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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689692

RESUMO

The changes of methane hydrate lattice with the decrease of cage occupancy were calculated by first-principles methods. The calculation results show that the decrease of the cages occupancy in sII and sH hydrate does not lead to large deformation in the lattice. Even if all the methane molecules are removed so that the hydrates have become new types of ice, the sII and sH lattices remain stable. The same conclusion is also true when the occupancy of the small cages in sI hydrate is reduced. However, the sI hydrate lattice will deform and almost collapse as the large cage occupancy decreases. These calculation results suggest that sI hydrate cannot exist with empty cages. Since the van der Waals-Platteeuw theory is based on the assumption that the stability of host lattice is independent of the occupancy of guest molecule, it would be applicable to sII and sH lattices, but not to sI hydrates. We propose a modification to the van der Waals-Platteeuw theory so that theory can be extended to more general structures of hydrates.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5114, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704972

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression, is closely related to basal-like breast cancer. Previously, we and others report that cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) phosphorylates enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) at T416 (pT416-EZH2). Here, we show that transgenic expression of phospho-mimicking EZH2 mutant EZH2T416D in mammary glands leads to tumors with TNBC phenotype. Coexpression of EZH2T416D in mammary epithelia of HER2/Neu transgenic mice reprograms HER2-driven luminal tumors into basal-like tumors. Pharmacological inhibition of CDK2 or EZH2 allows re-expression of ERα and converts TNBC to luminal ERα-positive, rendering TNBC cells targetable by tamoxifen. Furthermore, the combination of either CDK2 or EZH2 inhibitor with tamoxifen effectively suppresses tumor growth and markedly improves the survival of the mice bearing TNBC tumors, suggesting that the mechanism-based combination therapy may be an alternative approach to treat TNBC.

3.
Hepatol Res ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661588

RESUMO

AIM: Our previous transcriptome sequencing analysis (RNA-Seq) detected that Retinol dehydrogenase 16 (RDH16) was dramatically downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RDH16 belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) super family and its role in HCC remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the expression and function of RDH16 in HCC. METHODS: The mRNA and protein level of RDH16 in HCC samples were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry analyses, respectively. The role of RDH16 acted in HCC was determined by in vitro and in vivo functional studies. RESULTS: Downregulation of RDH16 has been detected in approximately 90% of primary HCCs, which was significantly associated with high serum AFP level, tumor size, microsatellite formation, thrombus, and poor overall survival of HCC patients. Compared with non-tumor tissues, higher density of methylation was identified in HCC samples. In addition, RDH16 increases the level of retinoic acid and blocks the de novo synthesis of fatty acid in HCC cells. Functional study indicates that ectopic expression of RDH16 in HCC cells suppresses cell growth, clonogenicity and cell motility. CONCLUSIONS: RDH16 might be a prognostic biomarker and intervention point for new therapeutic strategies in HCC.

4.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660826

RESUMO

To explore the efficacy of pharmacokinetics-based 5-fluorouracil dose management by plasma concentration test in advanced colorectal cancer treatment. 153 samples of advanced colorectal cancer patients were enrolled and randomly assigned into control group and experimental group. All patients received double-week chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (four weeks were used as one period), and chemotherapy duration ranged from 2 to 6 periods. In the first period, all patients were administrated with classic strategy of body surface area (BSA). In the subsequent periods, the control group (77 samples) continued with BSA guided chemotherapy, while experimental group (76 samples) received pharmacokinetics AUC-based chemotherapy. Efficacy and toxic side effects were assessed during chemotherapy, and survival were recorded in follow-up. In the AUC experimental group, rate of diarrhea significantly decreased (37.50% vs 70.00%, P=0.010), and events of oral mucositis reduced (54.17% vs 82.50%, P=0.014). Compared with control group, Clinical benefit rate of experimental group was much higher (90.79% vs 79.22%, P=0.046). There was no significant difference in other 5-fluorouracil related toxic side effect events (nausea, vomiting, hand-foot syndrome) and progression free survival between two groups. Pharmacokinetics-based dose management of 5-Fluorouracil reduces toxicity of chemotherapy and improved long-term efficacy of chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer patients.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224096, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661493

