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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 717069, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671316

RESUMO

Objectives: Nationwide studies focusing on the impact of early-onset type 2 diabetes and obesity on the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are limited in China. We aimed to investigate the association between age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and the risk of CVD, and to further examine the modifying effect of obesity on this association among Chinese adults. Methods: This study included 23,961 participants with previously diagnosed diabetes from a large nationwide population-based cohort study across mainland China. With an interviewer-assisted questionnaire, we collected detailed information on CVDs. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk of CVDs associated with age at diagnosis of diabetes. Results: Compared with patients with late-onset diabetes (≥60 years), those with earlier-onset diabetes had increased risks for CVD, with adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of 1.72 (1.36-2.17), 1.52 (1.31-1.75) and 1.33 (1.19-1.48) for patients diagnosed aged <40, 40-49 and 50-59 years, respectively. Each 5-year earlier age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was significantly associated with 14% increased risk of CVD (OR, 1.14; 95%CI, 1.11-1.18). This association was more prominent for patients with obesity than those with normal body mass index (BMI). Significant interaction was detected between age at diagnosis and BMI categories on CVD risk (P for interaction=0.0457). Conclusion: Early-onset type 2 diabetes was significantly associated with higher risk of CVD, and this association was more prominent among patients with obesity.

2.
Metabolism ; 124: 154874, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517014

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based chronic kidney disease (CKD), and further test the joint effects and interactions between NAFLD status and individual metabolic element, as well as the total 'ABCs' metabolic goal achievement, on the CVD and CKD risk among 101,296 patients with prediabetes or diabetes from a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We conducted the study based on the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) study, a large-scale, population-based prospective cohort. After excluding alcohol abuse and other cause of hepatic diseases, we used fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 as a proxy of NAFLD and stratified the probability of fibrosis by aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio (AAR) with cut-offs of 0.8 and 1.4. 'ABCs' metabolic goal was defined as subjects who had HbA1c < 6.5% (A), SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg (B), and LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (C). During 3.8 years follow-up, we validated 2340 CVD events based on medical records and identified 1943 participants developed CKD based on centrally tested eGFR. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.27) for CVD events and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.20-1.48) for CKD among NAFLD patients, compared with participants without NAFLD. Of NAFLD patients, relative to individuals with low AAR (<0.8), those with high AAR (≥1.4) were more likely to experience CVD events [1.62 (1.21-2.18)] and CKD [1.63 (1.17-2.28)]. Participants with NAFLD and comorbid poorly controlled metabolic risk factors had higher risk of CVD events or CKD than having either alone, with a significant interaction between poor glycemic control and NAFLD on the risk of vascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD was associated with incident CVD and CKD among patients with prediabetes or diabetes. Such associations were substantially modified by the comprehensive achievement of metabolic goal.

3.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational hyperglycemia increases the risk of diabetes in later life. However, the risk of future cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related to gestational hyperglycemia remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gestational hyperglycemia on the subsequent risk of CVD and its modifying factors among elderly Chinese women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of elderly women from the baseline survey of Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. Women with gestational hyperglycemia (n = 82), and controls matched by age and study site (n = 410) were included. Information on CVD, including reported coronary heart disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction, was collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. RESULTS: Women with gestational hyperglycemia were more likely to develop diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-4.18) and CVD (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.05-3.74). Even without progressing to type 2 diabetes, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.18-7.00). However, subgroup analysis indicated that compared with those without gestational hyperglycemia or hypertension, women with both gestational hyperglycemia and hypertension had higher risk of CVD (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.65-9.58), whereas the risk estimate did not significantly change in women with gestational hyperglycemia alone (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 0.71-6.57). Stratified analysis indicated that among those with overweight/obesity, inactive physical activity, or unhealthy dietary habits, gestational hyperglycemia increased the risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly Chinese women, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD in later life. This association was independent of the progression to diabetes and might be modified by lifestyle factors and hypertension.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between individual and combined cardiometabolic morbidities and incident cardiovascular events in Chinese adults. DESIGN: A prospective, nationwide, and population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 133572 participants aged ≥ 40 years were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. RESULTS: Compared with participants without diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, participants with only diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.90) or only hypertension (2.04; 1.82-2.28) exhibited significantly higher risk for CVD events, while participants with only dyslipidemia (0.97; 0.84-1.12) exhibited no significantly higher risk for CVD events. When analyzed collectively, participants with diabetes plus hypertension (HR, 2.67; 95%CI, 2.33-3.06), diabetes plus dyslipidemia (1.57; 1.32-1.87), and hypertension plus dyslipidemia (2.12; 1.88-2.39) exhibited significantly higher risk for CVD. Moreover, participants with the combination of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibited the highest risk for CVD events (HR, 3.06; 95%CI, 2.71-3.46). Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for CVD associated with diabetes based on fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L, oral glucose tolerance test-2h glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L, and hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% were 1.64 (1.51-1.78), 1.57 (1.45-1.69), and 1.54 (1.42-1.66), respectively; associated with hypertension based on systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg were 1.89 (1.76-2.03) and 1.74 (1.60-1.88), respectively; associated with dyslipidemia based on total cholesterol ≥6.22 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4.14 mmol/L, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.04 mmol/L, and triglycerides ≥2.26 mmol/L were 1.18 (1.08-1.30), 1.30 (1.17-1.44), 1.00 (0.92-1.09), and 1.10 (1.01-1.20), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia showed additive associations with the risk of CVD events in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(11): 2551-2560, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322974

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations of metabolic abnormalities with incident diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and to explore whether dyslipidaemia, particularly high fasting triglyceride (TG), was associated with the development of DKD. METHODS: In total, 11 142 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were followed up during 2011-2016. Incident DKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the relationship of metabolic abnormalities at baseline and at follow-up with risks of DKD. High TG was defined by TG ≥1.70 mmol/L. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was defined by HDL-c <1.0 mmol/L for men or <1.3 mmol/L for women. RESULTS: Participants who developed DKD had higher levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, and lower levels of HDL-c at both baseline and follow-up visits. The DKD group also had higher levels of post-load plasma glucose and TG at follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both high TG at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, p = .012) and high TG at follow-up (OR = 1.71, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risks of DKD. Patients with high TG levels at both baseline and follow-up had higher risk of DKD compared with constantly normal TG (OR = 1.65, p < .001) after adjustment for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes, a high TG level was an independent risk factor for the development of DKD. Tight TG control might delay the occurrence of DKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Neoplasias , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos
6.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed at a younger age worldwide and in China. Limited data are available regarding the association between age at diabetes diagnosis and risks of albuminuria. This study sought to examine the independent effect of age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on the risk of albuminuria. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide multicenter study with 207 961 participants in mainland China. Age, sex, and study site were matched for 31 366 screen-detected type 2 diabetes cases and 31 366 normal controls. Age, sex, study site, and diabetes duration were matched for 7490 self-reported type 2 diabetes cases and 7490 normal controls. Risks of having albuminuria in matched type 2 diabetes vs controls were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis in strata of age at diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: Although the absolute rate of albuminuria is higher in older adults, the odds ratio of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes vs matched controls decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. For participants with diabetes diagnosed at an age of <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, or ≥70 years, the multivariable adjusted risk of albuminuria increased by 81%, 60%, 45%, and 33% for screen-detected diabetes, and 135%, 121%, 90%, and 58% for self-reported diabetes compared with their normal controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A younger age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is associated with a more significantly elevated risk of albuminuria than an older age at diagnosis in Chinese adults.

7.
J Diabetes ; 13(11): 857-867, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration were found to be associated with diabetes. However, the results are inconsistent. Also, no epidemiological studies have examined the association of these reproductive factors with diabetes in the same large population. We aim to investigate the associations between parity, pregnancy loss, breastfeeding duration, and the risk of maternal diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese females. METHODS: We included 131 174 females aged ≥40 years from the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: A Longitudinal Study). Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the association between parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: The number of parities and breastfeeding duration were positively related to fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postload glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Compared with those with one birth, nulliparous women or women with 2 or ≥3 births had a significantly increased risk of diabetes. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.27 (1.10-1.48), 1.17 (1.12-1.22), and 1.28 (1.21-1.35), respectively. Compared with women without pregnancy loss, those who underwent 2 (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14) or ≥3 pregnancy losses (OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18) had an increased risk of diabetes. Moreover, women with a breastfeeding duration ≥0 to 6 months (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) and ≥6 to 12 months (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99) had a significantly lower risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Nulliparous women or women with multiparity or more than one pregnancy loss have an increased risk of diabetes in later life, while women who breastfeed more than 0 to 12 months have a lower risk of diabetes.

8.
Int J Cardiol ; 332: 209-215, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive adiposity in adulthood is positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is less studied how the risk is separately explained by early adulthood weight and later weight change, especially in Asian ancestries. METHODS: This study included 121160 participants in a large population-based cohort in China. Body weight at 20 and 40 years of age wase self-reported. Information on CVD history was obtained through standard questionnaires. RESULTS: The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.31) for coronary heart disease (CHD), 1.74 (95% CI, 1.36-2.22) for myocardial infarction (MI), 1.14 (95% CI, 0.99-1.32) for stroke and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12-1.31) for total CVD among individuals with early overweight, and became more prominent for early obesity. Meanwhile, A moderate weight gain of 2.5 kg between early adulthood and midlife significantly increased the risk of CHD (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.32), stroke (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.38) and total CVD (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04-1.27), and the risk escalated with higher amounts of weight gain. Conversely, a weight loss of 2.5 kg conferred lower risk of CVD compared with a stable weight. In further cross-analysis, participants with early adulthood overweight or obesity and significant weight gain afterwards exhibited the greatest risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: High early adulthood BMI and subsequent weight gain had both independent and combined effect on the risk of CVD after midlife. Therefore, weight management should start before early adulthood, and emphasized throughout adulthood for CVD prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e2096, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of the RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 signaling pathway in the opening of the mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) in offspring rats with hypothyroidism during pregnancy. METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were employed in this study. Pregnancy was deemed successful when a sperm was found in the uterus. After one week of pregnancy, offspring rats were divided into the following groups: overall hypothyroidism group (OH group), subclinical hypothyroidism group (SCH group), and normal control group (CON group). The establishment of the hypothyroidism model was confirmed when the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were higher than normal value and TT4 level was within the normal range. The renal mitochondria of offspring rats were extracted on the 14th postnatal day (P14) and 35th postnatal day (P35). RESULTS: At P14, no significant differences in the degree of mPTP opening and expression of phosphoric acid carrier vector (PiC) were detected between the rats in the OH group and the SCH group. However, the expression level of silent mating-type information regulation 3 homolog (SIRT3) was markedly reduced. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression increased in the rats from the OH group, relative to that in those from the SCH group. At P35, the degree of mPTP opening and the expression levels of PiC and RBP4 in the OH group were higher than those in the SCH group. However, SIRT3 expression in the OH group was lower than that observed in the SCH group. CONCLUSION: RBP4 plays an important role in early renal mitochondrial damage and renal impairment in rats suffering from hypothyroidism during pregnancy. The RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 pathway is thus involved in the opening of the renal mPTP in offspring rats with hyperthyroidism.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo , Rim , Mitocôndrias , Complicações na Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Permeabilidade , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol
10.
J Diabetes ; 13(6): 458-468, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age at menarche was reported to be associated with the risk of diabetes. However, the impact of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) on the association between age at menarche and adulthood diabetes risk was unclear. METHODS: We included 121 431 women from the nationwide, population-based cohort of the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: a Longitudinal Study). The diagnosis of diabetes was based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measurement. Logistic regression and multiplicative interaction analysis were conducted to investigate the potential interaction effect between age at menarche and ICVHMs on the development of diabetes. RESULTS: The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios of diabetes across categories of age at menarche (<14, 14-17, and > 17 years) were 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17, 1.28), 1.00 (reference), and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.93), respectively. In subgroup analysis, significant interactions were detected between total cholesterol/blood pressure levels and age at menarche regarding the risk of diabetes (P for interaction = .0091 and .0019, respectively). The increased risk associated with age at menarche <14 years was observed in participants with three or fewer ICVHMs, but not in women with four or more ICVHMs (P for interaction = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Age at menarche was inversely associated with the risk of diabetes in adulthood in Chinese women, and it appeared to be modified by the presence of ICVHMs. Further studies are needed to clarify the precise interrelationship and the generalizability of our results.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 44(2): 499-510, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355246

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive assessment of serum bile acids (BAs) aberrations before diabetes onset remains inconclusive. We examined the association of serum BA profile and coregulation with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among normoglycemic Chinese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We tested 23 serum BA species in subjects with incident diabetes (n = 1,707) and control subjects (n = 1,707) matched by propensity score (including age, sex, BMI, and fasting glucose) from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study, which was composed of 54,807 normoglycemic Chinese adults with a median follow-up of 3.03 years. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for associations of BAs with T2DM were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis, per SD increment of unconjugated primary and secondary BAs were inversely associated with incident diabetes, with an OR (95% CI) of 0.89 (0.83-0.96) for cholic acid, 0.90 (0.84-0.97) for chenodeoxycholic acid, and 0.90 (0.83-0.96) for deoxycholic acid (P < 0.05 and false discovery rate <0.05). On the other hand, conjugated primary BAs (glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, and sulfated glycochenodeoxycholic acid) and secondary BA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) were positively related with incident diabetes, with ORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.19 (95% CIs ranging between 1.05 and 1.28). In a fully adjusted model additionally adjusted for liver enzymes, HDL cholesterol, diet, 2-h postload glucose, HOMA-insulin resistance, and waist circumference, the risk estimates were similar. Differential correlation network analysis revealed that perturbations in intraclass (i.e., primary and secondary) and interclass (i.e., unconjugated and conjugated) BA coregulation preexisted before diabetes onset. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal novel changes in BAs exist before incident T2DM and support a potential role of BA metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Jejum , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Clinics ; 76: e2096, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES To determine the role of the RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 signaling pathway in the opening of the mitochondria permeability transition pore (mPTP) in offspring rats with hypothyroidism during pregnancy. METHODS Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were employed in this study. Pregnancy was deemed successful when a sperm was found in the uterus. After one week of pregnancy, offspring rats were divided into the following groups: overall hypothyroidism group (OH group), subclinical hypothyroidism group (SCH group), and normal control group (CON group). The establishment of the hypothyroidism model was confirmed when the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were higher than normal value and TT4 level was within the normal range. The renal mitochondria of offspring rats were extracted on the 14th postnatal day (P14) and 35th postnatal day (P35). RESULTS At P14, no significant differences in the degree of mPTP opening and expression of phosphoric acid carrier vector (PiC) were detected between the rats in the OH group and the SCH group. However, the expression level of silent mating-type information regulation 3 homolog (SIRT3) was markedly reduced. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) expression increased in the rats from the OH group, relative to that in those from the SCH group. At P35, the degree of mPTP opening and the expression levels of PiC and RBP4 in the OH group were higher than those in the SCH group. However, SIRT3 expression in the OH group was lower than that observed in the SCH group. CONCLUSION RBP4 plays an important role in early renal mitochondrial damage and renal impairment in rats suffering from hypothyroidism during pregnancy. The RBP4/PiC/SIRT3 pathway is thus involved in the opening of the renal mPTP in offspring rats with hyperthyroidism.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Complicações na Gravidez , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Mitocôndrias , Permeabilidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol
13.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1902-1909, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the impact of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) on the association between famine exposure and adulthood diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 77,925 participants from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study who were born around the time of the Chinese Great Famine and free of diabetes at baseline. They were divided into three famine exposure groups according to the birth year, including nonexposed (1963-1974), fetal exposed (1959-1962), and childhood exposed (1949-1958). Relative risk regression was used to examine the associations between famine exposure and ICVHMs on diabetes. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 3.6 years, the cumulative incidence of diabetes was 4.2%, 6.0%, and 7.5% in nonexposed, fetal-exposed, and childhood-exposed participants, respectively. Compared with nonexposed participants, fetal-exposed but not childhood-exposed participants had increased risks of diabetes, with multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (RRs) (95% CIs) of 1.17 (1.05-1.31) and 1.12 (0.96-1.30), respectively. Increased diabetes risks were observed in fetal-exposed individuals with nonideal dietary habits, nonideal physical activity, BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2, or blood pressure ≥120/80 mmHg, whereas significant interaction was detected only in BMI strata (P for interaction = 0.0018). Significant interactions have been detected between number of ICVHMs and famine exposure on the risk of diabetes (P for interaction = 0.0005). The increased risk was observed in fetal-exposed participants with one or fewer ICVHMs (RR 1.59 [95% CI 1.24-2.04]), but not in those with two or more ICVHMs. CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of diabetes associated with famine exposure appears to be modified by the presence of ICVHMs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus , Fome Epidêmica/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Inanição/epidemiologia , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade de Início , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inanição/complicações , Inanição/fisiopatologia
14.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1929-1936, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the individual and combined associations of lifestyle and metabolic factors with new-onset diabetes and major cardiovascular events among a Chinese population aged ≥40 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline lifestyle information, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and glycemic status were obtained in a nationwide, multicenter, prospective study of 170,240 participants. During the up to 5 years of follow-up, we detected 7,847 individuals with new-onset diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria and 3,520 cardiovascular events, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalized or treated heart failure. RESULTS: On the basis of 36.13% (population-attributable fraction [PAF]) risk attributed to metabolic risk components collectively, physical inactivity (8.59%), sedentary behavior (6.35%), and unhealthy diet (4.47%) moderately contributed to incident diabetes. Physical inactivity (13.34%), unhealthy diet (8.70%), and current smoking (3.38%) significantly contributed to the risk of major cardiovascular events, on the basis of 37.42% PAF attributed to a cluster of metabolic risk factors. Significant associations of lifestyle health status with diabetes and cardiovascular events were found across all metabolic health categories. Risks of new-onset diabetes and major cardiovascular events increased simultaneously according to the worsening of lifestyle and metabolic health status. CONCLUSIONS: We showed robust effects of lifestyle status on new-onset diabetes and major cardiovascular events regardless of metabolic status and a graded increment of risk according to the combination of lifestyle and metabolic health, highlighting the importance of lifestyle modification regardless of the present metabolic status.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Complicações do Diabetes/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Dieta , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014175, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233751

RESUMO

Background Previous studies reported that early-life exposure to undernutrition is associated with the risk of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but the association with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate whether exposure to Chinese famine in early life is associated with risk of CVD. Methods and Results We used data from REACTION (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: A Longitudinal Study), which recruited a total of 259 657 community-dwelling adults aged 40 years or older from 25 centers across mainland China between 2011 and 2012. Compared with the nonexposed participants, those who had been exposed to famine in early life had a significantly increased risk of total CVD, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease. In the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model, the odds ratios (95% CI) for total CVD, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease in fetal famine exposure were 1.35 (1.20-1.52), 1.59 (1.08-2.35), 1.40 (1.11-1.78), and 1.44 (1.26-1.65), respectively; those odds ratios in childhood famine exposure were 1.59 (1.40-1.81), 2.20 (1.52-3.20), 1.82 (1.45-2.28), and 1.80 (1.56-2.09), respectively; and those in adolescent famine exposure were 1.52 (1.27-1.81), 2.07 (1.28-3.35), 1.92 (1.42-2.58), and 1.83 (1.50-2.24), respectively. The main finding of our study is that, compared with those who lived in the less severely affected famine area, individuals in the severely affected famine area had significantly increased risk of total CVD in all 3 exposed groups. Conclusions Early-life exposure to undernutrition is associated with significantly increased risk of CVD in later life, especially among those who were in the severely affected famine area.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Fome Epidêmica , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Diabetes ; 12(1): 10-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between birth weight and diabetes in a Chinese population, and the effects of body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors in later life on this association. METHODS: Data from 49 118 participants aged ≥40 years with recalled birth weight from the Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study, a nationwide population-based cohort, were used. Diabetes diagnosis was based on oral glucose tolerance tests and HbA1c measurements. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of birth weight and risk of diabetes in later life. RESULTS: Increased risk of diabetes was associated with lower or higher birth weight. Compared with individuals with a birth weight of 2500 to 3499 g, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of diabetes for individuals with a birth weight of <2500, between 3500 and 3999, and ≥4000 g were 1.28 (1.11-1.47), 1.11 (1.04-1.19), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34), respectively. Significant associations were prominent in participants with a current BMI ≥24 kg/m2 , but not detected in those with a normal BMI (OR 1.20 [95% CI 0.96-1.49], 1.11 [95% CI 0.98-1.25], and 1.10 [95% CI 0.89-1.37], respectively). Moreover, there was no increased risk of diabetes in individuals with a low birth weight but with healthy dietary habits (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.68-1.29) or ideal physical activity (OR 1.41; 95% CI 0.97-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: A U-shaped association was observed between birth weight and the risk of diabetes. Healthy lifestyles (healthy dietary habits or ideal physical activity) may eliminate the negative effects of low birth weight in the development of diabetes, but not the effect of high birth weight.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Diabetes Investig ; 11(1): 162-169, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197979

