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4.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181059

RESUMO

Background: A comparison of symptom prevalence, intensity, and distress for participants with truncal lymphedema, head and neck lymphedema, and no lymphedema identified a need for a truncal-specific, lymphedema-related symptom assessment tool and a revision of the Lymphedema Symptom Intensity and Distress Survey-Head and Neck (LSIDS-H&N). The purpose of this study was to institute the development of the Lymphedema Symptom Intensity and Distress Survey-Truncal (LSIDS-T) and revise the LSIDS-H&N. Methods and Results: A comprehensive midline measure and subsequent series of analyses were used to develop the LSIDS-T and revise the initial LSIDS-H&N. Participants included 97 without lymphedema, 82 with truncal lymphedema, and 72 with head and neck lymphedema. Cluster analysis for the LSIDS-T resulted in five clusters with a total of 21 items. Cluster analysis for the LSIDS-H&N resulted in seven clusters with a total of 31 items. Key correlations in expected directions were found with the validated measures for both surveys, and correlations with the Marlowe Crown Social Desirability Scale did not indicate issues with social desirability of response. Conclusion: The 24-item LSIDS-T and the 31-item revised LSIDS-H&N v.2 are promising additions to the suite of other LSIDS measures for use in clinical environments.

5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(16): 3133-3148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162820

RESUMO

Cardiac metabolic remodeling is recognized as an important hallmark of heart failure (HF), while strategies that target energy metabolism have therapeutic potential in treating HF. Shen-Fu formula (S-F) is a standardized herbal preparation frequently used in clinical practice and is a promising combinatorial therapy for HF-related metabolic remodeling. Herein, we performed an untargeted multi-omics analysis using transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics on HF mice induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Integrated and pathway-driven analyses were used to reveal the therapeutic targets associated with S-F treatment. The cardioprotective effect and potential mechanism of S-F were verified by the results from echocardiography, hemodynamics, histopathology, and biochemical assays. As a result, S-F significantly alleviated myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy, thus reducing the loss of heart function during adverse cardiac remodeling in TAC mice. Integrated omics analysis showed that S-F synergistically mediated the metabolic flexibility of fatty acids and glucose in cardiac energy metabolism. These effects of S-F were confirmed by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream targets in the failing heart. Collectively, our results demonstrated that S-F suppressed cardiac metabolic remodeling through activating AMPK-related pathways via energy-dependent mechanisms.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) in the murine nasal epithelium are discrete specialized cells that respond to irritants and activate trigeminal nerve fibers through the release of acetylcholine (ACh), resulting in local neurogenic inflammation. In addition to releasing ACh, SCCs are the exclusive epithelial source of interleukin (IL)-25. In humans, SCCs are significantly expanded in sinonasal polyps (NPs). However, the SCC-trigeminal synapse has yet to be demonstrated in human sinonasal epithelium. METHODS: Immunofluorescence for trigeminal nerve fiber markers, nicotinic ACh receptors (nChR), and SCC markers was performed in vibratome sections from polyp and healthy turbinate tissue. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence of cultured epithelial cells were used to evaluate the expansion of SCCs. Last, intracellular calcium imaging was used to demonstrate cholinergic signaling in sinonasal epithelial cells. RESULTS: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunostaining was used to identify cholinergic nerve endings, which were only evident in sections from the inferior turbinate and intertwined with SCCs (α-gustducin-positive cells). CGRP-positive nerve endings were not identified in sections from NPs. Human SCCs expressed nChR as well as the ACh synthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase. Live cell calcium imaging demonstrated functionally active cholinergic signaling in discrete sinonasal epithelial cells, consistent with SCCs. Finally, SCC-specific genes were dramatically upregulated with pretreatment with IL-13 and nicotinic agonists. CONCLUSION: SCCs are innervated by trigeminal nerve endings in healthy turbinate tissue but not in NPs. SCCs express ACh receptors as well as choline acetyltransferase and, in the setting of a type 2 inflammatory environment, denervated SCCs dramatically expand with nicotinic stimulation.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 993, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that the pathology and the modified Kadish system have some influence on the prognosis of esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB). However, an accurate system to combine pathology with a modified Kadish system has not been established. METHODS: This study aimed to set up and evaluate a model to predict overall survival (OS) accurately in ENB, including clinical characteristics, treatment and pathological variables. We screened the information of patients with ENB between January 1, 1976, and December 30, 2016 from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program as a training cohort. The validation cohort consisted of patients with ENB at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center and The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in the same period, and 87 patients were included. The Pearson's chi-squared test was used to assess significance of clinicopathological and demographic characteristics. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to examine univariate and multivariate analyses. The model coefficients were used to calculate the Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prognostic factors with a p-value < 0.05 in multivariate analysis were included in the nomogram. The concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve were used to evaluate the predictive power of the nomogram. RESULTS: The c-index of training cohort and validation cohort are 0.737 (95% CI, 0.709 to 0.765) and 0.791 (95% CI, 0.767 to 0.815) respectively. The calibration curves revealed a good agreement between the nomogram prediction and actual observation regarding the probability of 3-year and 5-year survival. We used a nomogram to calculate the 3-year and 5-year growth probability and stratified patients into three risk groups. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram provided the risk group information and identified mortality risk and can serve as a reference for designing a reasonable follow-up plan.

