Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 134
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488459

RESUMO

Emerging evidence demonstrates that lncRNAs participate in various developmental processes in plants via post-transcription regulation. However, few lncRNAs have been identified as regulators of tiller development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, high-throughput ribosomal depleted RNA sequencing was performed on the tillering nodes of two pairs of near-isogenic lines that differed only in the tillering trait. We identified 5399 lncRNA transcripts using bioinformational analyses. KEGG pathway analysis revealed 74 common differentially expressed lncRNAs substantially enriched in photosynthesis-related, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phosphatidylinositol signaling, brassinosteroid biosynthesis, zeatin biosynthesis, and carotenoid biosynthesis pathways. Detailed functional annotations of target genes were used to identify 27 tillering-associated lncRNAs. Among these, 10 were in photosynthesis-related pathways; 15 were in secondary metabolite pathways; and 8 were in plant hormone pathways, with 6 enriched in two kinds of pathways. These findings contribute to identifying tillering-associated lncRNAs in wheat and enable further investigation into the functions and roles of key candidate lncRNAs, and more experimental evidence was also needed if breeders wanted to utilize these candidate lncRNAs in wheat crop yield improvement in the future.

2.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430666

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We identified and validated two stable grain filling rate (GFR) quantitative trait loci (QTL) in wheat that positively influenced several yield-related traits. Among them, QGfr.sicau-7D.1 was a novel GFR QTL. The grain filling rate (GFR) plays a crucial role in determining grain yield. To advance the current understanding of the genetic characteristics underlying the GFR in common wheat, three recombinant inbred line populations were used to map and validate GFR quantitative trait loci (QTL). Using a high-density genetic linkage map, 10 GFR QTL were detected. They were located on chromosomes 2D, 4A, 4B, 5B, 6D, 7A and 7D, explained 4.99-12.62% of the phenotypic variation. Two of them, QGfr.sicau-6D and QGfr.sicau-7D.1, were detected in all four environments tested and their genetic effect was validated by closely linked kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) markers in different genetic backgrounds. The effects of these two GFR QTL on other yield-related traits were also estimated. QGfr.sicau-6D had a significant positive influence (p < 0.01) on thousand kernel weight, kernel width, kernel volume, and kernel surface area. QGfr.sicau-7D.1 had a significant positive influence (p < 0.01) on thousand kernel weight and kernel length. Furthermore, QGfr.sicau-7D.1 was a completely novel QTL for GFR; several genes associated with grain growth and development were predicted in its physical interval. These results will facilitate molecular marker-assisted selection of wheat with high-confidence QTL for GFR and fine mapping of genes associated with GFR, thereby contributing to yield improvement.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231286, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275735

RESUMO

The application of photocatalyst in pavements has received comprehensive attention in recent years due to its ability to decontaminate nitrogen oxides (NOx). However, it's remarkable that NOx also accumulated extensively in parking lots. The purpose of this study is to develop a movable photocatalytic plate (remarked photocatalytic KT plates) coupled with high activity to purify NOx. Firstly, the type of photocatalytic KT plates was determined according to NO removal experiment in laboratory. Then the plates were employed in the parking lots for removing NOx. One sample T-test, normality test and paired sample T-test methods for NOx concentration variation were conducted to determine the appropriate comparative means of dates under both dark and illuminated conditions. The difference of NOX concentration between dark and illuminated conditions was obtained to evaluate the photocatalytic removal efficiency. The results indicated that NO removal efficiency in laboratory and parking lots were 51.31% and 9.2%, respectively.

4.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(3): 274-279, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204766

RESUMO

A boy, aged 4 months, had the major clinical manifestations of prolonged jaundice and hepatomegaly. Multiple biochemical tests revealed abnormal liver function along with elevated alpha-fetoprotein and lactate. Genetic analysis confirmed that the boy had the mutations of c.589C>T(p.Gln197Ter) and c.687G>C(p.Trp229Cys) in the DGUOK gene, both of which were novel mutations and were determined to be pathogenic and likely pathogenic respectively, by a variety of bioinformatics tools and the ACMG standard. Therefore, the boy was confirmed to have DGUOK-related mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. Literature review showed that onset of liver disease in infancy was the main clinical feature of this disease, and some children presented with nervous system manifestations. Abnormal laboratory results included abnormal liver function, increases in blood lactate, serum ferritin and alpha-fetoprotein, and hypoglycemia. Such children had marked heterogeneity of DGUOK gene mutations, with missense mutations as the most common type. This disease tended to have a poor prognosis, and 79.6% of the children died before the age of 3 years.


