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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2022 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263759

RESUMO

Deciphering the genetic basis of organoleptic traits is critical for improving fruit quality, which greatly shapes their appeal to consumers. Here, we characterize the citrus R3-MYB transcription factor TRIPTYCHON-LIKE (CitTRL), which is closely associated with the levels of citric acid, proanthocyanidins (PAs) and anthocyanins. Overexpression of CitTRL lowered acidity levels and PA contents in citrus calli as well as anthocyanin and PA contents in Arabidopsis leaves and seeds. CitTRL interacts with the two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins CitbHLH1 and ANTHOCYANIN 1 (CitAN1) to regulate fruit quality. We show that CitTRL competes with the R2R3-MYB CitRuby1 for binding to CitbHLH1 or CitAN1, thereby repressing their activation of anthocyanins structural genes, and with a second R2R3-MYB, CitPH4, for binding to CitAN1, thus disturbing the expression of the vacuolar proton-pump gene PH5 and Leucoanthocyanidin reductase, responsible for vacuolar acidification and proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, respectively. Moreover, CitPH4 activates CitTRL transcription, thus forming an activator-repressor loop to prevent the overaccumulation of citric acid and PAs. Overall, this study demonstrates that CitTRL acts as a repressor of the accumulation of citric acid, PAs and anthocyanins by a cross-regulation mechanism. Our results provide an opportunity to simultaneously manipulate these key traits as a means to produce citrus fruits that are both visually and organoleptically appealing.

2.
Hortic Res ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35039837

RESUMO

Somaclonal variation arising from tissue culture may provide a valuable resource for the selection of new germplasm, but may not preserve true-to-type characteristics, which is a major concern for germplasm conservation or genome editing. The genomic changes associated with dedifferentiation and somaclonal variation during long-term in vitro culture are largely unknown. Sweet orange was one of the earliest plant species to be cultured in vitro and induced via somatic embryogenesis. We compared four sweet orange callus lines after 30 years of constant tissue culture with newly induced calli by comprehensively determining the single-nucleotide polymorphisms, copy number variations, transposable element insertions, methylomic and transcriptomic changes. We identified a burst of variation during early dedifferentiation, including a retrotransposon outbreak, followed by a variation purge during long-term in vitro culture. Notably, CHH methylation showed a dynamic pattern, initially disappearing during dedifferentiation and then more than recovering after 30 years of in vitro culture. We also analyzed the effects of somaclonal variation on transcriptional reprogramming, and indicated subgenome dominance was evident in the tetraploid callus. We identified a retrotransposon insertion and DNA modification alternations in the potential regeneration-related gene CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-RELATED 16. This study provides the foundation to harness in vitro variation and offers a deeper understanding of the variation introduced by tissue culture during germplasm conservation, somatic embryogenesis, gene editing, and breeding programs.

3.
Food Chem ; 375: 131833, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974349

RESUMO

Hypoxia frequently occurs in postharvest logistics, which greatly influences fruit storability. Here, we for the first time studied the dynamic variations of mitochondrial morphology in living citrus fruit cells, and revealed that waxing treatment-induced hypoxia strongly triggered mitochondrial fission and fragmentation. Correspondingly, hypoxia caused a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and mobility. Besides, impairment of energetic and redox status was also found in waxed fruit. The proteomic changes of mitochondria after waxing treatment were also characterized. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we identified 167 key hypoxia-responsive proteins, which were mainly involved in fatty acid, amino acid and organic acid metabolism. Metabolite analysis verified that waxing treatment promoted the accumulation of several hypoxic metabolites, such as ethanol, acetaldehyde, succinic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the cytological and proteomic responses of mitochondria to hypoxia during fruit storage.