8.
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040157

RESUMO

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a strong infectious pathogen that may cause severe respiratory infections. Since this pathogen may possess a latent period after infection, which sometimes leads to misdiagnosis by traditional diagnosis methods, the establishment of a rapid and sensitive diagnostic method is crucial for transmission prevention and timely treatment. Herein, a novel detection method was established for M. pneumoniae detection. The method, which improves upon a denaturation bubble-mediated strand exchange amplification (SEA) that we developed in 2016, is called accelerated SEA (ASEA). The established ASEA achieved detection of 1% M. pneumoniae genomic DNA in a DNA mixture from multiple pathogens, and the limit of detection (LOD) of ASEA was as low as 1.0 × 10-17 M (approximately 6.0 × 103 copies/mL). Considering that the threshold of an asymptomatic carriage is normally recommended as 1.0 × 104 copies/mL, this method was able to satisfy the requirement for practical diagnosis of M. pneumoniae. Moreover, the detection process was finished within 20.4 min, significantly shorter than real-time PCR and SEA. Furthermore, ASEA exhibited excellent performance in clinical specimen analysis, with sensitivity and specificity of 96.2% and 100%, respectively, compared with the "gold standard" real-time PCR. More importantly, similar to real-time PCR, ASEA requires only one pair of primers and ordinary commercial polymerase, and can be carried out using a conventional fluorescence real-time PCR instrument, which makes this method low-cost and easy to accomplish. Therefore, ASEA has the potential for wide use in the rapid detection of M. pneumoniae or other pathogens in large numbers of specimens. Graphical abstract.

10.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001388

RESUMO

Nosocomial infections are common in pediatric patients and can be fatal in infants and immunocompromised patients. In September 2018, a high positive rate of human adenovirus HAdV was occurred among hospitalized children in the Children's Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Institute of Paediatrics in Beijing. To investigate whether this outbreak of HAdV was related to nosocomial infections or the result of community infections, we collected respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory infections in a respiratory ward during June to December 2018, and screened for respiratory viruses. Among 1,840 cases included, 95 (5.2%, 95/1840) were positive for HAdV and 81 were genotyped based on phylogenetic analysis, including seven as HAdV-1 (8.6%), 30 HAdV-3 (37.0%), two HAdV-6 (2.5%), and 42 HAdV-7 (51.9%). More HAdV-positive samples were collected in August (4.7%, 12/255), September (15.0%, 41/274) and October (6.9%, 17/247), with a peak in September 2018. By combining the results of HAdV phylogenetic analysis with clinical data of patients, there were 77 cases (4.2%, 77/1840; 81.1%, 77/95) excluded from nosocomial infections, eight cases representing possible infections transmitted by visitors or attending parents, three cases without sequences that might have been due to infection transmitted by roommates positive for HAdV, one case of a roommate without an HAdV sequence, and six cases that shared highly homologous sequences with those of their roommates, for which nosocomial infections might be considered. In conclusion, genotyping of HAdVs based on phylogenetic analysis combined with clinical information provides a powerful method to distinguish nosocomial infections from community acquired infection, especially when tracing the origins of nosocomial infections.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068688

