas.

16.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 60(5): 1417-1429, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35322343

RESUMO

Automatic CT segmentation of proximal femur has a great potential for use in orthopedic diseases, especially in the imaging-based assessments of hip fracture risk. In this study, we proposed an approach based on deep learning for the fast and automatic extraction of the periosteal and endosteal contours of proximal femur in order to differentiate cortical and trabecular bone compartments. A three-dimensional (3D) end-to-end fully convolutional neural network (CNN), which can better combine the information among neighbor slices and get more accurate segmentation results by 3D CNN, was developed for our segmentation task. The separation of cortical and trabecular bones derived from the QCT software MIAF-Femur was used as the segmentation reference. Two models with the same network structures were trained, and they achieved a dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 97.82% and 96.53% for the periosteal and endosteal contours, respectively. Compared with MIAF-Femur, it takes half an hour to segment a case, and our CNN model takes a few minutes. To verify the excellent performance of our model for proximal femoral segmentation, we measured the volumes of different parts of the proximal femur and compared it with the ground truth, and the relative errors of femur volume between predicted result and ground truth are all less than 5%. This approach will be expected helpful to measure the bone mineral densities of cortical and trabecular bones, and to evaluate the bone strength based on FEA.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Osso Esponjoso , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
17.
Neuroscience ; 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35158017

RESUMO

Neuron apoptosis is a feature of secondary injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Evidence implies that excess calcium (Ca2+) ions and reactive oxidative species (ROS) play critical roles in apoptosis. In reaction to increased ROS, the anti-oxidative master transcription factor, Transient receptor potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) allows Ca2+ ions to enter cells. However, the effect of TBI on the expression of TRPA1 and the role of TRPA1 in TBI are unclear. In the present study, TBI in the mouse brain was simulated using the weight-drop model. The process of neuronal oxidative stress was simulated in HT22 neuronal cells by treatment with hydrogen peroxide. We found that TRPA1 was significantly upregulated in neurons at 24 h after TBI. Neuronal apoptosis was increased in the in vivo and in vitro models; however, this increase was reduced by the functional inhibition of TRPA1 in both models. After TBI, TRPA1 was upregulated via nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2) in neurons. TRPA1-mediated neuronal apoptosis after TBI might be achieved in part through the CaMKII/AKT/ERK signaling pathway. To sum up, TBI-triggered TRPA1 upregulation in neurons is mediated by Nrf2 and the functional blockade of TRPA1 attenuates neuronal apoptosis and improves neuronal dysfunction, partially mediated through the activation of the calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway. Our results suggest that functional blockade of TRPA1 might be a promising therapeutic intervention related to ROS and Nrf2 in TBI.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163195

RESUMO

Concern about rising rates of obesity has prompted searches for obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Identifying plausible regulatory SNPs is very difficult partially because of linkage disequilibrium. We used an unusual epigenomic and transcriptomic analysis of obesity GWAS-derived SNPs in adipose versus heterologous tissues. From 50 GWAS and 121,064 expanded SNPs, we prioritized 47 potential causal regulatory SNPs (Tier-1 SNPs) for 14 gene loci. A detailed examination of seven loci revealed that four (CABLES1, PC, PEMT, and FAM13A) had Tier-1 SNPs positioned so that they could regulate use of alternative transcription start sites, resulting in different polypeptides being generated or different amounts of an intronic microRNA gene being expressed. HOXA11 and long noncoding RNA gene RP11-392O17.1 had Tier-1 SNPs in their 3' or promoter region, respectively, and strong preferences for expression in subcutaneous versus visceral adipose tissue. ZBED3-AS1 had two intragenic Tier-1 SNPs, each of which could contribute to mediating obesity risk through modulating long-distance chromatin interactions. Our approach not only revealed especially credible novel regulatory SNPs, but also helped evaluate previously highlighted obesity GWAS SNPs that were candidates for transcription regulation.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Cromatina/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 8075285, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35178132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work was to look at the expression and probable role of exosomal long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as well as forecast the importance of its interaction with neuropeptides in the progression of the disease. METHODS: We divided 44 pregnant women visiting the obstetric outpatient clinics at the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical College from January 2021 to December 2021 into healthy and GDM groups. We measured the expression levels of the lncRNA GAS5 in peripheral blood using PCR and compared the expression levels between the 2 groups. The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and the R software were used to analyse the differences in the genes expressed in the amniotic fluid cells in the GDM and normal groups. catRAPID was used to identify potential target proteins for GAS5. Key neuropeptide-related proteins and potential target proteins of GAS5 were extracted, and protein interaction networks were mapped. AlphaFold 2 was used to predict the structure of the target protein. The ClusPro tool was used to predict protein-protein interactions. ZDOCK was used to further confirm the protein-nucleic acid docking. RESULTS: The lncRNA GAS5 was downregulated in the peripheral blood of pregnant women with GDM compared with normal pregnant women. The subcellular localization sites of GAS5 were the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ribosome; in addition, GAS5 was present in exosomes. Intercellular interactions, including neuropeptide receptors, were increased in the amniotic fluid cells of patients with GDM. Venn diagram analysis yielded seven neuropeptide-related proteins and three GAS5 target proteins. Among them, HERC5/TAC1 interacted and GAS5 docked well with HERC5. CONCLUSION: The lncRNA GAS5 in the peripheral blood exosomes in patients with GDM may be a new target for the detection of GDM, and the interaction between GAS5 and HERC5/TAC1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Exossomos/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Taquicininas/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Gravidez
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