Assuntos
Citrus , Frutas/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias , Proteômica
4.
Hortic Res ; 92022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040975

RESUMO

In citrus, 1,6-rhamnosytransferase (1,6RhaT) and 1,2-rhamnosytransferase (1,2RhaT) catalyze flavanone-7-O-glucosides to form nonbitter flavanone rutinosides (FRs) and bitter flavanone neohesperidosides (FNs), respectively. As revealed in this study of fruit peels from 36 citrus accessions, FRs varied from undetectable levels in pummelo and kumquat to being the dominant flavonoids in sweet orange and loose-skin mandarins. Furthermore, a previously annotated full-length 1,6RhaT-like gene was identified as another 1,6RhaT-encoding gene by in vitro experiments. In total, 28 alleles of full-length 1,6RhaTs were isolated and classified into A, B and C types with only type A alleles encoding a functional protein. Coincidently, only the accessions that contained FRs harbored type A alleles, as was further verified in two F1 hybrid populations. Moreover, the inferior substrate conversion efficiency of 1,6RhaTs in comparison with that of 1,2RhaT in vitro might partly explain the lower proportions of FRs to total flavanone disaccharides in citrus hybrids harboring both functional rhamnosyltransferases. Our findings provide a better understanding of FR content variations among citrus and are meaningful for a mechanistic illustration of citrus flavonoid metabolism and fruit quality improvement practices.

5.
Plant Cell Rep ; 41(4): 905-920, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982198

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: CitWRKY28 and CitNAC029 are involved in cuticular wax synthesis as indicated by the comparative analysis of fruit aliphatic wax content between Citrus reticulata and Citrus trifoliata and gene co-expression analysis. Cuticular wax covers the fruit surface, playing important roles in reduction of fruit water loss and resistance to pathogen invasion. However, there is limited research on the synthesis and transcriptional regulation of cuticular wax in citrus fruit. In this study, we characterized the variations of aliphatic wax in HJ (Citrus reticulata) and ZK (Citrus trifoliata) from young fruit to mature fruit, as well as performed transcriptome sequencing on 27 samples at different fruit developmental stages. The results revealed that the ZK fruit always had a higher aliphatic wax content than the HJ fruit during development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that two KCS genes, CitKCS1 and CitKCS12, had the most significant difference in expression between HJ and ZK. Furthermore, a heterologous expression assay in Arabidopsis indicated that CitKCS1 and CitKCS12 are involved in cuticular wax synthesis. Subsequently, gene co-expression network analysis screened CitWRKY28 and CitNAC029. Dual luciferase and EMSA assays indicated that CitWRKY28 might bind to the promoter of CitKCS1 and CitKCS12 and CitNAC029 might bind to that of CitKCS1 to activate their expression. Moreover, CitWRKY28 and CitNAC029 could promote the accumulation of cuticular wax in Arabidopsis leaves. Our findings provide new insights into the synthesis and regulation of cuticular wax and valuable information for further mining of wax-related genes in citrus fruit.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Citrus , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ceras/metabolismo
6.
J Exp Bot ; 73(3): 953-966, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599807

RESUMO

A Citrus sinensis R2R3 MYB transcription factor (CsMYB96) has previously been shown to be strongly associated with the expression of many genes related to wax biosynthesis in the fruit. In this study, CsMYB96 was found to alleviate water loss by simultaneously regulating the expression of genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) and wax-related genes. Expression profiling indicated that CsPIP1;1 and CsPIP2;4 had high expression that was representative of other aquaporins, and they were down-regulated in the peel of post-harvest citrus fruit. CsPIP2;4 was further characterized as the predominant CsPIP, with high expression and high-water channel activity. Transient overexpression of CsPIP2;4 accelerated water loss in citrus fruit. In silico analysis further indicated that the expression of CsMYB96 had a significant negative correlation with that of CsPIPs. In vivo and in vitro experiments confirmed that CsMYB96 was able to directly repress the expression of CsPIPs. In addition, CsMYB96 was able to activate wax-related genes and promote wax biosynthesis for defense against water loss. Transient and stable overexpression of CsMYB96 reduced water loss from both citrus fruit and Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Proteínas de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Perda Insensível de Água , Ceras , Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/genética , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Perda Insensível de Água/genética , Ceras/metabolismo
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010071, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882744

RESUMO

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is one of the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is the most prevalent strain associated with HLB, which is yet to be cultured in vitro. None of the commercial citrus cultivars are resistant to HLB. The pathosystem of Ca. Liberibacter is complex and remains a mystery. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in genomic research on the pathogen, the interaction of host and CLas, and the influence of CLas infection on the transcripts, proteins, and metabolism of the host. We have also focused on the identification of candidate genes for CLas pathogenicity or the improvements of HLB tolerance in citrus. In the end, we propose potentially promising areas for mechanistic studies of CLas pathogenicity, defense regulators, and genetic improvement for HLB tolerance/resistance in the future.