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lymphedema and fibrosis (LEF) are common yet overlooked late effects of head and neck cancer (HNC) and its therapy. Lack of reliable and valid measures of head and neck LEF is a critical barrier to the timely identification and management of head and neck LEF. To fill in this gap, we developed, and pilot tested a 64-item patient-reported outcome measure (L-survey, abbreviated for purpose of blinding). The article aimed to report the process of further validation and refinement of the tool. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted and 120 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer were recruited. Participants completed the L-survey at pre-treatment, end of treatment, and every three months up to 12 months after treatment. SAS PROC VARCLUS was used to generate preliminary clusters of item responses. Internal consistency of the item responses within each cluster was assessed using Cronbach's Alpha. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients completed the study. The participants reported that the L-survey was easy to understand, and the survey captured their symptoms and medical conditions. However, greater than 50% of participants indicated that the survey was burdensome due to length. Thus, we proceeded with item reduction and the shortened tool (33-item) was named H-symptom inventory. The subsequent exploration of symptom clusters identified seven symptom domain clusters (e.g., soft tissue and neurologic toxicity), all of which demonstrated good internal consistency. CONCLUSIONS: The H-symptom inventory has been carefully developed and refined to allow clinicians and researchers to capture LEF associated symptom burden and function impairments. Additional rigorous psychometric testing of the tool is ongoing to further validate the strength and internal validity of this tool.

12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 165(Pt B): 2231-2243, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058981

RESUMO

Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a hypoglycemic polysaccharide with a wide range of molecular weights. But study on hypoglycemic effects of KGMs relate to molecular weight is limited. In this study, KGMs with high and medium molecular weights, and the degraded KGMs were analyzed with physicochemical properties, hypoglycemic effects and mechanisms. Results showed that as the molecular weight KGMs decreased, the viscosity decreased, molecular flexibility increased, while chemical groups, crystal structures and main chains showed little change. KGMs with medium molecular weights (KGM-M1, KGM-M2) showed better effects on increasing body weight, decreasing levels of fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and enhancing integrity of pancreas and colon, than KGMs with high or low molecular weights (KGM-H, KGM-L) in type 2 diabetic rats. Mechanism analysis suggested that KGM-M1 and KGM-M2 had higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities on elevating superoxide dismutase, decreasing malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Moreover, KGM-M1 and KGM-M2 increased gut microbiota diversity, Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio and Muribaculaceae, decreased Romboutsia and Klebsiella, and improved 6 diabetic related metabolites. Combined, KGM-M1 and KGM-M2 showed higher hypoglycemic effects, due to regulatory activities of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, intestinal microbiota, and relieved metabolic disorders.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(45): 19393-19401, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125228

RESUMO

Template-directed synthesis has been used to prepare a fully π-conjugated cyclic porphyrin octamer, composed of both ß,meso,ß-edge-fused porphyrin tape units and butadiyne-linked porphyrins. The UV-vis-NIR spectra of this partially fused nanoring show that π-conjugation extends around the whole macrocycle, and that it has a smaller HOMO-LUMO gap than its all-butadiyne-linked analogue, as predicted by TD-DFT calculations. The 1H NMR shifts of the bound templates confirm the disrupted aromaticity of the edge-fused porphyrins in the neutral nanoring. NMR oxidation titrations reveal the presence of a global paratropic ring current in its 4+ and 8+ oxidation states and of a global diatropic ring current in the 6+ state of the partially fused ring. The paratropic ring current in the 4+ oxidation state is about four times stronger than that in the all-butadiyne-linked cyclic octamer complex, whereas the diatropic current in the 6+ state is about 40% weaker. Two isomeric K-shaped tetrapyridyl templates with trifluoromethyl substituents at different positions were used to probe the distribution of the ring current in the 4+, 6+, and 8+ oxidation states by 19F NMR, demonstrating that the ring currents are global and homogeneous.