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections are a leading cause of death by an infectious agent. Survival within host phagocytic cells is one mechanism by which S. aureus evades antibiotic treatment. A novel THIOMAB™ antibody-antibiotic conjugate (TAC) strategy was developed to kill S. aureus intracellularly and mitigate the spread of infection. In this report, we used a longitudinal whole-body bioluminescence imaging method to study the antibacterial dynamics of TAC alone or in combination with vancomycin in a mouse infection model. Injections of stably luminescent S. aureus bacteria into mice resulted in exponential increases in whole body bioluminescence with a reduction in body weight and survival rate. Vancomycin, a standard-of-care antibiotic, suppressed bacterial growth in mice. However, bacterial growth rebounded in these animals once treatment was discontinued. In contrast, single dose of TAC showed rapid reduction of bioluminescence intensity, which persisted for up to 19 days. The combination of TAC and vancomycin achieved a more sustained and significantly greater reduction of bioluminescence compared with vancomycin alone. In summary, the present study showed an imaging method to longitudinally assess antibacterial drug dynamics in mice and demonstrated that TAC monotherapy or in combination with vancomycin had superior and sustained activity compared to vancomycin alone.

7.
J Immunol ; 203(10): 2712-2723, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597705

RESUMO

The inflammasomes play critical roles in numerous pathological conditions largely through IL-1ß and/or IL-18. However, additional effectors have been implied from multiple studies. In this study, through two independent mass spectrometry-based secretome screening approaches, we identified galectin-3 as an effector protein of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Although the activation of AIM2 or NLRC4 inflammasome also led to galectin-3 secretion, only the NLRP3 inflammasome controlled the serum galectin-3 level under physiological condition. Mechanistically, active gasdermin D drove the nonexosomal secretion of galectin-3 through the plasma membrane pores. In vivo, high-fat diet-fed Nlrp3-/- mice exhibited decreased circulating galectin-3 compared with wild-type animals. Of note, the improved insulin sensitivity in such Nlrp3-/- mice was aggravated by infusion of recombinant galectin-3. Moreover, galectin-3 was essential for insulin resistance induction in mice harboring the hyperactive Nlrp3A350V allele. Thus, the inflammasome-galectin-3 axis has been demonstrated as a promising target to intervene inflammasome and/or galectin-3 related diseases.

9.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 163, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small nucleolar RNA host gene 6 (SNHG6) regulates diverse biological processes in cancers. Potential function of SNHG6 in human colon and rectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) was evaluated. METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, MTT assays, Colony formation assays, Transwell assay, Western Blotting and Luciferase reporter assays were performed to measure the biological functions and potential molecular mechanisms of SNHG6 in CRC. RESULTS: SNHG6 was over-expressed in CRC, and high expression of s SNHG6 were associated with short survival times. We then identified miR-101-3p as an inhibitory target of SNHG6. Knockdown of SNHG6 significantly decreased miR-101-3p expression. Moreover, silenced SNHG6 obviously inhibited CRC cell growth, weakened cell invasion capacity and blocked the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: SNHG6 could regulate the progression of CRC via modulating the expression levels of miR-101-3p and the activity of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.

10.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-10, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549889

RESUMO

Exposure-response relationships from a phase 1b (M13-365) and phase 3 (MURANO) study were investigated to assess benefit/risk of venetoclax 400 mg daily plus rituximab in relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Dose intensities were summarized by tertiles of predicted venetoclax steady-state average concentrations based on nominal venetoclax dose (CmeanSS,nominal) for tolerability; exposure-safety analyses used logistic regression. Exposure-progression-free survival (PFS) relationships were assessed using MURANO data, with CmeanSS,nominal as a grouping factor. Covariates were demographics, geographic region, study, baseline disease characteristics, ECOG performance status, responsiveness to prior therapy, and chromosomal abnormalities. There was no significant effect of covariates on grade ≥3 neutropenia/infection or PFS, and no relationship between venetoclax exposure and these endpoints, or venetoclax or rituximab dose intensity. These results support the recommended venetoclax 400 mg daily dose in combination with rituximab in patients with R/R CLL or small lymphocytic leukemia.