Assuntos
Doenças Mitocondriais , DNA Mitocondrial , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)
5.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 138: 34-48, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733201

RESUMO

Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, which is characterized by lipid accumulation in the atherosclerotic plaque. Increasing evidence supports that as the main receptor of high-density lipoprotein, scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SCARB1) is protective against atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism regarding it in Hcy-mediated atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we found the remarkable inhibition of SCARB1 expression in atherosclerotic plaque and Hcy-treated foam cells, whereas overexpression of SCARB1 can suppress lipid accumulation in foam cells following Hcy treatment. Analysis of SCARB1 promoter showed that no significant change of methylation level was observed both in vivo and in vitro under Hcy treatment. Moreover, it was found that the negative regulation of DNMT3b on SCARB1 was due to the decreased recruitment of SP1 to SCARB1 promoter. Thus, we concluded that inhibition of SCARB1 expression induced by DNMT3b at least partly accelerated Hcy-mediated atherosclerosis through promoting lipid accumulation in foam cells, which was attributed to the decreased binding of SP1 to SCARB1 promoter. In our point, these findings will provide novel insight into an epigenetic mechanism for atherosclerosis.

6.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(1): 367, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664478

RESUMO

Unfortunately, the author contribution statement was missed out in the original publication. The complete statement is given below.

7.
Food Chem ; 311: 125892, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791724

RESUMO

In this study, we successfully knock-out the d-hordein component of barley storage protein using RNA-guided Cas9. Mutation frequencies of 25% and 14% at two different target sites were obtained. Homozygous mutant plants that were T-DNA free were identified in the T1 generation. Barley grains without d-hordein proteins from T2 seeds showed a significantly reduced grain size compared to the parent plant and control non-edited line. The protein matrix surrounding the starch granules was increased, whereas the starch granules themselves were decreased in size in the mutant plants compared to controls. The main effect of a lack of d-hordein was a considerable decrease in the prolamines and an increase in the glutenins. The changes of other grain composition included the increased starch content, amylose content, and ß-glucan content. The roles of d-hordein mutation on barley grain size and grain composition remain to be studied.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Glutens/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , RNA Guia/metabolismo , Edição de Genes , Glutens/metabolismo , Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Prolaminas/metabolismo , RNA Guia/genética , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
8.
Genome ; 63(3): 155-167, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846356

RESUMO

In our previous work, a novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) with an extremely large molecular weight from Aegilops sharonensis was identified that may contribute to excellent wheat (Triticum aestivum) processing quality and increased dough strength, and we further generated HMW-GS homozygous lines by crossing. In this study, we crossed the HMW-GS homozygous line 66-17-52 with 'Chinese Spring' Ph1 mutant CS ph1b to induce chromosome recombination between wheat and Ae. sharonensis. SDS-PAGE was used to identify 19 derived F2 lines with the HMW-GSs of Ae sharonensis. The results of non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) indicated that lines 6-1 and 6-7 possessed a substitution of both 5D chromosomes by a pair of 1Ssh chromosomes. Further verification by newly developed 1Ssh-specific chromosome markers showed that these two lines amplified the expected fragment. Thus, it was concluded that lines 6-1 and 6-7 are 1Ssh(5D) chromosome substitution lines. The 1Ssh(5D) chromosome substitution lines, possessing alien subunits with satisfactory quality-associated structural features of large repetitive domains and increased number of subunits, may have great potential in strengthening the viscosity and elasticity of dough made from wheat flour. Therefore, these substitution lines can be used for wheat quality improvement and further production of 1Ssh translocation lines.

