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1.
Food Chem ; 372: 131212, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600196

RESUMO

In our paper, a promising electrochemical sensing platform was fabricated with titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs). First, the Shandong pancake structural PEDOT:PSS/Ti3C2Tx was prepared by physical stirring. PEDOT:PSS as the dispersant was embedded into the Ti3C2Tx nanosheets, increasing the degree of dispersion of the Ti3C2Tx nanosheets and further improving the specific surface area of the composite material. Then, RuNPs were supported on the surface of PEDOT:PSS/Ti3C2Tx to form the hierarchical ternary nanocomposite of Ru/PEDOT:PSS/Ti3C2Tx. The prepared Ru/PEDOT:PSS/Ti3C2Tx nanocomposite exhibited promising electrochemical sensing properties toward Sudan I detection with a wide detection range of 0.01 âˆ¼ 100 µM and a high sensitivity of 482.43 µA mM-1 cm-2. Moreover, the Ru/PEDOT:PSS/Ti3C2Tx sensing platform has been successfully applied for Sudan I detection in ketchup and chili paste, implying the promising application prospect of Ru/PEDOT:PSS/Ti3C2Tx in food safety testing.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Titânio , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes , Naftóis , Polímeros
2.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770962

RESUMO

To scientifically clarify the hepatoprotective constituents of Fructus Schizandrae chinensis, eleven batches samples of total dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans (TDL) from Schisandra chinensis were prepared by using the optimum extraction technique. Characteristic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatograms were obtained through HPLC analysis technology, and the hepatoprotective effects of the eleven batches of TDL were evaluated by MTT assay. Based on the chemical and biological activity results, the spectrum-effect relationship between the characteristic HPLC fingerprints and the hepatoprotective effect of TDL was established using Minitab 16.0 data analysis software. On the basis of the spectrum-effect relationship, thirteen compounds (1-13) were obtained from the TDL by chemical natural product chemical separation and purification technology, and their structures were identified on the basis of the spectral data and the literature. Based on these compounds, thirteen common peaks among the thirty-three chromatographic peaks in the above HPLC fingerprints were identified. Our findings showed that some components, including, schisandrin B (2), schisandrin A (3), and schisandrol B (7) had significant roles in promoting hepatoprotective activity. Preliminary verification of the spectrum-effect relationship of TDL from S. chinensis was carried out, and the results confirmed that the activity of a composite of these three key components in optimal ratios was better than that of any individual compound, which potentially confirmed the reliability of the spectrum-effect relationship and the synergistic effects of traditional Chinese medicine.

3.
Front Oncol ; 11: 728464, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765545

RESUMO

Background: Normalising tumour vessels had become a significant research focus in tumour treatment research in recent years. Curcumae rhizoma (CR) is an essential plant in traditional Chinese medicine as it promotes blood circulation and removes blood stasis. Similarly, CR improves local blood circulation. Purpose: We explored the anti-colon cancer effects of essential oil from CR (OCR) by investigating its role in normalising tumour vessels. We also provided a basis for research and development into new anti-cancer drugs. Methods: We used colon cancer as a research focus to investigate OCR. We established an in vitro co-culture model of colon cancer cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We also established an in vivo subcutaneous implant colon cancer model in nude mice. These studies allowed us to evaluate the comprehensive effects of OCR in in vivo and in vitro colon cancer and its role in normalising tumour blood vessels. Results: In vitro, we found that OCR inhibited Human colon cancer cells (HCT116) and HUVEC cell proliferation and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-a (VEGFa) mRNA and protein expression in HUVECs in a co-culture system. Our in vivo studies showed that OCR inhibited colon cancer tumour growth, reduced angiogenesis in tumours and increased vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and pericyte coverage in tumour vessels. Conclusions: OCR inhibited colon cancer growth both in in vivo and in vitro models, reduced angiogenesis in tumours, improved tumour vessel structures and normalised tumour vessels.