11.
Nano Lett ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558023

RESUMO

Pyroptosis is a lytic and inflammatory form of programmed cell death and could be induced by chemotherapy drugs via caspase-3 mediation. However, the key protein gasdermin E (GSDME, translated by the DFNA5 gene) during the caspase-3-mediated pyroptosis process is absent in most tumor cells because of the hypermethylation of DFNA5 (deafness autosomal dominant 5) gene. Here, we develop a strategy of combining decitabine (DAC) with chemotherapy nanodrugs to trigger pyroptosis of tumor cells by epigenetics, further enhancing the immunological effect of chemotherapy. DAC is pre-performed with specific tumor-bearing mice for demethylation of the DFNA5 gene in tumor cells. Subsequently, a commonly used tumor-targeting nanoliposome loaded with cisplatin (LipoDDP) is used to administrate drugs for activating the caspase-3 pathway in tumor cells and trigger pyroptosis. Experiments demonstrate that the reversal of GSDME silencing in tumor cells is achieved and facilitates the occurrence of pyroptosis. According to the anti-tumor activities, anti-metastasis results, and inhibition of recurrence, this pyroptosis-based chemotherapy strategy enhances immunological effects of chemotherapy and also provides an important insight into tumor immunotherapy.

12.
Theranostics ; 9(12): 3541-3554, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281496

RESUMO

Rationale: Advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an aggressive disease with no targeted therapies and poor outcomes. New innovative targets are urgently needed. KLF4 has been extensively studied in the context of tumors, and current data suggest that it can act as either a tissue-specific tumor-inhibiting or a tumor-promoting gene. Here, we found that KLF4 played as a tumor-promoting gene in NPC, and could be mediated by PLK1. Methods: Tissue immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay was performed to identify the role of KLF4 in NPC. Global gene expression experiments were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying KLF4-dependent tumorigenesis. Small-molecule kinase inhibitor screening was performed to identify potential upstream kinases of KLF4. The pharmacologic activity of polo-like kinase inhibitor volasertib (BI6727) in vitro and in vivo was determined. Result: Our investigation showed that high expression of KLF4 was correlated with poor prognosis in NPC. Moreover, genome-wide profiling revealed that KLF4 directly activated oncogenic programmes, including gene sets associated with KRAS, VEGF, and MYC signalling. We further found that inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 could downregulate the expression of KLF4 and that PLK1 directly phosphorylated KLF4 at Ser234. Notably, phosphorylation of KLF4 by PLK1 caused the recruitment and binding of the E3 ligase TRAF6, which resulted in KLF4 K32 K63-linked ubiquitination and stabilization. Moreover, KLF4 could enhance TRAF6 expression at the transcriptional level, thus initiating a KLF4-TRAF6 feed-forward loop. Treatment with the PLK1 inhibitor volasertib (BI6727) significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. Conclusion: Our study unveiled a new PLK1-TRAF6-KLF4 feed-forward loop. The resulting increase in KLF4 ubiquitination leads to stabilization and upregulation of KLF4, which leads to tumorigenesis in NPC. These results expand our understanding of the role of KLF4 in NPC and validate PLK1 inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for NPC, especially cancer patients with KLF4 overexpression.

13.
ACS Nano ; 13(8): 8618-8629, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246413

RESUMO

Natural nanoparticles have been extensively studied due to their diverse properties and easy accessibility. Here, the nanoparticles extracted from cuttlefish ink (CINPs) with significant antitumor efficacy are explored. These CINPs, with spherical morphology, good dispersibility, and biocompatibility, are rich in melanin and contain a variety of amino acids and monosaccharides. Through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, CINPs can efficiently reprogram tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) from immune-suppressive M2-like phenotype to antitumor M1-like phenotype. Besides, under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, CINPs exhibit high photothermal effect and tumor cell killing ability, which make them a potential candidate in photothermal therapy (PTT) of tumor. In vivo, CINPs can increase the proportion of M1 macrophages and foster the recruitment of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to tumors, leading to reduced primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. In combination with their photothermal effect, which can induce tumor-specific antigens release, CINPs could almost completely inhibit tumor growth accompanied by more active immune responses. Collectively, these CINPs described here can provide both tumor immunotherapy and PTT, implying that CINPs are promising for tumor treatment.