9.
Front Genet ; 10: 1108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788003

RESUMO

Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), a carrier protein encoded by the gene SLC10A1, is expressed in the basolateral membrane of the hepatocyte to uptake bile acids from plasma. As a new inborn error of bile acid metabolism, NTCP deficiency remains far from being well understood in terms of the clinical and molecular features. Citrin deficiency is a well-known autosomal recessive disease arising from SLC25A13 mutations, and in neonates or infants, this condition presents as transient intrahepatic cholestasis which usually resolves before 1 year of age. All the three patients in this paper exhibited cholestatic jaundice and elevated total bile acids in their early infancy, which were attributed to citrin deficiency by SLC25A13 genetic analysis. In response to feeding with lactose-free and medium-chain triglycerides-enrich formula, their clinical and laboratory presentations disappeared gradually while the hypercholanemia persisted, even beyond 1 year of age. On subsequent SLC10A1 analysis, they were all homozygous for the well-known pathogenic variant c.800C > T (p.Ser267Phe), and NTCP deficiency was thus definitely diagnosed. The findings in this paper indicated that NTCP deficiency could be covered up by citrin deficiency during early infancy; however, in citrin-deficient patients with intractable hypercholanemia following resolved cholestatic jaundice, NTCP deficiency should be taken into consideration.

10.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 7(5): 354-360, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687155

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is frequently associated with metabolism dysfunction. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the crucial role of lipid metabolism in HCC progression. The function of apolipoprotein F (ApoF), a lipid transfer inhibitor protein, in HCC is incompletely understood. We aimed to evaluate the functional role of ApoF in HCC in this study. Methods: We used quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect ApoF mRNA expression in HCC tissues and hepatoma cell lines (SMMC-7721, HepG2, and Huh7). Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of ApoF in HCC tissues. The associations between ApoF expression and clinicopathological features as well as HCC prognosis were analyzed. The effect of ApoF on cellular proliferation and growth of SMMC-7721 and Huh7 cells was examined in vitro and in vivo. Results: ApoF expression was significantly down-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels in HCC tissues as compared with adjacent tissues. In SMMC-7721 and Huh7 HCC cells, ApoF overexpression inhibited cell proliferation and migration. In a xenograft nude mouse model, ApoF overexpression effectively controlled HCC growth. Kaplan-Meier analysis results showed that the recurrence-free survival rate of HCC patients with low ApoF expression was significantly lower than that of other HCC patients. Low ApoF expression was associated with several clinicopathological features such as liver cirrhosis, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage and tumor-node-metastasis stage. Conclusions: ApoF expression was down-regulated in HCC, which was associated with low recurrence-free survival rate. ApoF may serve as a tumor suppressor in HCC and be a potential application for the treatment of this disease.

11.
Science ; 366(6464): 454-460, 2019 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624095

RESUMO

We present histological and molecular analyses of the developing human cerebellum from 30 days after conception to 9 months after birth. Differences in developmental patterns between humans and mice include spatiotemporal expansion of both ventricular and rhombic lip primary progenitor zones to include subventricular zones containing basal progenitors. The human rhombic lip persists longer through cerebellar development than in the mouse and undergoes morphological changes to form a progenitor pool in the posterior lobule, which is not seen in other organisms, not even in the nonhuman primate the macaque. Disruptions in human rhombic lip development are associated with posterior cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and Dandy-Walker malformation. The presence of these species-specific neural progenitor populations refines our insight into human cerebellar developmental disorders.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/embriologia , Cerebelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Síndrome de Dandy-Walker , Humanos , Camundongos , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma
12.
BMC Genet ; 20(1): 77, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW) are key agronomic traits in wheat breeding. Chuannong16 ('CN16') is a commercial cultivar with significantly longer kernels than the line '20828'. To identify and characterize potential alleles from CN16 controlling KL, the previously developed recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross '20828' × 'CN16' and the genetic map constructed by the Wheat55K SNP array and SSR markers were used to perform quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analyses for kernel traits. RESULTS: A total of 11 putative QTL associated with kernel traits were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1A (2 QTL), 2B (2 QTL), 2D (3 QTL), 3D, 4A, 6A, and 7A, respectively. Among them, three major QTL, QKL.sicau-2D, QKW.sicau-2D and QTKW.sicau-2D, controlling KL, KW and TKW, respectively, were detected in three different environments. Respectively, they explained 10.88-18.85%, 17.21-21.49% and 10.01-23.20% of the phenotypic variance. Further, they were genetically mapped in the same interval on chromosome 2DS. A previously developed kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) marker KASP-AX-94721936 was integrated in the genetic map and QTL re-mapping finally located the three major QTL in a 1- cM region flanked by AX-111096297 and KASP-AX-94721936. Another two co-located QTL intervals for KL and TKW were also identified. A few predicted genes involved in regulation of kernel growth and development were identified in the intervals of these identified QTL. Significant relationships between kernel traits and spikelet number per spike and anthesis date were detected and discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Three major and stably expressed QTL associated with KL, KW, and TKW were identified. A KASP marker tightly linked to these three major QTL was integrated. These findings provide information for subsequent fine mapping and cloning the three co-localized major QTL for kernel traits.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/genética
13.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(6): 4915-4924, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661128