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(44): 12365-12377, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726409

RESUMO

Vanadium-containing glasses have aroused interest in several fields such as electrodes for energy storage, semiconducting glasses, and nuclear waste disposal. The addition of V2O5, even in small amounts, can greatly alter the physical properties and chemical durability of glasses; however, the structural role of vanadium in these multicomponent glasses and the structural origins of these property changes are still poorly understood. We present a comprehensive study that integrates advanced characterizations and atomistic simulations to understand the composition-structure-property relationships of a series of vanadium-containing aluminoborosilicate glasses. UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) have been used to investigate the complex distribution of vanadium oxidation states as a function of composition in a series of six-component aluminoborosilicate glasses. High-energy X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to extract the detailed short- and medium-range atomistic structural information such as bond distance, coordination number, bond angle, and network connectivity, based on recently developed vanadium potential parameters. It was found that vanadium mainly exists in two oxidation states: V5+ and V4+, with the former being dominant (∼80% from XANES) in most compositions. V5+ ions were found to exist in 4-, 5-, and 6-fold coordination, while V4+ ions were mainly in 4-fold coordination. The percentage of 4-fold-coordinated boron and network connectivity initially increased with increasing V2O5 up to around 5 mol % but then decreased with higher V2O5 contents. The structural role of vanadium and the effect on glass structure and properties are discussed, providing insights into future studies of sophisticated structural descriptors to predict glass properties from composition and/or structure and aiding the formulation of borosilicate glasses for nuclear waste disposal and other applications.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802753

RESUMO

Herein, a ternary-nanocomposite Pd-polypyrrole/nitrogen-doped graphene (Pd-PPy/NGE) has been prepared facilely by the one-pot method. In simple terms, PPy was in-situ polymerized on the surface of NGE with PdCl42- as the oxidant, and simultaneously Pd nanopaticles were loaded on the surface of PPy or embedded in PPy particles. The obtained Pd-PPy/NGE nanocomposite exhibits promising electrocatalytic properties toward the oxidation reaction of alcohols in alkaline medium. Especially, the optimized Pd-PPy/NGE (1:50) catalyst possesses mass activity of 2176.7, 1192.7 and 498.9 mA mgPd-1 toward ethylene glycol, methanol and ethanol electrooxidation, respectively, which are 4.3, 6.7 and 2.9 times of those for commercial Pd/C catalyst. Moreover, the Pd-PPy/NGE (1:50) also shows higher anti-poisoning ability and operating stability than the Pd/C catalyst. The promising electrocatalytic performance of the Pd-PPy/NGE (1:50) for alcohols oxidation can be ascribed to the well dispersion of Pd nanoparticles, the porous and stable three dimentional structure of the composite, and the synergistic effect between different components. The structural randomness of the conducting polymer and the potential synergistic effect between the metal nanoparticles and various supports would provide broad development space for these composites as electrocatalysts in direct alcohol fuel cell.

6.
Cancer Res ; 81(23): 5919-5934, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580061

RESUMO

Tumor-initiating cells (TIC) are associated with tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, and recurrence. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is a TIC marker in many cancers, including breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ALDH1A1 functions in solid tumors remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that ALDH1A1 enzymatic activity facilitates breast tumor growth. Mechanistically, ALDH1A1 decreased the intracellular pH in breast cancer cells to promote phosphorylation of TAK1, activate NFκB signaling, and increase the secretion of GM-CSF, which led to myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion and immunosuppression. Furthermore, the ALDH1A1 inhibitor disulfiram and chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine cooperatively inhibited breast tumor growth and tumorigenesis by purging ALDH+ TICs and activating T-cell immunity. These findings elucidate how active ALDH1A1 modulates the immune system to promote tumor development, highlighting new therapeutic strategies for malignant breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: ALDH1A1 enzyme activity induces MDSC expansion and triggers a procancer immune microenvironment to facilitate breast cancer progression, providing a novel therapeutic vulnerability in this disease.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406663

RESUMO

Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) is a human plasma-derived immunoglobulin G concentrate that contains a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (anti-HBs) to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg). HBIG is known to be highly effective in treating HBV infections, however, a more systematic characterization of the antibody binding sites on HBsAg and their correlation with emerging "escape" mutations in HBsAg was lacking. By using anti-HBs antibodies from HBIG lots to screen random peptide phage display libraries, we identified five clusters of peptides that corresponded to five distinct anti-HBs binding sites on the HBsAg. Three sites, Site II (C121-C124), Site III (M133-P135), and Site IV (T140-G145), were mapped within the "a" determinant, while the two other sites, Site I (Q101-M103) and Site V (I152-S154), were outside the "a" determinant. We then tested in binding assays HBsAg peptides containing clinically relevant mutations previously reported within these sites, such as Y134S, P142S, and G145R, and observed a significant reduction in anti-HBs binding activity to the mutated sites, suggesting a mechanism the virus may use to avoid HBIG-mediated neutralization. The current HBIG treatment could be improved by supplementing it with site-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that target these mutations for control of HBV infections.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(28)2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260404

RESUMO

Epitope III, a highly conserved amino acid motif of 524APTYSW529 on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 glycoprotein, resides in the critical loop that binds to the host receptor CD81, thus making it one of the most important antibody targets for blocking HCV infections. Here, we have determined the X-ray crystal structure of epitope III at a 2.0-Å resolution when it was captured by a site-specific neutralizing antibody, monoclonal antibody 1H8 (mAb1H8). The snapshot of this complex revealed that epitope III has a relatively rigid structure when confined in the binding grooves of mAb1H8, which confers the residue specificity at both ends of the epitope. Such a high shape complementarity is reminiscent of the "lock and key" mode of action, which is reinforced by the incompatibility of an antibody binding with an epitope bearing specific mutations. By subtly positioning the side chains on the three residues of Tyr527, Ser528, and Trp529 while preserving the spatial rigidity of the rest, epitope III in this cocrystal complex adopts a unique conformation that is different from previously described E2 structures. With further analyses of molecular docking and phage display-based peptide interactions, we recognized that it is the arrangements of two separate sets of residues within epitope III that create these discrete conformations for the epitope to interact selectively with either mAb1H8 or CD81. These observations thus raise the possibility that local epitope III conformational dynamics, in conjunction with sequence variations, may act as a regulatory mechanism to coordinate "mAb1H8-like" antibody-mediated immune defenses with CD81-initiated HCV infections.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 126093, 2021 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229389

RESUMO

The emerging co-contaminant of antibiotics and nitrate has acquired great concerns worldwide, which poses a potential impact on denitrification in the ecological environment, but little is known about the groundwater system at lower antibiotic concentration, especially ng/L-level. Herein the frequently detected Lomefloxacin (LOM) in groundwater was selected to explore its influences on denitrification kinetics and microbial dynamic responses. The NO3--N removals in ng/L-µg/L LOM-amended reactors (8.7-44.9%) performed far lower than that in control (76.1%). LOM can inhibit denitrification even at ng/L-level. The kinetic characteristic shifted from zero- to first-order once inhibition occurred. This observation is the synergistic effects of microbial community, enzyme activity, and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The enzyme activities were inhibited immediately, whereas microbial community and ARGs exhibited hysteresis responses at ng/L-level. The enrichment of non-corresponding ARG types suggested LOM's co-selection effects. Brevundimonas were potential antibiotic resistant bacteria. Exposed to µg/L-level LOM, denitrification underwent a 6-d lag phase. The more sensitive enzyme activities and microbial community and the enrichment of ARGs with less abundance were investigated. These findings clarify the microbial response mechanism underlying the denitrification kinetic shifting exposed to low-concentrations of LOM, which is the potential process for heightening nitrate accumulation in groundwater.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Água Subterrânea , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fluoroquinolonas , Cinética , Nitratos/análise
10.
Org Lett ; 23(11): 4499-4504, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032453

RESUMO

Rhodomentosones A and B (1 and 2), two pairs of novel enantiomeric phloroglucinol trimers featuring a unique 6/5/5/6/5/5/6-fused ring system were isolated from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Their structures with absolute configurations were elucidated by NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and ECD calculation. The bioinspired syntheses of 1 and 2 were achieved in six steps featuring an organocatalytic asymmetric dehydroxylation/Michael addition/Kornblum-DeLaMare rearrangement/ketalization cascade reaction. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited promising antiviral activities against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , Myrtaceae/química , Floroglucinol/química , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/química , Biomimética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Terpenos/química
11.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(1)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955501

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) on drug resistance and its underlying mechanisms. The associations among proteins were detected by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays. Then, stably transfected cell lines CAOV3­HE4­L and CAOV3­A2­L expressing HE4 short hairpin (sh)RNAs and ANXA2 shRNAs, respectively, were constructed. MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT­qPCR) and flow cytometry were employed to examine drug sensitivity, as well as the expression and activity of P­glycoprotein (P­gp). HE4 and P­gp in epithelial ovarian cancer tissues were assessed via immunohistochemistry. MicroRNAs that targeted the P­gp gene, ABCB1, were predicted using bioinformatics methods, and their expression was evaluated by RT­qPCR. The common signaling pathways shared by HE4, ANXA2 and P­gp were selected by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). The interaction of HE4, ANXA2 and P­gp were confirmed. P­gp expression was positively associated with HE4 and ANXA2 expression, respectively. Moreover, it was observed that there was no significant rescue of P­gp expression in CAOV3­A2­L cells following the administration of active HE4 protein. In addition, the expression of HE4 and P­gp in ovarian cancer tissues of drug­resistant patients were higher compared with that of the drug­sensitive group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the results revealed that hsa­miR­129­5p was significantly increased accompanied by decreased HE4 or ANXA2 expression and P­gp expression in CAOV3­HE4­L and CAOV3­A2­L cells. GSEA analyses disclosed that HE4, ANXA2 and P­gp genes were commonly enriched in the signaling pathway involved in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. These results indicated that HE4 promotes P­gp­mediated drug resistance in ovarian cancer cells through the interactions with ANXA2, and the underlying mechanism may be associated with decreased expression of hsa­miR­129­5p and dysregulation of the actin cytoskeleton signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Anexina A2/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/genética , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/genética
12.
J Adv Res ; 29: 67-81, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842006

RESUMO

Introduction: The tear proteomics and neuromediators are associated with clinical dry eye parameters following refractive surgery. Purpose: To investigate and compare the tear proteomic and neuromediator profiles following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) versus laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: In this randomized controlled trial with paired-eye design, 70 patients were randomized to receive SMILE in one eye and LASIK in the other eye. Tear samples were collected preoperatively, and 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, and were examined for protein concentration changes using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS). The data were analyzed with DAVID Bioinformatics Resources for enriched gene ontology terms and over-represented pathways. Tear neuromediators levels were correlated with clinical parameters. Results: Post-SMILE eyes had significantly better Oxford staining scores and tear break-up time (TBUT) than post-LASIK eyes at 1 and 3 months, respectively. Tear substance P and nerve growth factor levels were significantly higher in the LASIK group for 3 months and 1 year, respectively. SMILE and LASIK shared some similar biological responses postoperatively, but there was significant up-regulation in leukocyte migration and wound healing at 1 week, humoral immune response and apoptosis at 1 month, negative regulation of endopeptidase activity at 3 to 6 months, and extracellular structure organization at 1 year in the post-LASIK eyes. Tear mucin-like protein 1 and substance P levels were significantly correlated with TBUT (r = -0.47, r = -0.49, respectively). Conclusion: Significant differences in the tear neuromediators and proteomics were observed between SMILE and LASIK, even though clinical dry eye signs have subsided and became comparable between 2 procedures.


Assuntos
Cirurgia da Córnea a Laser/métodos , Ceratomileuse Assistida por Excimer Laser In Situ/métodos , Miopia/cirurgia , Proteômica/métodos , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Ferida Cirúrgica/metabolismo , Adulto , Córnea/inervação , Córnea/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Mucinas/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/metabolismo , Período Pós-Operatório , Lágrimas/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(10): 2109-2116, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859517

RESUMO

Liver macrophages consist of ontogenically distinct populations termed Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) inhepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) play a prominent role in tumormicroenvironment by presenting M1(induced by IFN γ along with LPS) and M2(induced by IL-4 and IL13) polarization. Although TAMs are involved in tumor immune surveillance during the course of HCC, they contribute to tumour progression at different levels by inhibiting the anti-tumor immune response, promoting the generation of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, and supporting the proliferation and survival of tumor cells. In this paper, the multiple functions of TAMs in HCC were reviewed to provide assistance for future researches about therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Moduladores de Tubulina/farmacologia , Moduladores de Tubulina/uso terapêutico , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
Biometrics ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33768525

RESUMO

It is often challenging to share detailed individual-level data among studies due to various informatics and privacy constraints. However, it is relatively easy to pool together aggregated summary level data, such as the ones required for standard meta-analyses. Focusing on data generated from case-control studies, we present a flexible inference procedure that integrates individual-level data collected from an "internal" study with summary data borrowed from "external" studies. This procedure is built on a retrospective empirical likelihood framework to account for the sampling bias in case-control studies. It can incorporate summary statistics extracted from various working models adopted by multiple independent or overlapping external studies. It also allows for external studies to be conducted in a population that is different from the internal study population. We show both theoretically and numerically its efficiency advantage over several competing alternatives.