14.
MAbs ; 11(6): 1162-1174, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219754

RESUMO

DSTA4637S, a novel THIOMAB™ antibody-antibiotic conjugate (TAC) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), is currently being investigated as a potential therapy for complicated S. aureus bloodstream infections. DSTA4637S is composed of a monoclonal THIOMABTM IgG1 recognizing S. aureus linked to a rifamycin-class antibiotic (dmDNA31) via a protease-cleavable linker. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of DSTA4637A (a liquid formulation of DSTA4637S) and its unconjugated antibody MSTA3852A were characterized in rats and monkeys. Systemic concentrations of three analytes, total antibody (TAb), antibody-conjugated dmDNA31 (ac-dmDNA31), and unconjugated dmDNA31, were measured to describe complex TAC PK in nonclinical studies. In rats and monkeys, following intravenous administration of a single dose of DSTA4637A, systemic concentration-time profiles of both TAb and ac-dmDNA31 were bi-exponential, characterized by a short distribution phase and a long elimination phase as expected for a monoclonal antibody-based therapeutic. Systemic exposures of both TAb and ac-dmDNA31 were dose proportional over the dose range tested, and ac-dmDNA31 cleared 2-3 times faster than TAb. Unconjugated dmDNA31 plasma concentrations were low (<4 ng/mL) in every study regardless of dose. In this report, an integrated semi-mechanistic PK model for two analytes (TAb and ac-dmDNA31) was successfully developed and was able to well describe the complicated DSTA4637A PK in mice, rats and monkeys. DSTA4637S human PK was predicted reasonably well using this model with allometric scaling of PK parameters from monkey data. This work provides insights into PK behaviors of DSTA4637A in preclinical species and informs clinical translatability of these observed results and further clinical development. Abbreviations: ADC: Antibody-drug conjugate; AUCinf: time curve extrapolated to infinity; ac-dmDNA31: antibody-conjugated dmDNA31; Cmax: maximum concentration observed; DAR: drug-to-antibody ratio; CL: clearance; CLD: distribution clearance; CL1: systemic clearance of all DAR species; kDC: deconjugation rate constant; PK: Pharmacokinetics; IV: Intravenous; IgG: Immunoglobulin G; mAb: monoclonal antibody; S. aureus: Staphylococcus aureus; TAC: THIOMABTM antibody-antibiotic conjugate; TDC: THIOMABTM antibody-drug conjugate; TAb: total antibody; t1/2, λz: terminal half-life; vc linker: valine-citrulline linker; Vss: volume of distribution at steady state; Vc: volume of distribution for the central compartment; Vp: the volume of distribution for the peripheral compartment.

15.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(6): 579-82, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190491

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical efficacy of "Tiaoren Tongdu acupuncture" and oral estradiol and dydrogesterone tablets (femoston) on premature ovarian insufficiency of kidney deficiency. METHODS: A total of 50 patients with premature ovarian insufficiency of kidney deficiency were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each one.In the observation group, "Tiaoren Tongdu acupuncture" was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Zhongwan (CV 12), Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), Zhongji (CV 3), Yaoyangguan (GV 3), Yaoshu (GV 2), Mingmen (GV 4), etc. once every 2 days, 1 month as a course. In the control group, femoston was prescribed for oral administration, one tablet per time, once a day, 1 month as a course. Both of the two groups were given consecutive treatment for 3 courses. Before and after treatment, the clinical symptoms, menstrual improvement as well as the changes of estradiol (E2), luteotrophic hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum were observed in the two groups. RESULTS: After treatment, the clinical symptoms and menstrual conditions were improved (P<0.01), the levels of FSH and LH were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and the levels of E2 were significantly increased in the two groups (P<0.01). There were no significant difference in menstrual improvement rate and menstrual improvement time between the observation group and the control group (P<0.05), the recurrence rate of menopause and clinical symptom score improvement in the observation group were superior to the control group (P<0.05). In the observation group, the level of E2 in serum was lower and the levels of FSH and LH in serum were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). In the observation group, the rate of adverse reaction was 4.0% (1/25), which was lower than 36.0% (9/25) in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: "Tiaoren Tongdu acupuncture" has better therapeutic effect for premature ovarian insufficiency of kidney deficiency. It is superior to femoston in improving clinical symptoms and recurrence rate of menopause as well as reducing the levels of FSH and LH.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Nefropatias , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Pontos de Acupuntura , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Humanos , Nefropatias/terapia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia
16.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(7): 479, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209222