RESUMO

Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), a carrier protein encoded by solute carrier family 10 member 1 (SLC10A1), is expressed in the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes, where it is responsible for the uptake of bile acids from plasma into hepatocytes. The first patient with NTCP deficiency was described in 2015. A limited number of such patients have been reported in the literature and their genotypic and phenotypic features require further investigation. The current study investigated 4 patients with NTCP deficiency from two unrelated families. The patients were subjected to SLC10A1 genetic analysis and it was revealed that all patients were compound heterozygous for the c.800C>T (p.Ser267Phe) and c.595A>C (p.Ser199Arg) SLC10A1 variants. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the latter variant had not been previously reported. Further analysis in 50 healthy individuals did not identify carriers. The c.595A>C (p.Ser199Arg) variant exhibited co­segregation with hypercholanemia and exhibited a relatively conserved amino acid when compared with homologous peptides. Moreover, SWISS­MODEL prediction revealed that the mutation affected the conformation of the NTCP molecule. The 4 patients demonstrated varying degrees of hypercholanemia while a downward trend in the plasma levels of total bile acids (TBA) in 2 pediatric patients and occasionally normal TBA level in an adult case were observed. The results indicated an autosomal recessive trait for NTCP deficiency, supported the primary role of NTCP in the uptake of bile acids from plasma and suggested that hepatic uptake of bile acids may occur by means other than NTCP uptake. Moreover, the novel missense variant c.595A>C(p.Ser199Arg) enriched the SLC10A1 mutation spectrum and may serve as a new genetic marker for the molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling of NTCP deficiency.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Simportadores/genética , Adulto , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/química , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/deficiência , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Dependentes de Sódio/metabolismo , Linhagem , Mutação Puntual , Simportadores/química , Simportadores/deficiência , Simportadores/metabolismo
14.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110204, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481207

RESUMO

Stripe rust (Yr), caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is a devastating foliar disease of wheat in China. Chinese wheat landraces originating from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are potential stripe-rust resistance resources. To identify APR genes for stripe-rust resistance, a panel of 188 accessions derived from the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were inoculated with a mixture of Chinese P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races and resistance evaluated under field conditions in five environments at adult-plant stages. Seventy-three accessions showed degrees of stable resistance. Combining phenotypic datasets from multiple field experiments with high-quality Diversity Arrays Technology and simple sequence repeat markers, we detected 21 marker-trait associations spanning 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5B, 6B, and 6D, respectively. Single QTLs explained 9.67% to 16.14% of the observed phenotypic variation. Nine QTLs co-localized with previously reported Yr genes or genomic regions. The remaining QTLs were potential novel loci associated with adult-stage stripe-rust resistance. Two novel QTLs, QYr.sicau-3B.2 and QYr.sicau-5B.3, located on chromosomes 3B and 5B significantly explained 16.14% and 11.16% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Haplotype analysis revealed that accessions carrying APR variants or their combinations showed enhanced degrees of resistance. The potentially novel loci or genomic regions associated with adult-stage resistance may be useful to improve stripe-rust resistance in current wheat cultivars and for future isolation of stripe-rust resistance genes.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , China , Loci Gênicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Haplótipos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/imunologia , Triticum/microbiologia
15.
Theor Appl Genet ; 132(11): 3155-3167, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435704