15.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 94(2): 379-390.e7, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600806

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) can effectively reduce CRC incidence and mortality. Besides colonoscopy, tests for the detection of biomarkers in stool, blood, or serum, including the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), ColoGuard, Epi proColon, and PolypDx, have recently been advanced. We aimed to identify the characteristics of theoretic, highly efficient screening tests and calculated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of available screening tests. METHODS: Using the microsimulation-based colon modeling open-source tool (CMOST), we simulated 142,501 theoretic screening tests with variable assumptions for adenoma and carcinoma sensitivity, specificity, test frequency, and adherence, and we identified highly efficient tests outperforming colonoscopy. For available screening tests, we simulated 10 replicates of a virtual population of 2 million individuals, using epidemiologic characteristics and costs assumptions of the United States. RESULTS: Highly efficient theoretic screening tests were characterized by high sensitivity for advanced adenoma and carcinoma and high patient adherence. All simulated available screening tests were effective at 100% adherence to screening and at expected real-world adherence rates. All tests were cost effective below the threshold of 100,000 U.S. dollars per life year gained. With perfect adherence, FIT was the most effective and cost-efficient intervention, whereas Epi proColon was the most effective at expected real-world adherence rates. In our sensitivity analysis, assumptions for patient adherence had the strongest impact on effectiveness of screening. CONCLUSIONS: Our microsimulation study identified characteristics of highly efficient theoretic screening tests and confirmed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of colonoscopy and available urine-, blood-, and stool-based tests. Better patient adherence results in superior effectiveness for CRC prevention in the whole population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(5): 1104-1113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526969

RESUMO

Ischemia-reperfusion injury refers to organ damage caused by the previous insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients and the involvement of metabolic by-products after blood flow is restored. Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has become a hot research in recent years, because it occurs in many clinical scenarios. After the introduction of liver transplantation and vascular control techniques in liver surgery, liver ischemia-reperfusion injury is considered to be an important factor affecting postoperative mortality and morbidity. As the largest immune organ in the human body, liver contain a lot of immune cells such as resident macrophages (Kupffer cells), dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and natural killer T cells which play a key role in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Among those, macrophage-mediated excessive inflammatory response is considered to be an important factor in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. The prominent feature of liver injury is an increase in the number of macrophages in liver due to the infiltration of blood monocytes and differentiation into monocyte-derived macrophages. Liver macrophages can be divided into M1 macrophages which can promote inflammation progress and M2 macrophages that inhibit inflammation progress according to their different phenotypes and functions. Both of them can regulate liver aseptic inflammation, and play an important role in triggering, maintaining, and improving liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. This review summarizes studies of macrophage polarization on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in recent years, to provide potential ideas for translation application in future clinical management.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/cirurgia , Falência Hepática/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia
17.
Cancer Biomark ; 30(2): 223-235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been widely researched in cancer treatment, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study intended to discuss the mechanism of miR-20a-3p in BMSCs-extracellular vesicles (EVs) in HCC apoptosis. METHODS: BMSCs were isolated and identified. EVs derived from BMSCs were extracted and identified. After overexpressing or inhibiting miR-20a-3p expression in BMSCs, EVs were extracted and acted on HCC cells and transplanted tumors. HCC cell apoptosis in the treatment of BMSCs-conditioned medium, BMSCs-EVs and/or miR-20a-3p mimic/inhibitor was evaluated, with the detection of levels of TRAIL and TRAIL-related proteins. A functional rescue experiment about c-FLIP was carried out in HCC cells. The target binding relationship between miR-20a-3p and c-FLIP was detected. The subcutaneous tumorigenesis model of mice was established and injected with BMSCs-EVs to estimate the effect of BMSCs-EVs-miR-20a-3p on HCC growth. RESULTS: EVs isolated from BMSCs conditioned medium promoted the apoptosis of HCC cells. After BMSCs-EVs treatment, TRAIL levels, downstream proteins and miR-20a-3p were increased significantly, but the expression of c-FLIP was decreased. miR-20a-3p could target c-FLIP. BMSCs-EVs inhibited the growth of HCC cells, decreased c-FLIP expression, increased TRAIL levels, and promote the of HCC cell apoptosis. BMSCs-EVs with overexpressing miR-20a-3p further enhanced the apoptotic effect of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: BMSCs-EVs-carried miR-20a-3p targets c-FLIP and increases TRAIL levels in HCC cells, thus promoting TRAIL-related apoptosis.

18.
Ecol Evol ; 10(23): 12817-12837, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304496

RESUMO

The Omei wood frog (Rana omeimontis), endemic to central China, belongs to the family Ranidae. In this study, we achieved detail knowledge about the mitogenome of the species. The length of the genome is 20,120 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a noncoding control region. Similar to other amphibians, we found that only nine genes (ND6 and eight tRNA genes) are encoded on the light strand (L) and other genes on the heavy strand (H). Totally, The base composition of the mitochondrial genome included 27.29% A, 28.85% T, 28.87% C, and 15.00% G, respectively. The control regions among the Rana species were found to exhibit rich genetic variability and A + T content. R. omeimontis was clustered together with R. chaochiaoensis in phylogenetic tree. Compared to R. amurensis and R. kunyuensi, it was more closely related to R. chaochiaoensis, and a new way of gene rearrangement (ND6-trnE-Cytb-D-loop-trnL2 (CUN)-ND5-D-loop) was also found in the mitogenome of R. amurensis and R. kunyuensi. Our results about the mitochondrial genome of R. omeimontis will contribute to the future studies on phylogenetic relationship and the taxonomic status of Rana and related Ranidae species.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(49): e23192, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) has a beneficial effect on lymphedema related to breast cancer surgery. However, whether MLD reduces the risk of lymphedema is still debated. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the current evidence to assess the effectiveness of MLD in preventing and treating lymphedema in patients after breast cancer surgery. METHODS: From inception to May 2019, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched without language restriction. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the treatment and prevention effect of MLD with a control group on lymphedema in breast cancer patients. A random-effects model was used for all analyses. RESULTS: A total of 17 RCTs involving 1911 patients were included. A meta-analysis of 8 RCTs, including 338 patients, revealed that MLD did not significantly reduce lymphedema compared with the control group (standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): [-0.85 to 0.67]). Subgroup analysis was basically consistent with the main analysis according to the research region, the publication year, the sample size, the type of surgery, the statistical analysis method, the mean age, and the intervention time. However, we found that MLD could significantly reduce lymphedema in patients under the age of 60 years (SMD: -1.77, 95% CI: [-2.23 to -1.31]) and an intervention time of 1 month (SMD: -1.77, 95% CI: [-2.23 to -1.30]). Meanwhile, 4 RCTs including, 1364 patients, revealed that MLD could not significantly prevent the risk of lymphedema (risk ratio (RR): 0.61, 95% CI: [0.29-1.26]) for patients having breast cancer surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this meta-analysis of 12 RCTs showed that MLD cannot significantly reduce or prevent lymphedema in patients after breast cancer surgery. However, well-designed RCTs with a larger sample size are required, especially in patients under the age of 60 years or an intervention time of 1 month.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Linfedema/terapia , Drenagem Linfática Manual , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Linfedema/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327614

RESUMO

Traffic loading monitoring plays an important role in bridge structural health monitoring, which is helpful in overloading detection, transportation management, and safety evaluation of transportation infrastructures. Bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) is a method that treats traffic loading monitoring as an inverse problem, which identifies the traffic loads of the target bridge by analyzing its dynamic strain responses. To achieve accurate prediction of vehicle loads, the configuration of axles and vehicle velocity must be obtained in advance, which is conventionally acquired via additional axle-detecting sensors. However, problems arise from additional sensors such as fragile stability or expensive maintenance costs, which might plague the implementation of BWIM systems in practice. Although data-driven methods such as neural networks can estimate traffic loadings using only strain sensors, the weight data of vehicles crossing the bridge is difficult to obtain. In order to overcome these limitations, a modified encoder-decoder architecture grafted with signal-reconstruction layer is proposed in this paper to identify the properties of moving vehicles (i.e., velocity, wheelbase, and axle weight) using merely the bridge dynamic response. Encoder-decoder is an unsupervised method extracting higher features from original data. The numerical bridge model based on vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory is established to illustrate the applicability of this new encoder-decoder method. The identification results demonstrate that the proposed approach can predict traffic loadings without using additional sensors and without requiring vehicle weight labels. Parametric studies also show that this new approach achieves better stability and reliability in identifying the properties of moving vehicles, even under the circumstances of large data pollution.

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