RESUMO

Cancer metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer (BC) patients. Therefore, prediction and treatment of metastasis is critical for enhancing the survival of BC patients. In this study, we aimed to identify biomarkers that can predict metastasis of BC and elucidate the underlying mechanism of the functional involvement of such markers in metastasis. miRNA expression profile was analyzed using a custom microarray system in 422 BC tissues. The relationship between the upregulated miR-665, metastasis and survival of BC was analyzed and verified in another set of 161 BC samples. The biological function of miR-665 in BC carcinogenesis was explored with in vitro and in vivo methods. The target gene of miR-665 and its signaling cascade were also analyzed. There are 399 differentially expressed miRNAs between BC and noncancerous tissues, of which miR-665 is the most upregulated miRNA in the BC tissues compared with non-tumor breast tissues (P < 0.001). The expression of miR-665 predicts metastasis and poor survival in 422 BC patients, which is verified in another 161 BC patients and 2323 BC cases from online databases. Ectopic miR-665 expression promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), proliferation, migration and invasion of BC cells, and increases tumor growth and metastasis of BC in mice. Bioinformatics, luciferase assay and other methods showed that nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (NR4A3) is a target of miR-665 in BC. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that miR-665 promotes EMT, invasion and metastasis of BC via inhibiting NR4A3 to activate MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) signaling pathway. Our study demonstrates that miR-665 upregulation is associated with metastasis and poor survival in BC patients, and mechanistically, miR-665 enhances progression of BC via NR4A3/MEK signaling pathway. This study provides a new potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for BC patients.

17.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venetoclax is a selective B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) inhibitor approved for use as monotherapy or with rituximab in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The objectives of the current analysis of observed data from adult patients randomized to venetoclax-rituximab in the phase III MURANO study were to characterize venetoclax pharmacokinetics (PKs) using a Bayesian approach, evaluate whether a previously developed population PK model for venetoclax can describe the PKs of venetoclax when administered with rituximab, and to determine post hoc estimates of PK parameters for the exposure-response analysis. METHODS: Parameter estimates and uncertainty estimated by a population PK model were used as priors. Additional covariate effects (CLL risk status, geographic region, and 17p deletion [del(17p)] status) were added to the model. The updated model was used to describe venetoclax PKs after repeated dosing in combination with rituximab, and to determine post hoc estimates of PK parameters for exposure-response analysis. RESULTS: The PK analysis included 600 quantifiable venetoclax PK samples from 182 patients in the MURANO study. Model evaluation using standard diagnostic plots, visual predictive checks, and normalized prediction distribution error plots indicated no model deficiencies. There was no significant relationship between venetoclax apparent clearance (CL/F) and bodyweight, age, sex, mild and moderate hepatic and renal impairment, or coadministration of weak cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors. The chromosomal abnormality del(17p) and CLL risk status had no apparent effect on the PKs of venetoclax. A minimal increase in venetoclax CL/F (approximately 7%) was observed after coadministration with rituximab. CL/F was 30% lower in patients from Central and Eastern Europe (n = 60) or Asia (n = 4) compared with other regions (95% confidence interval [CI] 21-39%). Apparent central volume of distribution was 30% lower (95% CI 22-38%) in females (n = 56) compared with males (n = 126). No clinically significant impact of region or sex was observed on key safety and efficacy outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The Bayesian model successfully characterized venetoclax PKs over time and confirmed key covariates affecting PKs in the MURANO study. The model was deemed appropriate for further use in simulations and for generating individual patient PK parameters for subsequent exposure-response evaluation.