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A major and stably expressed QTL for spikelet number per spike identified in a 2-cM interval on chromosome arm 2DS was validated using two populations with different genetic backgrounds. Spikelet number per spike (SNS) plays a key role in wheat yield improvement. Numerous genetic and environmental factors influencing SNS have been documented, but the number of major, stably expressed and validated loci underlying SNS is still limited. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a normal spikelet cultivar and a multiple-spikelet wheat line (with a longer spike with more canonically oriented apical spikelets) was genotyped using a Wheat55K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SNS was measured for this RIL population in eight environments. Five QTL were each identified in two or more environments. One of them, QSns.sau-2D (LOD = 3.47-38.24, PVE = 10.16-45.68%), was detected in all the eight environments. The QTL was located in a 2-cM interval on chromosome arm 2DS flanked by the markers AX-109836946 and AX-111956072. This QTL, QSns.sau-2D, significantly increased SNS by up to 14.72%. Several genes associated with plant growth and development were identified in the physical interval of QSns.sau-2D. This QTL was further validated by the tightly linked Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) marker, KASP-AX-94721936, in two other populations with different genetic backgrounds. The significant correlation between SNS and anthesis date, plant height, spike length, grain number per spike and thousand-grain weight were detected and discussed. These results lay the foundation for fine mapping and cloning gene(s) underlying QSns.sau-2D.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fenótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
J Cancer ; 10(14): 3214-3223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289592

RESUMO

Background: Nimotuzumab is a humanized anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody that has shown preclinical and clinical anticancer activity in cerebral glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We conducted a phase II, single-arm, multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the benefit of adding nimotuzumab to current standard chemo-radiotherapy for patients with GBM with positive EGFR expression. Methods: Newly diagnosed patients with histologically proven single supratentorial GBM and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive expressions were recruited. All patients were treated with nimotuzumab, administered once a week intravenously for 6 weeks in addition to radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide after surgery. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary objectives included objective response rate (ORR) and toxicity. Results: A total of 39 patients were enrolled and 36 patients were evaluated for efficacy. The ORR at the end of RT was 72.2%. Median OS and PFS were 24.5 and 11.9 months. The 1-year OS and PFS rates were 83.3% and 49.3%. The 2-year OS and PFS rates were 51.1% and 29.0%. O (6)-methylquanine DNA methyl-tranferase (MGMT) expression is known to affect the efficacy of chemotherapy and status of its expression is examined. No significant correlation between treatment outcomes and MGMT status was found. Most frequent treatment-related toxicities were mild to moderate and included constipation, anorexia, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and leucopenia. Conclusions: Our study show that nimotuzumab in addition to standard treatment is well tolerable and has increased survival in newly diagnosed GBM patients with EGFR positive expression.

17.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 596, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156668

RESUMO

Stripe rust (also known as yellow rust), caused by the pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a common and serious fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To identify effective stripe rust resistance loci, a genome-wide association study was performed using 152 wheat landraces from the Yellow and Huai River Valleys in China based on Diversity Arrays Technology and simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic evaluation of the degree of resistance to stripe rust at the adult-plant stage under field conditions was carried out in five environments. In total, 19 accessions displayed stable, high degrees of resistance to stripe rust development when exposed to mixed races of Pst at the adult-plant stage in multi-environment field assessments. A marker-trait association analysis indicated that 51 loci were significantly associated with adult-plant resistance to stripe rust. These loci included 40 quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for adult-plant resistance. Twenty identified resistance QTL were linked closely to previously reported yellow rust resistance genes or QTL regions, which were distributed across chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7A, 7B, and 7D. Six multi-trait QTL were detected on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2B, 3A, 3B, and 7D. Twenty QTL were mapped to chromosomes 1D, 2A, 2D, 4B, 5B, 6A, 6B, 6D, 7A, 7B, and 7D, distant from previously identified yellow rust resistance genes. Consequently, these QTL are potentially novel loci for stripe rust resistance. Among the 20 potentially novel QTL, five (QDS.sicau-2A, QIT.sicau-4B, QDS.sicau-4B.2, QDS.sicau-6A.3, and QYr.sicau-7D) were associated with field responses at the adult-plant stage in at least two environments, and may have large effects on stripe rust resistance. The novel effective QTL for adult-plant resistance to stripe rust will improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms that control the spread of stripe rust, and will aid in the molecular marker-assisted selection-based breeding of wheat for stripe rust resistance.