Assuntos
Citrus/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Liberibacter/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
8.
Plant Physiol ; 187(2): 829-845, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608960

RESUMO

Domesticated citrus varieties are woody perennials and interspecific hybrid crops of global economic and nutritional importance. The citrus fruit "hesperidium" is a unique morphological innovation not found in any other plant lineage. Efforts to improve the nutritional quality of the fruit are predicated on understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms responsible for fruit development, including temporal control of chlorophyll degradation and carotenoid biosynthesis. Here, we investigated the molecular basis of the navel orange (Citrus sinensis) brown flavedo mutation, which conditions flavedo that is brown instead of orange. To overcome the limitations of using traditional genetic approaches in citrus and other woody perennials, we developed a strategy to elucidate the underlying genetic lesion. We used a multi-omics approach to collect data from several genetic sources and plant chimeras to successfully decipher this mutation. The multi-omics strategy applied here will be valuable in driving future gene discovery efforts in citrus as well as in other woody perennial plants. The comparison of transcriptomic and genomic data from multiple genotypes and plant sectors revealed an underlying lesion in the gene encoding STAY-GREEN (SGR) protein, which simultaneously regulates carotenoid biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation. However, unlike SGR of other plant species, we found that the carotenoid and chlorophyll regulatory activities could be uncoupled in the case of certain SGR alleles in citrus and thus we propose a model for the molecular mechanism underlying the brown flavedo phenotype. The economic and nutritional value of citrus makes these findings of wide interest. The strategy implemented, and the results obtained, constitute an advance for agro-industry by driving opportunities for citrus crop improvement.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo
9.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(12): 2453-2456, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554293

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Here, we developed a reliable protocol for the fast and efficient gene-edited Anliu sweet orange plants production. The application of in vitro shoot grafting technology significantly reduced the growth cycle of transgenic seedlings, and the survival rate of cleft grafting was more than 90%. In addition, the mutation efficiency of the grafted geneedited sweet orange was significantly improved by short-term heat stress treatments. Thus, the combination strategy of grafting and heat stress treatments provided a reference for the fast and efficient multiplex gene editing of sweet orange.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Citrus sinensis/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , RNA Guia/genética , Agrobacterium/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plântula/genética , Transformação Bacteriana
10.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 199, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465762

RESUMO

Self-incompatibility (SI) substantially restricts the yield and quality of citrus. Therefore, breeding and analyzing self-compatible germplasm is of great theoretical and practical significance for citrus. Here, we focus on the mechanism of a self-compatibility mutation in 'Guiyou No. 1' pummelo (Citrus maxima), which is a spontaneous mutant of 'Shatian' pummelo (Citrus maxima, self-incompatibility). The rate of fruit set and the growth of pollen tubes in the pistil confirmed that a spontaneous mutation in the pistil is responsible for the self-compatibility of 'Guiyou No. 1'. Segregation ratios of the S genotype in F1 progeny, expression analysis, and western blotting validated that the reduced levels of S2-RNase mRNA contribute to the loss of SI in 'Guiyou No. 1'. Furthermore, we report a phased assembly of the 'Guiyou No. 1' pummelo genome and obtained two complete and well-annotated S haplotypes. Coupled with an analysis of SV variations, methylation levels, and gene expression, we identified a candidate gene (CgHB40), that may influence the regulation of the S2-RNase promoter. Our data provide evidence that a mutation that affects the pistil led to the loss of SI in 'Guiyou No. 1' by influencing a poorly understood mechanism that affects transcriptional regulation. This work significantly advances our understanding of the genetic basis of the SI system in citrus and provides information on the regulation of S-RNase genes.