14.
Pediatr Radiol ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric bone marrow assessment by MRI is challenging and primarily experiential and qualitative, with a paucity of clinically useful quantitative imaging techniques. OBJECTIVE: MRI fat fraction (MRI-FF) is a technique used to quantify the degree of fat in other organ systems. The purpose of this study was to assess whether MRI-FF accurately measures bone marrow composition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This two-part study included a validation phase, followed by an application phase. For the validation phase, the MRI-FF of piglet bones (6 long bones, 8 axial bones) was performed at 1.5 tesla (T) and 3.0 T, and correlated to the histological fat fraction (H-FF). We used Bland-Altman plots to compare MRI-FF at 1.5 tesla T and 3.0 T. For the application phase, five children with malignant marrow disease were recruited along with seven age- and gender-matched control subjects. The MRI-FF in the children was correlated to the H-FF. Boxplots were used to compare the MRI-FF of patients and control subjects. RESULTS: For the validation animal study, the MRI-FF of piglet bones at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T demonstrated moderate positive correlation to H-FF (r=0.41 and 0.42, respectively). MRI-FF at 1.5 T and 3.0 T were in good agreement, on average 7.7% apart. For the application phase, we included 5 children (4 with leukemia, 1 rhabdomyosarcoma) with median age 7 years, range (3-10 years). All children had MRI-FF and H-FF below 10%. The MRI-FF in patients (3.8±1.2) was significantly lower than that of control subjects (46.1±12.3%) (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: MRI-FF is a valid technique to assess bone marrow fat fraction at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T. The MRI-FF in children with malignant marrow processes is significantly lower than in control subjects with normal marrow.

15.
J Int Med Res ; 48(9): 300060520952279, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883134

RESUMO

Visual loss after spine surgery in the prone position is a disastrous postoperative complication because it is almost irreversible. Additionally, the optimal treatments and recommended professional guidelines for visual loss after spine surgery are deficient. A 43-year-old man developed visual loss after spine surgery in the prone position. Immediate ophthalmic consultation confirmed central retinal artery occlusion. Therefore, combined therapies were administered, including neurotrophy, anticoagulation, vasodilation, and adequate fluid infusion, followed by hyperbaric oxygen treatment. After active treatment, his visual acuity gradually recovered from 5 hours postoperatively and continued to improve thereafter. We reviewed the literature on postoperative visual loss with a focus on spine surgery in the prone position. Because the etiology of this complication is complex and has few effective treatments, the best method for its avoidance is to pay close attention to preventing it during surgery.

16.
Plant Cell ; 32(9): 2855-2877, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887805

RESUMO

Because of the large amount of energy consumed during symbiotic nitrogen fixation, legumes must balance growth and symbiotic nodulation. Both lateral roots and nodules form on the root system, and the developmental coordination of these organs under conditions of reduced nitrogen (N) availability remains elusive. We show that the Medicago truncatula COMPACT ROOT ARCHITECTURE2 (MtCRA2) receptor-like kinase is essential to promote the initiation of early symbiotic nodulation and to inhibit root growth in response to low N. C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (MtCEP1) peptides can activate MtCRA2 under N-starvation conditions, leading to a repression of YUCCA2 (MtYUC2) auxin biosynthesis gene expression, and therefore of auxin root responses. Accordingly, the compact root architecture phenotype of cra2 can be mimicked by an auxin treatment or by overexpressing MtYUC2, and conversely, a treatment with YUC inhibitors or an MtYUC2 knockout rescues the cra2 root phenotype. The MtCEP1-activated CRA2 can additionally interact with and phosphorylate the MtEIN2 ethylene signaling component at Ser643 and Ser924, preventing its cleavage and thereby repressing ethylene responses, thus locally promoting the root susceptibility to rhizobia. In agreement with this interaction, the cra2 low nodulation phenotype is rescued by an ein2 mutation. Overall, by reducing auxin biosynthesis and inhibiting ethylene signaling, the MtCEP1/MtCRA2 pathway balances root and nodule development under low-N conditions.