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to observe the relationship between serum α-klotho (KL) protein level and diabetic retinopathy (DR), and to further examine the effects of KL protein on apoptosis induced by palmitic acid (PA) in human retinal endothelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 17 healthy people and 60 type 2 diabetes patients were included. According to the results from fundus fluorescein angiography, the diabetes patients were divided into three subgroups: without DR, non-proliferative DR and proliferative DR. Serum KL level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro, human retinal endothelial cells were exposed to PA with or without KL protein. Apoptosis rates were analyzed by flow cytometry analysis. Apoptotic-related protein expressions were detected by western blotting analysis. RESULTS: Serum KL level was lower in diabetes patients than that in healthy participants (P = 0.007), and was gradually decreased among the without DR, non-proliferative DR and proliferative DR subgroups (P = 0.045). A logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for the other confounding factors, serum KL level was independently and negatively related with DR (P = 0.049). Furthermore, the increased apoptosis rates induced by PA were inhibited with the addition of KL protein. Consistently, KL protein reversed the expression levels of the increased pro-apoptotic protein Bax and the decreased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 induced by PA. However, the anti-apoptotic effect of KL protein was attenuated by LY294002 through the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-serine∕threonine kinase pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggested that KL protein was probably a potential protective factor against retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Retinopatia Diabética/prevenção & controle , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/metabolismo , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucuronidase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Retina/metabolismo
18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(2): 115-124, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National investigations on the interaction of insulin resistance, ß-cell dysfunction, and obesity with the development of diabetes are scarce in China. We aimed to investigate the individual and joint associations of insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction with incident diabetes, and to examine the modifying effect of BMI and waist circumference on these associations among adults with normal glucose tolerance and with prediabetes. METHODS: In this nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study, we analysed data from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study, which recruited adults aged 40 years or older during 2011-12 (baseline) and invited participants to attend follow-up visits in 2014-16. Patients with diabetes at baseline, missing data for baseline measures of glucose tolerance status, missing data for baseline homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indexes, missing data for baseline covariates, and missing data for measures of glucose tolerance status at follow-up visits were excluded. At baseline and follow-up visits, a comprehensive set of questionnaires, clinical measurements, oral glucose tolerance tests, and laboratory examinations were carried out following standardised protocols. Glucose tolerance status and prediabetes were defined according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria. In the main analysis, we examined the contributions of insulin resistance (HOMA of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and ß-cell dysfunction (HOMA of ß-cell function [HOMA-B]) to diabetes risk, and evaluated the impact of obesity on these associations. FINDINGS: 94 952 participants (31 517 men and 63 435 women) were included in the analysis. High HOMA-IR was associated with a greater hazard of diabetes (quartile 4 vs 1: hazard ratio [HR] 6·70, 95% CI 6·08-7·39; per unit increase in Z score: HR 2·17, 95% CI 2·10-2·24) than low HOMA-B (quartile 1 vs 4: 4·08, 3·72-4·48; per unit decrease in Z score: 1·92, 1·85-2·00). Approximately 24·4% (95% CI 23·6-25·2) of the incident diabetes could be attributed to insulin resistance and 12·4% (11·2-13·7) could be attributed to ß-cell dysfunction. The HRs for diabetes were 1·83 (95% CI 1·72-1·95) per unit increase in Z score of HOMA-IR and 2·03 (1·86-2·21) per unit decrease in Z score of HOMA-B among participants with normal weight; the corresponding HRs for diabetes were 2·02 (1·93-2·11) and 1·88 (1·79-1·98) among participants with obesity (pinteraction=0·0091). These associations and interactions were similar for participants with normal glucose tolerance or prediabetes. INTERPRETATION: Insulin resistance shows a stronger association with incident diabetes than does ß-cell dysfunction in Chinese adults, and this association pattern was more prominent among adults with obesity. Given the limitations of HOMA indexes as surrogate measures of insulin resistance and ß-cell dysfunction, these findings should be interpreted with caution. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/fisiopatologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(9): 874-883, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365039

RESUMO

Importance: Whether optimal cardiovascular health metrics may counteract the risk of cardiovascular events among patients with prediabetes or diabetes is unclear. Objective: To investigate the associations of ideal cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) with subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among participants with prediabetes or diabetes as compared with participants with normal glucose regulation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study was a nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study of 20 communities from various geographic regions in China. The study included 111 765 participants who were free from CVD or cancer at baseline. Data were analyzed between 2011 and 2016. Exposures: Prediabetes and diabetes were defined according to the American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria. Seven ICVHMs were adapted from the American Heart Association recommendations. Main Outcomes and Measures: The composite of incident fatal or nonfatal CVD, including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalized or treated heart failure. Results: Of the 111 765 participants, 24 881 (22.3%) had normal glucose regulation, 61 024 (54.6%) had prediabetes, and 25 860 (23.1%) had diabetes. Mean (SD) age ranged from 52.9 (8.6) years to 59.4 (8.7) years. Compared with participants with normal glucose regulation, among participants with prediabetes, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for CVD was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.16-1.55) for participants who had 1 ICVHM or less and 0.57 (95% CI, 0.43-0.75) for participants who had at least 5 ICVHMs; among participants with diabetes, the hazard ratios for CVD were 2.05 (95% CI, 1.76-2.38) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.56-1.15) for participants who had 1 ICVHM or less and at least 5 ICVHMs, respectively. Such pattern of association between ICVHMs and CVD was more prominent for participants younger than 55 years (prediabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; 95% CI, 0.16-0.63; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.13-2.21; diabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.44-2.26; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.71-3.54; compared with normal glucose regulation) than for participants 65 years or older (prediabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50-1.26; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.79-1.31; diabetes and at least 5 ICVHMs: HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.46-1.35; 1 ICVHM or less: HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.36-2.22, compared with normal glucose regulation; P values for interaction ≤.02). Additionally, the hazard ratio for CVD per additional ICVHM was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79-0.86) among participants with prediabetes and was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.80-0.89) among participants with diabetes. Conclusions and Relevance: Participants with prediabetes or diabetes who had 5 or more ICVHMs exhibited lower or no significant excess CVD risks compared with the participants with normal glucose regulation.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Medição de Risco/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1539-1548, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uncertainty remains regarding the predictive value of various glycemic measures as they relate to the risk of diabetes and its complications. Using the cutoffs recommended by the American Diabetes Association's 2010 criteria, we determined the associations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postload glucose (2h-PG), and HbA1c with the outcomes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Baseline medical history, FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c were obtained from a population-based cohort of 193,846 adults aged ≥40 years in China during 2011-2012. A follow-up visit was conducted during 2014-2016 in order to assess incident diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and mortality. RESULTS: We documented 8,063 cases of diabetes, 3,014 CVD-related events, 1,624 cases of cancer, and 2,409 deaths during up to 5 years of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted risk ratios (95% CIs) of diabetes associated with prediabetes based on FPG of 100-125 mg/dL, 2h-PG of 140-199 mg/dL, or HbA1c of 5.7-6.4% (39-47 mmol/mol) were 1.60 (1.43-1.79), 2.72 (2.43-3.04), and 1.49 (1.36-1.62), respectively. Restricted cubic spline analyses suggested J-shaped associations of FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c levels with CVD, cancer, and mortality. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) associated with untreated diabetes based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL, 2h-PG ≥200 mg/dL, or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) were 1.18 (1.05-1.33), 1.31 (1.18-1.45), and 1.20 (1.07-1.34) for CVD; 1.10 (0.92-1.32), 1.44 (1.25-1.67), and 1.08 (0.92-1.28) for cancer; and 1.37 (1.20-1.57), 1.57 (1.41-1.76), and 1.33 (1.17-1.52) for mortality, respectively. 2h-PG remained significantly associated with outcomes in models including FPG and HbA1c as spline terms. Furthermore, 2h-PG significantly improved the ability of the C statistic to predict diabetes, CVD, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: 2h-PG remains independently predictive of outcomes in models including FPG and HbA1c. Therefore, in addition to FPG and HbA1c, routine testing of 2h-PG should be considered in order to better assess the risks of outcomes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glucose/farmacologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
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