18.
Clin Transl Sci ; 12(5): 534-544, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115997

RESUMO

Prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) based on preclinical information for antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) provide important insight into first-in-human (FIH) study design. This retrospective analysis was conducted to identify an appropriate scaling method to predict human PK for ADCs from animal PK data in the linear range. Different methods for projecting human clearance (CL) from animal PK data for 11 ADCs exhibiting linear PK over the tested dose ranges were examined: multiple species allometric scaling (CL vs. body weight), allometric scaling with correction factors, allometric scaling based on rule of exponent, and scaling from only cynomolgus monkey PK data. Two analytes of interest for ADCs, namely total antibody and conjugate (measured as conjugated drug or conjugated antibody), were assessed. Percentage prediction errors (PEs) and residual sum of squares (RSS) were compared across methods. Human CL was best estimated using cynomolgus monkey PK data alone and an allometric scaling exponent of 1.0 for CL. This was consistently observed for both conjugate and total antibody analytes. Other scaling methods either underestimated or overestimated human CL, or produced larger average absolute PEs and RSS. Human concentration-time profiles were also reasonably predicted from the cynomolgus monkey data using species-invariant time method with a fixed exponent of 1.0 for CL and 1.0 for volume of distribution. In conclusion, results from this retrospective analysis of 11 ADCs indicate that allometric scaling of CL with an exponent of 1.0 using cynomolgus monkey PK data alone can successfully project human PK profiles of an ADC within linear range.

19.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(5): 356, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043585

RESUMO

To estimate the value of FSCN1 in evaluating the prognosis and guiding the targeted therapy for patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Using the Oncomine database, we found some genes especially FSCN1 differentially expressed between TSCC samples and tongue normal samples. So we compared FSCN1 expression between TSCC and normal cell lines and knocked down FSCN1 in TSCC cells to observe its influence on the viability and trans-migration in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Then we measured FSCN1 expression in human cancer tissues and adjacent non-carcinoma tissues (ANT) and explored the relationship between FSCN1 expression and clinical pathological factors and prognosis in TSCC patients. We found that FSCN1 is expressed higher in TSCC cells than in normal cells. Knockdown of FSCN1 reduced TSCC cell viability and trans-migration in vitro and impaired tumor growth in vivo. FSCN1 also expressed higher in human TSCC than in ANT. In addition, FSCN1 expression was related to N classification, clinical stage and relapse. TSCC patients with over-expression of FSCN1 had worse prognosis. In conclusion, over-expression of FSCN1 indicates worse prognosis for patients with TSCC and FSCN1 may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target in TSCC.

20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(14): 4530-4541, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy induces durable tumor regressions in a minority of patients with cancer. In this study, we aimed to identify kinase inhibitors that were capable of increasing the antimelanoma immunity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Flow cytometry-based screening was performed to identify kinase inhibitors that can block the IFNγ-induced PD-L1 expression in melanoma cells. The pharmacologic activities of regorafenib alone or in combination with immunotherapy in vitro and in vivo were determined. The mechanisms of regorafenib were explored and analyzed in melanoma patients treated with or without anti-PD-1 using The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. RESULTS: Through screening of a kinase inhibitor library, we found approximately 20 agents that caused more than half reduction of cell surface PD-L1 level, and regorafenib was one of the most potent agents. Furthermore, our results showed that regorafenib, in vitro and in vivo, strongly promoted the antitumor efficacy when combined with IFNγ or ICB. By targeting the RET-Src axis, regorafenib potently inhibited JAK1/2-STAT1 and MAPK signaling and subsequently attenuated the IFNγ-induced PD-L1 and IDO1 expression without affecting MHC-I expression much. Moreover, RET and Src co-high expression was an independent unfavorable prognosis factor in melanoma patients with or without ICB through inhibiting the antitumor immune response. CONCLUSIONS: Our data unveiled a new mechanism of alleviating IFNγ-induced PD-L1 and IDO1 expression and provided a rationale to explore a novel combination of ICB with regorafenib clinically, especially in melanoma with RET/Src axis activation.

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