17.
Arthroscopy ; 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To (1) determine the diagnostic efficacy of artificial intelligence (AI) methods for detecting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscus tears and to (2) compare the efficacy to human clinical experts. METHODS: PubMed, OVID/Medline, and Cochrane libraries were queried in November 2019 for research articles pertaining to AI use for detection of ACL and meniscus tears. Information regarding AI model, prediction accuracy/area under the curve (AUC), sample sizes of testing/training sets, and imaging modalities were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 11 AI studies were identified: 5 investigated ACL tears, 5 investigated meniscal tears, and 1 investigated both. The AUC of AI models for detecting ACL tears ranged from 0.895 to 0.980, and the prediction accuracy ranged from 86.7% to 100%. Of these studies, 3 compared AI models to clinical experts. Two found no significant differences in diagnostic capability, whereas one found that radiologists had a significantly greater sensitivity for detecting ACL tears (P = .002) and statistically similar specificity and accuracy. Of the 5 studies investigating the meniscus, the AUC for AI models ranged from 0.847 to 0.910 and prediction accuracy ranged from 75.0% to 90.0%. Of these studies, 2 compared AI models with clinical experts. One found no significant differences in diagnostic accuracy, whereas one found that the AI model had a significantly lower specificity (P = .003) and accuracy (P = .015) than radiologists. Two studies reported that the addition of AI models significantly increased the diagnostic performance of clinicians compared to their efforts without these models. CONCLUSIONS: AI prediction capabilities were excellent and may enhance the diagnosis of ACL and meniscal pathology; however, AI did not outperform clinical experts. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: AI models promise to improve diagnosing certain pathologies as well as or better than human experts, are excellent for detecting ACL and meniscus tears, and may enhance the diagnostic capabilities of human experts; however, when compared with these experts, they may not offer any significant advantage.

18.
Adv Mater ; 32(42): e2002629, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881127

RESUMO

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a central metabolite that plays an indispensable role in various cellular processes, from energy supply to cell-to-cell signaling. Nature has developed sophisticated strategies to use the energy stored in ATP for many metabolic and non-equilibrium processes, and to sense and bind ATP for biological signaling. The variations in the ATP concentrations from one organelle to another, from extracellular to intracellular environments, and from normal cells to cancer cells are one motivation for designing ATP-triggered and ATP-fueled systems and materials, because they show great potential for applications in biological systems by using ATP as a trigger or chemical fuel. Over the last decade, ATP has been emerging as an attractive co-assembling component for man-made stimuli-responsive as well as for fuel-driven active systems and materials. Herein, current advances and emerging concepts for ATP-triggered and ATP-fueled self-assemblies and materials are discussed, shedding light on applications and highlighting future developments. By bringing together concepts of different domains, that is from supramolecular chemistry to DNA nanoscience, from equilibrium to non-equilibrium self-assembly, and from fundamental sciences to applications, the aim is to cross-fertilize current approaches with the ultimate aim to bring synthetic ATP-dependent systems closer to living systems.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976996

RESUMO

This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal.

20.
Inflamm Res ; 69(12): 1201-1213, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Microglia stimulated by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were treated with quercetin to investigate the effect on oxidative stress and the inflammatory response and to explore whether toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling was involved. In addition, the effect of quercetin on the neurological functions of neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) was examined. MATERIALS AND SUBJECTS: Mouse BV2 microglial cells and postnatal day 7 neonatal mice were used. TREATMENT: A predetermined concentration of quercetin was used in cell experiments. Quercetin was injected i.p. (50 mg/kg) at three time points after HI insult: 0, 24, and 48 h. METHODS: Cell viability assay, Western blotting, qRT-RCR, ELISA, HIBI model construction and behavioral tests. RESULTS: This study first showed that quercetin protected BV2 cells from OGD-induced damage and reversed the changes in microglial oxidative stress-related molecules. Second, quercetin inhibited OGD-induced expression of inflammatory factors in BV2 cells and suppressed TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling. Finally, quercetin was disclosed to be effective in mitigating cerebral infarct volume and cognitive and motor function deficits in HIBI mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of quercetin in HIBI mice is partially due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in activated microglia.

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