11.
DNA Res ; 28(5)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424285

RESUMO

Citrus nucellar poly-embryony (NPE) is a mode of sporophytic apomixis that asexual embryos formed in the seed through adventitious embryogenesis from the somatic nucellar cells. NPE allows clonal propagation of rootstocks, but it impedes citrus cross breeding. To understand the cellular processes involved in NPE initiation, we profiled the transcriptomes and DNA methylomes in laser microdissection captured citrus apomictic cells. In apomictic cells, ribosome biogenesis and protein degradation were activated, whereas auxin polar transport was repressed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulated in the poly-embryonic ovules, and response to oxidative stress was provoked. The global DNA methylation level, especially that of CHH context, was decreased, whereas the methylation level of the NPE-controlling key gene CitRWP was increased. A C2H2 domain-containing transcription factor gene and CitRWP co-expressed specifically in apomictic cells may coordinate to initiate NPE. The activated embryogenic development and callose deposition processes indicated embryogenic fate of nucellar embryo initial (NEI) cells. In our working model for citrus NPE initiation, DNA hyper-methylation may activate transcription of CitRWP, which increases C2H2 expression and ROS accumulation, triggers epigenetic regulation and regulates cell fate transition and NEI cell identity in the apomictic cells.


Assuntos
Citrus , Citrus/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Melhoramento Vegetal , Transcriptoma
12.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 175, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333523

RESUMO

Although multiple microscopic techniques have been applied to horticultural research, few studies of individual organelles in living fruit cells have been reported to date. In this paper, we established an efficient system for the transient transformation of citrus fruits using an Agrobacterium-mediated method. Kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle) was used; it exhibits higher transformation efficiency than all citrus fruits that have been tested and a prolonged-expression window. Fruits were transformed with fluorescent reporters, and confocal microscopy and live-cell imaging were used to study their localization and dynamics. Moreover, various pH sensors targeting different subcellular compartments were expressed, and the local pH environments in cells from different plant tissues were compared. The results indicated that vacuoles are most likely the main organelles that contribute to the low pH of citrus fruits. In summary, our method is effective for studying various membrane trafficking events, protein localization, and cell physiology in fruit and can provide new insight into fruit biology research.

13.
Plant J ; 108(1): 151-168, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414618

RESUMO

Senescence is a gradual physiological process involving the integration of numerous internal and environmental signals. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-known inducer of senescence. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying ABA-mediated senescence remain largely unknown. Here, we report that the citrus homeodomain leucine zipper I (HD-ZIP I) transcription factor CsHB5 functions as a regulator of ABA-triggered senescence. CsHB5 acts as a nucleus-localized transcriptional activator, the expression of which appeared to be closely associated with citrus senescence. Overexpression of CsHB5 in citrus calli upregulated the expression of ABA- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes, and significantly increased the content of ABA and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), whereas silencing CsHB5 in citrus calli downregulated the expression of ABA-related genes. Additionally, heterogenous overexpression of CsHB5 in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) leads to early leaf yellowing under dark-induced senescence conditions. Meanwhile, the levels of ABA and H2 O2 in transgenic tomatoes increased significantly and the lycopene content decreased. Transcriptome analysis of CsHB5-overexpressing citrus calli and tomato showed that CsHB5 was involved in multiple senescence-associated processes, including chlorophyll degradation, nutrient compound biosynthesis and transport, as well as ABA and ROS signal transduction. The results of yeast one-hybrid assays, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and dual luciferase assays indicated that CsHB5 directly binds to the promoters of ABA biosynthetic genes, including ß-carotene hydroxylase 1 (BCH1) and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 2 (NCED2), thereby activating their transcription. Our findings revealed that CsHB5 participates in senescence, at least partly, by directly controlling ABA accumulation. Our work provides insight into the regulatory mechanisms underlying ABA-mediated senescence.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Citrus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Citrus/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Homeodomínio , Zíper de Leucina , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação para Cima
14.
Curr Biol ; 31(17): 3848-3860.e8, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314676

RESUMO

The Great Himalayan Mountains and their foothills are believed to be the place of origin and development of many plant species. The genetic basis of adaptation to high plateaus is a fascinating topic that is poorly understood at the population level. We comprehensively collected and sequenced 377 accessions of Prunus germplasm along altitude gradients ranging from 2,067 to 4,492 m in the Himalayas. We de novo assembled three high-quality genomes of Tibetan Prunus species. A comparative analysis of Prunus genomes indicated a remarkable expansion of the SINE retrotransposons occurred in the genomes of Tibetan species. We observed genetic differentiation between Tibetan peaches from high and low altitudes and that genes associated with light stress signaling, especially UV stress signaling, were enriched in the differentiated regions. By profiling the metabolomes of Tibetan peach fruit, we determined 379 metabolites had significant genetic correlations with altitudes and that in particular phenylpropanoids were positively correlated with altitudes. We identified 62 Tibetan peach-specific SINEs that colocalized with metabolites differentially accumualted in Tibetan relative to cultivated peach. We demonstrated that two SINEs were inserted in a locus controlling the accumulation of 3-O-feruloyl quinic acid. SINE1 was specific to Tibetan peach. SINE2 was predominant in high altitudes and associated with the accumulation of 3-O-feruloyl quinic acid. These genomic and metabolic data for Prunus populations native to the Himalayan region indicate that the expansion of SINE retrotransposons helped Tibetan Prunus species adapt to the harsh environment of the Himalayan plateau by promoting the accumulation of beneficial metabolites.


Assuntos
Prunus , Altitude , Frutas , Tibet , Árvores
15.
J Biotechnol ; 339: 1-13, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298024

RESUMO

Genetic manipulation of plant genes in prokaryotes has been widely used in molecular biology, but the function of a DNA sequence is far from being fully known. Here, we discovered that a plant protein-coding gene containing the CRAL_TRIO domain serves as a promoter in bacteria. We firstly characterized CitPITP1 from Citrus, which contains the CRAL_TRIO domain, and identified a 64-bp sequence (key64) that is critical for prokaryotic promoter activity. In vitro experiments indicated that the bacterial RNA polymerase subunit RpoD specifically binds to key64. We then expanded our research to fungi, plant and animal species to identify key64-like sequences. Five such prokaryotic promoters were isolated from Amborella, Rice, Arabidopsis and Citrus. Two conserved motifs were identified, and mutation analysis indicated that the nucleotides at positions 7, 29 and 30 are crucial for key64-like transcription activity. We detected full-length recombinant CitPITP1 from E. coli, and visualized a CitPITP1-GFP fusion protein in plant cells, supporting the idea that CitPITP1 encodes a protein. However, although exon 4 of CitPITP1 contained key64, it did not demonstrate promoter activity in plants. Our study describes a new basal promoter, provides evidence for neofunction of gene elements across different kingdoms, and provides new knowledge for the modular design of promoters.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Escherichia coli , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Éxons
16.
Nat Plants ; 7(7): 954-965, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140668

RESUMO

Somatic variations are a major source of genetic diversification in asexual plants, and underpin clonal evolution and the breeding of asexual crops. Sweet orange is a model species for studying somatic variation because it reproduces asexually through apomixis and is propagated asexually through grafting. To dissect the genomic basis of somatic variation, we de novo assembled a reference genome of sweet orange with an average of three gaps per chromosome and a N50 contig of 24.2 Mb, as well as six diploid genomes of somatic mutants of sweet oranges. We then sequenced 114 somatic mutants with an average genome coverage of 41×. Categorization of the somatic variations yielded insights into the single-nucleotide somatic mutations, structural variations and transposable element (TE) transpositions. We detected 877 TE insertions, and found TE insertions in the transporter or its regulatory genes associated with variation in fruit acidity. Comparative genomic analysis of sweet oranges from three diversity centres supported a dispersal from South China to the Mediterranean region and to the Americas. This study provides a global view on the somatic variations, the diversification and dispersal history of sweet orange and a set of candidate genes that will be useful for improving fruit taste and flavour.


Assuntos
Ácidos/análise , Citrus sinensis/genética , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , China , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Genótipo , Mutação
17.
J Exp Bot ; 72(18): 6274-6290, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125891

RESUMO

Carotenoids play vital roles in the coloration of plant tissues and organs, particularly fruits; however, the regulation of carotenoid metabolism in fruits during ripening is largely unknown. Here, we show that red light promotes fruit coloration by inducing accelerated degreening and carotenoid accumulation in kumquat fruits. Transcriptome profiling revealed that a NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC2) family transcription factor, FcrNAC22, is specifically induced in red light-irradiated fruits. FcrNAC22 localizes to the nucleus, and its gene expression is up-regulated as fruits change color. Results from dual luciferase, yeast one-hybrid assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that FcrNAC22 directly binds to, and activates the promoters of three genes encoding key enzymes in the carotenoid metabolic pathway. Moreover, FcrNAC22 overexpression in citrus and tomato fruits as well as in citrus callus enhances expression of most carotenoid biosynthetic genes, accelerates plastid conversion into chromoplasts, and promotes color change. Knock down of FcrNAC22 expression in transiently transformed citrus fruits attenuates fruit coloration induced by red light. Taken together, our results demonstrate that FcrNAC22 is an important transcription factor that mediates red light-induced fruit coloration via up-regulation of carotenoid metabolism.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Rutaceae , Carotenoides , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
18.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 69, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790260

RESUMO

Grafting is an ancient technique used for plant propagation and improvement in horticultural crops for at least 1,500 years. Citrus plants, with a seed-to-seed cycle of 5-15 years, are among the fruit crops that were probably domesticated by grafting. Poncirus trifoliata, a widely used citrus rootstock, can promote early flowering, strengthen stress tolerance, and improve fruit quality via scion-rootstock interactions. Here, we report its genome assembly using PacBio sequencing. We obtained a final genome of 303 Mb with a contig N50 size of 1.17 Mb and annotated 25,680 protein-coding genes. DNA methylome and transcriptome analyses indicated that the strong adaptability of P. trifoliata is likely attributable to its special epigenetic modification and expression pattern of resistance-related genes. Heterografting by using sweet orange as scion and P. trifoliata as rootstock and autografting using sweet orange as both scion and rootstock were performed to investigate the genetic effects of the rootstock. Single-base methylome analysis indicated that P. trifoliata as a rootstock caused DNA demethylation and a reduction in 24-nt small RNAs (sRNAs) in scions compared to the level observed with autografting, implying the involvement of sRNA-mediated graft-transmissible epigenetic modifications in citrus grafting. Taken together, the assembled genome for the citrus rootstock and the analysis of graft-induced epigenetic modifications provide global insights into the genetic effects of rootstock-scion interactions and grafting biology.

19.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 56, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642588

RESUMO

Deciphering the genetic basis of plant secondary metabolism will provide useful insights for genetic improvement and enhance our fundamental understanding of plant biological processes. Although citrus plants are among the most important fruit crops worldwide, the genetic basis of secondary metabolism in these plants is largely unknown. Here, we use a high-density linkage map to dissect large-scale flavonoid metabolic traits measured in different tissues (young leaf, old leaf, mature pericarp, and mature pulp) of an F1 pseudo-testcross citrus population. We detected 80 flavonoids in this population and identified 138 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 57 flavonoids in these four tissues. Based on transcriptional profiling and functional annotation, twenty-one candidate genes were identified, and one gene encoding flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) was functionally verified to result in naturally occurring variation in dihydrokaempferol content through genetic variations in its promoter and coding regions. The abundant data resources collected for diverse citrus germplasms here lay the foundation for complete characterization of the citrus flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and will thereby promote efficient utilization of metabolites in citrus quality improvement.

20.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 31, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518707

RESUMO

Mitochondria are crucial for the production of primary and secondary metabolites, which largely determine the quality of fruit. However, a method for isolating high-quality mitochondria is currently not available in citrus fruit, preventing high-throughput characterization of mitochondrial functions. Here, based on differential and discontinuous Percoll density gradient centrifugation, we devised a universal protocol for isolating mitochondria from the pulp of four major citrus species, including satsuma mandarin, ponkan mandarin, sweet orange, and pummelo. Western blot analysis and microscopy confirmed the high purity and intactness of the isolated mitochondria. By using this protocol coupled with a label-free proteomic approach, a total of 3353 nonredundant proteins were identified. Comparison of the four mitochondrial proteomes revealed that the proteins commonly detected in all proteomes participate in several typical metabolic pathways (such as tricarboxylic acid cycle, pyruvate metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation) and pathways closely related to fruit quality (such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, ascorbate metabolism, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites). In addition, differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) between different types of species were also identified; these were found to be mainly involved in fatty acid and amino acid metabolism and were further confirmed to be localized to the mitochondria by subcellular localization analysis. In summary, the proposed protocol for the isolation of highly pure mitochondria from different citrus fruits may be used to obtain high-coverage mitochondrial proteomes, which can help to establish the association between mitochondrial metabolism and fruit storability or quality characteristics of different species and lay the foundation for discovering novel functions of mitochondria in plants.

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