18.
New Phytol ; 224(2): 961-973, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168798

RESUMO

De-domestication is a unique evolutionary process during which crops re-acquire wild-like traits to survive and persist in agricultural fields without the need for human cultivation. The re-acquisition of seed dispersal mechanisms is crucial for crop de-domestication. Common wheat is an important cereal crop worldwide. Tibetan semi-wild wheat is a potential de-domesticated common wheat subspecies. However, the crucial genes responsible for its brittle rachis trait have not been identified. Genetic mapping, functional analyses and phylogenetic analyses were completed to identify the gene associated with Qbr.sau-5A, which is a major locus for the brittle rachis trait of Tibetan semi-wild wheat. The cloned Qbr.sau-5A gene is a new Q allele (Qt ) with a 161-bp transposon insertion in exon 5. Although Qt is expressed normally, its encoded peptide lacks some key features of the APETALA2 family. The abnormal functions of Qt in developing wheat spikes result in brittle rachises. Phylogenetic and genotyping analyses confirmed that Qt originated from Q in common wheat and is naturally distributed only in Tibetan semi-wild wheat populations. The identification of Qt provides new evidence regarding the origin of Tibetan semi-wild wheat, and new insights into the re-acquisition of wild traits during crop de-domestication.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1813-1825, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215115

RESUMO

Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is generally viewed as a complex trait with multiple genetic and environmental contributions. In 70% of cases, CL/P presents as an isolated feature and/or deemed nonsyndromic. In the remaining 30%, CL/P is associated with multisystem phenotypes or clinically recognizable syndromes, many with a monogenic basis. Here we report the identification, via exome sequencing, of likely pathogenic variants in two genes that encode interacting proteins previously only linked to orofacial clefting in mouse models. A variant in GDF11 (encoding growth differentiation factor 11), predicting a p.(Arg298Gln) substitution at the Furin protease cleavage site, was identified in one family that segregated with CL/P and both rib and vertebral hypersegmentation, mirroring that seen in Gdf11 knockout mice. In the second family in which CL/P was the only phenotype, a mutation in FST (encoding the GDF11 antagonist, Follistatin) was identified that is predicted to result in a p.(Cys56Tyr) substitution in the region that binds GDF11. Functional assays demonstrated a significant impact of the specific mutated amino acids on FST and GDF11 function and, together with embryonic expression data, provide strong evidence for the importance of GDF11 and Follistatin in the regulation of human orofacial development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/genética , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico , Fenda Labial/genética , Folistatina/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Mutação , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Folistatina/química , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Fatores de Diferenciação de Crescimento/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24831-24839, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240653

RESUMO

Adsorption is a typical method for air pollutant removal from flue gas. A CuS-modified active coke (CuS/AC) sorbent was developed to improve the elemental mercury removal efficiency from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) flue gas. The influences of the loading amount of CuS, reaction temperature, and flue gas components including O2, SO2, H2O, and HCl on Hg0 removal efficiency were investigated, respectively. The results showed that the mercury adsorption capacity of CuS/AC(20%) sorbent was about 7.17 mg/g with 50% breakthrough threshold, which is much higher than that of virgin active coke. The analysis of XPS indicated that HgS was the main species of mercury on spent CuS/AC, which implied that adsorption and oxidation were both included in Hg0 removal. S22- played a vital role in the oxidation of physically adsorbed Hg0. Meanwhile, the common components of MSWI flue gas exhibited no significant inhibition effect on Hg0 removal by CuS/AC sorbent. CuS/AC sorbent is a promising sorbent for the mercury removal from MSWI flue gas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Coque , Cobre/química , Incineração , Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Adsorção , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Gases/química , Mercúrio/química , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Mercúrio/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredução , Resíduos Sólidos , Enxofre/química , Dióxido de Enxofre/química , Temperatura
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA