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1.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(6): 1957-1962, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893141

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors affecting prognosis of children with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). METHODS: The clinical manifestations and laboratory data of 143 HLH children who met the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from January 2009 to May 2017 were retrospectively analyzed, and the independent factors affecting prognosis were also analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of 143 HLH children was 1.9 (0.1-14.3) years old, and the median follow-up time was 6.7 years (1 day - 11.9 years). The overall survival rate of 1 month, 1 year, and 10 years was (87.4±5.5)%, (81.1±6.5)%, and (81.1±6.5)%, respectively. The deaths occurred within 1 year after onset. Multivariate analysis showed that central nervous system (CNS) involvement (P=0.047), low hemoglobin (P=0.002), prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (P<0.001), high triglyceride (P=0.005) were all the independent risk factors affecting survival of the children. Receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that APTT (AUC=0.753, P<0.001) was more valuable than other risk factors in predicting death of the children. The cut-off value of APTT was 56.6 s, and the sensitivity and specificity of which was 55.6% and 89.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hypohemoglobinemia, prolonged APTT, hypertriglyceridemia, and CNS involvement the risk factors affecting prognosis of HLH, and prolonged APTT shows a strong predictive value for death.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1156, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a major cause of bacterial meningitis, septicemia and pneumonia in children. Inappropriate choice of antibiotic can have important adverse consequences for both the individual and the community. Here, we focused on penicillin/cefotaxime non-susceptibility of S. pneumoniae and evaluated appropriateness of targeted antibiotic therapy for children with IPD (invasive pneumococcal diseases) in China. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 14 hospitals from 13 provinces in China. Antibiotics prescription, clinical features and resistance patterns of IPD cases from January 2012 to December 2017 were collected. Appropriateness of targeted antibiotics therapy was assessed. RESULTS: 806 IPD cases were collected. The non-susceptibility rates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin and cefotaxime were 40.9% and 20.7% respectively in 492 non-meningitis cases, whereas those were 73.2% and 43.0% respectively in 314 meningitis cases. Carbapenems were used in 21.3% of non-meningitis cases and 42.0% of meningitis cases for targeted therapy. For 390 non-meningitis cases with isolates susceptible to cefotaxime, vancomycin and linezolid were used in 17.9% and 8.7% of cases respectively for targeted therapy. For 179 meningitis cases with isolates susceptible to cefotaxime, vancomycin and linezolid were prescribed in 55.3% and 15.6% of cases respectively. Overall, inappropriate targeted therapies were identified in 361 (44.8%) of 806 IPD cases, including 232 (28.8%) cases with inappropriate use of carbapenems, 169 (21.0%) cases with inappropriate use of vancomycin and 62 (7.7%) cases with inappropriate use of linezolid. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic regimens for IPD definite therapy were often excessive with extensive prescription of carbapenems, vancomycin or linezolid in China. Antimicrobial stewardship programs should be implemented to improve antimicrobial use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Pneumocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Prescrições , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 62-68, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The treatment of acute herpangina is inconsistent. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interferon α-2b spray versus Ribavirin for this disease. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in eight hospitals in China between 2016 and 2018. 668 patients (1-7 years old) were randomized into an experimental group (treated with Interferon α-2b spray) or control group (received Ribavirin Aerosol). Body temperature returning to normal within 72 h and remaining so for 24 h was the primary outcome; release of oral herpes and adverse events were the secondary outcomes. RESULTS: (1) The average age of onset was 2.5 years old. (2) After 72 h treatment, body temperature of 98.5% patients in experimental group and 94.3% in control group returned to normal and remained so for 24 h (P = 0.004). The differences were greater at 48 h treatment (95.2% vs. 85.9%, P < 0.001) and at 24 h (77.5% vs. 66.5%, P = 0.001). (3) The rate of improved oral herpes in the experimental group was higher than that in control group (46.7% vs.37.1%, P = 0.011). No adverse reaction occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Local application of recombinant interferon α-2b spray showed better efficacy for acute herpangina in children. It was safe for use.


Assuntos
Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Herpangina/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Interferon alfa-2/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Sprays Orais , Úlceras Orais/tratamento farmacológico , Ribavirina/administração & dosagem
6.
World J Pediatr ; 16(3): 232-239, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333248

RESUMO

In the early February, 2020, we called up an experts' committee with more than 30 Chinese experts from 11 national medical academic organizations to formulate the first edition of consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children, which has been published in this journal. With accumulated experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in children, we have updated the consensus statement and released the second edition recently. The current version in English is a condensed version of the second edition of consensus statement on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of COVID-19 in children. In the current version, diagnosis and treatement criteria have been optimized, and early identification of severe and critical cases is highlighted. The early warning indicators for severe pediatric cases have been summarized which is utmost important for clinical practice. This version of experts consensus will be valuable for better prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in children worldwide.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Criança , Consenso , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
7.
World J Pediatr ; 16(2): 185-192, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of pertussis cases have been reported in recent years. The reported cases from Shenzhen Children's Hospital were close to one tenth of all cases in China. The epidemiology of antigenic genotype and antibiotic resistance of circulating strains in children have been unknown in Shenzhen, southern China. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features and explore the genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of circulating Bordetella pertussis among children in Shenzhen. METHODS: Data of hospitalized children with pertussis in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from August 2015 to April 2017 were collected. The genetic variability of isolates was investigated and Etest was performed for phenotypic susceptibility to erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, clindamycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. RESULTS: 469 children with pertussis confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were hospitalized and strains were isolated from 105 patients. White blood cell count ≥ 20 × 109/L and lymphocyte proportion ≥ 60% were observed in 39.29% of infants younger than 3 months. The two predominant profiles of virulence-associated allelic genes were ptxA1/ptxC1/ptxP1/prn1 (48.6%) and ptxA1/ptxC2/ptxP3/prn2 (44.8%). Among the isolates, 48.6% (51/105) were found resistant to macrolides. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that leukocytosis is not a sensitive indicator of pertussis. Isolates with the gene profile ptxP3/prn2 were highly circulating in Shenzhen and less resistant to macrolides, different from patterns observed in other parts of China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bordetella pertussis/efeitos dos fármacos , Bordetella pertussis/genética , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular
8.
World J Pediatr ; 16(2): 129-134, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpangina is a common infectious disease in childhood caused by an enterovirus. This consensus is aiming to standardize and improve herpangina prevention and clinical diagnosis. METHODS: The Subspecialty Group of Infectious Diseases, the Society of Pediatric, Chinese Medical Association and Nation Medical Quality Control Center for Infectious Diseases gathered 20 experts to develop the consensus, who are specialized in diagnosis and treatment of herpangina. RESULTS: The main pathogenic serotypes of herpangina include Coxsackievirus-A, Enterovirus-A and Echovirus. Its diagnosis can be rendered on the basis of history of epidemiology, typical symptoms, characteristic pharyngeal damage and virological tests. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, and incorporates topical oral spray with antiviral drugs. The course of herpangina generally lasts 4-6 days with a good prognosis. CONCLUSION: The consensus could provide advices and references for the diagnosis, treatment and management of herpangina in children.


Assuntos
Herpangina/diagnóstico , Herpangina/terapia , Criança , China , Árvores de Decisões , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos
9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(7): 644-649, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics, drug sensitivity of isolated strains, and risk factors of drug resistance in children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS: The clinical characteristics and drug sensitivity of the isolated strains of 246 hospitalized children with IPD in nine grade A tertiary children's hospitals from January 2016 to June 2018 were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 246 children with IPD, there were 122 males and 124 females. Their ages ranged from 1 day to 14 years, and among them, 68 (27.6%) patients were less than 1 year old, 54 (22.0%) patients were 1 to 2 years old, 97 (39.4%) patients were 2 to 5 years old, and 27 (11.0%) patients were 5 to 14 years old. Pneumonia with sepsis was the most common infection type (58.5%, 144/246), followed by bloodstream infection without focus (19.9%, 49/246) and meningitis (15.0%, 37/246). Forty-nine (19.9%) patients had underlying diseases, and 160 (65.0%) had various risk factors for drug resistance. The isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin, 90% sensitive to ertapenem, ofloxacin, and ceftriaxone, but had a low sensitivity to erythromycin (4.2%), clindamycin (7.9%), and tetracycline (6.3%). CONCLUSIONS: IPD is more common in children under 5 years old, especially in those under 2 years old. Some children with IPD have underlying diseases, and most of the patients have various risk factors for drug resistance. Pneumonia with sepsis is the most common infection type. The isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains are highly sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem, and ceftriaxone in children with IPD.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Antibacterianos , Ceftriaxona , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus pneumoniae
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e15942, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192930

RESUMO

Emergent resistance to antibiotics among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is a severe problem worldwide. Antibiotic resistance profiles for S pneumoniae isolates identified from pediatric patients in mainland China remains to be established.The clinical features, antimicrobial resistance, and multidrug resistance patterns of S pneumoniae were retrospectively analyzed at 10 children's hospitals in mainland China in 2016.Among the collected 6132 S pneumoniae isolates, pneumococcal diseases mainly occurred in children younger than 5 years old (85.1%). The resistance rate of S pneumoniae to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 95.8%, 95.2%, 93.6%, and 66.7%, respectively. The resistance rates of S pneumoniae to penicillin were 86.9% and 1.4% in non-meningitis and meningitis isolates, while the proportions of ceftriaxone resistance were 8.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was administered to only 4.1% of patients. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance, underling diseases, antibiotic resistant risk factors, and poor prognosis appeared more frequently in invasive pneumococcal diseases. The incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 46.1% in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease which was more than in patients with non-invasive pneumococcal disease (18.3%). Patients with invasive pneumococcal disease usually have several MDR coexistence.S pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance to common antibiotics in mainland China. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance rate of invasive streptococcal pneumonia patients were significantly higher than that of non-invasive S pneumoniae patients. Alarmingly, 46.1% of invasive clinical isolates were multidrug resistant, so it is important to continued monitor the resistance of S pneumoniae when protein conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is coming in mainland China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia
12.
World J Pediatr ; 14(4): 335-343, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children as a population have high antimicrobial prescribing rates which may lead to high resistance of bacteria according to data from some single-center surveys of antibiotic prescribing rates in China. The acquirement of baseline data of antibiotic prescribing is the basis of developing intervention strategies on inappropriate antimicrobial prescriptions. Few studies show clearly the pattern and detailed information on classes of antibiotics and distribution of indications of antibiotic prescriptions in children in China. This study aims to assess the antibiotic prescribing patterns among children and neonates hospitalized in 18 hospitals in China. METHODS: A 24-hour point prevalence survey on antimicrobial prescribing was conducted in hospitalized neonates and children in China from December 1st, 2016 to February 28th, 2017. Information on the antibiotic use of patients under 18 years of age who were administered one or more on-going antibiotics in the selected wards over a 24-hour period was collected. These data were submitted to the GARPEC (Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing and Efficacy in Children and Neonates) web-based application ( https://pidrg-database.sgul.ac.uk/redcap/ ). For statistical analysis, Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 22.0 were used. RESULTS: The antibiotic data were collected in 35 wards in 18 hospitals from 9 provinces. In total, 67.76% (975/1439) of the patients (n = 1439) were given at least one antibiotic, including 58.1% (173/298) of neonates (n = 298) and 70.3% (802/1141) of children (n = 1141). In neonates, the three most frequently prescribed antibiotics were third-generation cephalosporins (41.7%), penicillins plus enzyme inhibitor (23.8%), and carbapenems (11.2%). In children, the three most frequently prescribed antibiotics were third-generation cephalosporins (35.5%), macrolides (23.2%), and penicillins plus enzyme inhibitors (15.9%). The most common indication for antibiotics was proven or probable bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (30.9% in neonates and 66.6% in children). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in the Chinese children population. It is likely that the third-generation cephalosporins and macrolides are currently overused in Chinese children. Efforts must be made to ensure safe and appropriate antibiotic prescribing to reduce and prevent the future development of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
13.
Int J Infect Dis ; 74: 47-53, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics and etiology of bacterial meningitis (BM) in Chinese children. METHOD: BM cases in children 28days to 18 years old were collected from January 2014-December 2016 and screened according to World Health Organization standards. Clinical features, pathogens, and resistance patterns were analyzed. RESULTS: Overall, 837 cases were classified into five age groups: 28 days-2 months (17.0%), 3-11 months (27.8%), 12-35 months (24.0%), 3-6 years (13.9%), and >6years (17.3%). Major pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, n=136, 46.9%), group B Streptococcus (GBS, n=29, 10.0%), and Escherichia coli (E. coli, n=23, 7.9%). In infants <3 months old, GBS (46.5%) and E. coli (23.3%) were most common; in children >3 months old, S. pneumoniae (54.7%), which had a penicillin non-susceptibility rate of 55.4% (36/65), was most frequent. The resistance rates of S. pneumoniae and E. coli to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were 14.0%/40.0% and 11.3%/68.4%, respectively. All GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of BM peaked in the first year of life, while S. pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen in children >3months of old. The antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae was a concern.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Meningites Bacterianas/microbiologia , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilina G/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus agalactiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus agalactiae/genética , Streptococcus agalactiae/fisiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Streptococcus pneumoniae/fisiologia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(17): e0549, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703037

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pertussis has re-emerged on a global scale and is an ongoing public health problem, even in countries with high rates of vaccination. Hyperleukocytosis [white blood cell (WBC) count >100 × 10/L] is a rare complication that strongly predicts mortality in cases of severe pertussis. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of severe pertussis in an infant who initially presented with persistent cyanotic cough, tachypnea, and grunting. The infant's condition deteriorated rapidly, and she was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) during her third hour of hospitalization. On the third hospital day, her WBC count had increased to 101.85 × 10/L with a lymphocyte count of 36.76 × 10/L, and her hemoglobin level had fallen to 6.9 g/dL. Bone marrow examination found no evidence of tumor cells. Her initial echocardiogram showed no abnormal findings; however, a subsequent echocardiogram 10 days later revealed pulmonary hypertension. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with severe pneumonia, which was confirmed to be pertussis based on a persistent cough in the infant's mother and the polymerase chain reaction and culture of the infant's nasopharyngeal secretions being positive for Bordetella pertussis. INTERVENTIONS: The infant was treated with supportive care, early macrolide antibiotics, and broad-spectrum antibiotics before being transferred to the PICU for further management, including continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. OUTCOMES: Unfortunately, the infant died as a result of pulmonary hypertension and multiorgan failure. LESSONS: Exchange transfusion should be considered in all infants who present with severe pertussis with hyperleukocytosis. This guideline is supported by the findings of a comprehensive literature review, which is included in this article, as well as newly published criteria for exchange transfusion therapy. Finally, we hope that adults in China will be vaccinated against B. pertussis in order to prevent the infection of infants within their households.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/microbiologia , Leucocitose/complicações , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/complicações , Coqueluche/complicações , China , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente
15.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 18(12): 1269-1271, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features and duration of viral nucleic acid shedding in children with influenza A. METHODS: The clinical data of 90 children with influenza A with positive influenza A virus nucleic acid in nasopharyngeal swab detected by PCR were collected, and these children were divided into simple influenza A group (n=10), influenza A-pneumonia group (n=61), influenza A-nervous system damage group (n=10), and influenza A-underlying disease group (n=9). A retrospective analysis was performed for clinical features, treatment process, duration of viral nucleic acid shedding, and prognosis. RESULTS: The most common symptoms in these children were fever (89/90, 99%), cough (89/90, 99%), running nose (69/90, 77%), shortness of breath (26/90, 29%), and myalgia (23/90, 26%). The mean duration of viral nucleic acid shedding in 90 children was 9.4±2.9 days. The simple influenza A group had a significantly shorter duration of viral nucleic acid shedding than the influenza A-pneumonia, influenza A-nervous system damage, and influenza A-underlying disease groups (p<0.05), while there were no significant differences between the influenza A-pneumonia, influenza A-nervous system damage, and influenza A-underlying disease groups (p>0.05). The children who received antiviral therapy within 48 hours after disease onset had significantly shorter duration of viral nucleic acid shedding and time to body temperature recovery than those who received antiviral therapy more than 48 hours after disease onset (p<0.05). Of all the children with body temperature recovery, 83% still tested positive for viral nucleic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Complications, underlying diseases, and timing of antiviral therapy are influencing factors for the duration of influenza A virus nucleic acid shedding, and whether body temperature returns to normal cannot be used to decide whether to continue antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 18(9): 891-896, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27655550

RESUMO

It has been recognized that pertussis is a disease that affects all age groups. There are obvious limitations in the currently used diagnostic criteria with "one-size-fits-all" definition, which is not advantageous to start individual treatment and perform strategies for preventing the transmission. Therefore, the expert group of Global Pertussis Initiative gives a suggestion for the diagnosis of pertussis. Based on the related published studies, the present article analyzes the limitations of the current criteria, and introduces the GPI's suggestion in detail.


Assuntos
Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
17.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 50(7): 521-4, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22932014

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics of plastic bronchitis associated with 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1) infection. METHOD: A retrospective investigation of the clinical manifestation, bronchoscopy, and the histology of the cast, clinical course and outcome of 8 children with plastic bronchitis associated with influenza A virus (H1N1) infection during winter of 2009 and 2010 was performed. RESULT: All 8 cases were boys, the range of age was 3 to 6 years. Five cases occurred in 2009 winter, accounting for 3.3% (5/150) of hospitalized children with influenza A (H1N1) infection; 3 cases occurred in 2010 winter, accounting for 15.8% (3/19) of hospitalized children with influenza A (H1N1) infection. Two patients had an underlying chronic disease, 1 had asthma, and the other had allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. All the 8 cases had fever, cough and sputum; 2 had wheezing; 5 had respiratory distress. All 8 cases were diagnosed as influenza A virus (H1N1) infection complicated with pneumonia, of whom 5 patients had atelectasis, 2 had pneumothorax, 1 had pneumomediastinum, 1 had parapneumonic effusion, 2 patients were suspected of foreign body aspiration. Seven cases were admitted to an ICU, 5 patients developed respiratory failure, and 3 patients required mechanical ventilation. Flexible bronchoscopy and bronchial lavage was performed in all cases and showed bronchial cast. Histological examination of the bronchial cast revealed a fibrinous material containing large quantity of eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in 7 patients, fibrinous material and necrotic material without inflammatory cells in 1 patient. After the bronchial cast was removed, all patients were improved greatly, no patients died. CONCLUSION: Plastic bronchitis is a life-threatening complication associated with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in children. In children with rapid and progressive respiratory distress with lung atelectasis or consolidation on chest radiograph, plastic bronchitis should be considered. Bronchoscopic extraction of casts should be carried out early.


Assuntos
Bronquite/complicações , Bronquite/virologia , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/complicações , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Bronquite/diagnóstico , Bronquite/terapia , Broncoscopia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Atelectasia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Atelectasia Pulmonar/terapia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/virologia , Doenças Raras , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 48(8): 571-4, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21055298

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics of severely and critically ill children with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection. METHOD: Clinical data of 150 cases with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection confirmed with the use of a real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay on nasopharyngeal swab specimens were analyzed. RESULT: Among 150 severely and critically ill children with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection, 103 were male, 47 were female; the median age was 5 years, 81(55%) were 5 years of age or older; 21 (14%) had underlying chronic diseases. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (95%), cough (89%), vomiting (23%), wheezing (19%), abdominal pain (16%), lethargy (7%), seizures (6%), myalgia (6%), and diarrhea (6%). The common laboratory abnormalities were increased or decreased white blood cells counts (40%), elevated of CRP (33%), LDH (29%), CK (25%) and AST (19%). Clinical complications included pneumonia (65%), encephalopathy (12%), myocarditis (5%), encephalitis (1%) and myositis (1%). All patients had received antibiotics before admission or on admission; 73% of patients had received oseltamivir treatment, 23% of patients had received corticosteroids; 32 (21%) were admitted to an ICU, 13 patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated. Fourteen patients with dyspnea who were irresponsive to the treatment experienced bronchoalveolar lavage with flexible bronchoscopy, and the branching bronchial casts were removed in 5 patients. Totally 145 (97%) patients were discharged, five (3%) died, three previously healthy patients died from severe encephalopathy, one patient died from ARDS, one previously healthy patient died from secondary fungal meningitis. CONCLUSION: Severely and critically ill children with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection may occur mainly in older children without underlying chronic disease. The clinical spectrum and laboratory abnormality of the patients can have a wide range. Neurologic complications may be common and severe encephalopathy can lead to death in previously healthy children. Early use of bronchoalveolar lavage with flexible bronchoscopy may reduce death associated with pulmonary complications.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/patologia , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino
20.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 47(11): 829-34, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20078993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of changes in immune function with enterovirus 71 (EV71) cases with different severity of the disease. METHOD: Forty-six EV71-infected patients and 12 age-matched healthy children were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into four groups according to critical degree of enterovirus 71 infection: hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD); central nervous system disease (CNSD); autonomic nervous system dysregulation (ANSD) and pulmonary edema (PE). We analyzed CD14+ monocyte HLA-DR expression, lymphocyte immunophenotypes, the proportion of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3high regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and Th17 cells, cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-10, TGF-beta, IL-6, IL-17A), evaluated the mRNA levels of Foxp3 and ROR-gammat, and serum immunoglobulin and complements. RESULT: (1) Serum concentrations of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha elevated in mild cases, while declined in severe cases, and were lower in PE group (P<0.05). Serum concentrations of IL-10 and IL-10/TNF-alpha ratio gradually raised with the aggravation of the disease, and higher in PE group (P<0.05). (2) Circulating CD14+ monocyte HLA-DR expression, CD3+T cells, CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, and NK cells gradually decreased, and lower in PE group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in B cells, immunoglobulin and complement among the four groups. (3) The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3high Treg cells, mRNA level of Foxp, and serum concentrations of TGF-beta gradually decreased with the aggravation of the disease, while the proportion of Th17 cells, serum concentrations of IL-17A, mRNA level of ROR-gammat, and IL-6 gradually increased with the aggravation. CONCLUSION: Immune function changed with different illness phases. The mild cases presented systemic inflammatory response syndrome status, while critically ill cases presented compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome or mixed antagonist response status. Immunoregulatory treatment of patients with EV71 infection should emphasize different methods at different stage and individualization.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/patologia , Adolescente , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus Humano A , Infecções por Enterovirus/metabolismo , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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