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1.
AIDS ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Improving immune status of people living with HIV through anti-retroviral therapy (ART) may also reduce shedding of other viruses in semen. We characterized the seminal fluid virome of men with HIV and tested potential associations between viruses present and CD4 T cell count, HIV viremia, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) status. DESIGN AND METHODS: Metagenomics was used to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids from the seminal fluid of 55 semen samples from 42 men living with HIV from San Francisco with a median age of 33 (IQR, 28.7-45) and median CD4 T cell counts of 837 cells/ul (IQR, 258-1571 cells/ul). All samples were collected between 2005 and 2015, and ART status was ascertained from medical records. RESULTS: Anelloviruses, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and multiple genotypes of human papillomaviruses were detected. Participants shed from 0 to 4 distinct human viruses. Longitudinally collected seminal fluid samples showed changes in the viruses shed. Viruses were more frequently shed by individuals with detectable HIV viremia, or who were not on ART (43.7% vs 15.4%, p = 0.042, and 42.8% vs 17.8%, p = 0.082 respectively). Only a trend was seen for increased shedding by individuals with CD4 T cell count <350 cells/ul (35.3% vs 20.0%, p = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Seminal fluid from men with HIV from San Francisco contains nucleic acids from three different DNA viral families. A greater number of viruses, particularly CMV, were shed by participants with detectable HIV viremia. Control of viremia through ART may therefore lower shedding of other viruses in semen beside HIV.

2.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982944

RESUMO

Using viral metagenomics, the complete genome sequence of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain (named ahysx-1) from a fecal sample from a healthy chicken in Anhui province, China, was determined. The genome sequence of ahysx-1 was found to be very similar to that of IBV strain ck/CH/LLN/131040 (KX252787), except for the spike gene region, which is similar to that of a turkey coronavirus strain (EU022526), suggesting that ahysx-1 is a recombinant. Recombination analysis and phylogenetic analysis based on the genomic sequences of ahysx-1 and other related strains confirmed that ahysx-1 appears to be a recombinant resulting from a recombination event that occurred between a chicken coronavirus and a turkey coronavirus. Further studies need to be performed to determine whether this recombinant IBV strain is pathogenic and whether it is transmitted between chickens and turkeys.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18599, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819139

RESUMO

Diarrhea remains one of the most common causes of deaths in children. Although many studies have investigated the prevalence of enteric pathogens around the globe some diarrheal episodes remain unexplained. It is possible that some yet-unidentified viral agents could be related to these cases of gastroenteritis. By using viral metagenomics techniques, we screened 251 fecal samples of children between 0.5 to 2.5-year-old with acute diarrhea not associated with common pathogens. These children live in rural areas and have different levels of contact with animals such as pigs, cows and bats. Here we report a complete genome of one mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) type 3, denoted TO-151/BR, detected in a female child in the state of Tocantins (north of Brazil). Brazilian TO-151/BR strain was classified as MRV-3 based on S1 phylogeny and was closely related to porcine Asian strains. Phylogenetic analyses showed that other segments were more similar to MRV-3s of different geographic locations and hosts, including human and bats, highlighting genome reassortment and lack of host-specific barriers. This is the first report of MRV-3 in South America and a hypothesis of a silent long-term circulation of this virus in Brazil has been raised.

5.
J Virus Erad ; 5(3): 167-173, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700665

RESUMO

Observational and interventional studies for HIV cure research often use single-copy assays to quantify rare entities in blood or tissue samples. Statistical analysis of such measurements presents challenges due to tissue sampling variability and frequent findings of 0 copies in the sample analysed. We examined four approaches to analysing such studies, reflecting different ways of handling observations of 0 copies: (A) replace observations of 0 copies with 1 copy; (B) add 1 to all observed numbers of copies; (C) treat observations of 0 copies as left-censored at 1 copy; and (D) leave the data unaltered and apply a method for count data, negative binomial regression. Because research seeks to estimate general patterns rather than individuals' values, we argue that unaltered use of 0 copies is suitable for research purposes and that altering those observations can introduce bias. When applied to a simulated study comparing preintervention to postintervention measurements within 12 participants, methods A-C showed more attenuation than method D in the estimated intervention effect, less chance of finding P < 0.05 for the intervention effect and a lower chance of including the true intervention effect within the 95% confidence interval. Application of the methods to actual data from a study comparing multiply-spliced HIV RNA among men and women estimated smaller differences by methods A-C than by method D. We recommend that negative binomial regression, which is readily available in many statistical software packages, be considered for analysis of studies of rare entities that are measured by single-copy assays.

6.
J Virus Erad ; 5(3): 167-173, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700666

RESUMO

Observational and interventional studies for HIV cure research often use single-copy assays to quantify rare entities in blood or tissue samples. Statistical analysis of such measurements presents challenges due to tissue sampling variability and frequent findings of 0 copies in the sample analysed. We examined four approaches to analysing such studies, reflecting different ways of handling observations of 0 copies: (A) replace observations of 0 copies with 1 copy; (B) add 1 to all observed numbers of copies; (C) treat observations of 0 copies as left-censored at 1 copy; and (D) leave the data unaltered and apply a method for count data, negative binomial regression. Because research seeks to estimate general patterns rather than individuals' values, we argue that unaltered use of 0 copies is suitable for research purposes and that altering those observations can introduce bias. When applied to a simulated study comparing preintervention to postintervention measurements within 12 participants, methods A-C showed more attenuation than method D in the estimated intervention effect, less chance of finding P < 0.05 for the intervention effect and a lower chance of including the true intervention effect within the 95% confidence interval. Application of the methods to actual data from a study comparing multiply-spliced HIV RNA among men and women estimated smaller differences by methods A-C than by method D. We recommend that negative binomial regression, which is readily available in many statistical software packages, be considered for analysis of studies of rare entities that are measured by single-copy assays.

7.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614994

RESUMO

Metagenomics was used to identify viral sequences in the plasma and CSF (cerobrospinal fluid) of 13 horses with unexplained neurological signs and in the plasma and respiratory swabs of 14 horses with unexplained respiratory signs. Equine hepacivirus and two copiparvoviruses (horse parvovirus-CSF and a novel parvovirus) were detected in plasma from neurological cases. Plasma from horses with respiratory signs contained the same two copiparvoviruses plus equine pegivirus D and respiratory swabs contained equine herpes virus 2 and 5. Based on genetic distances the novel copiparvovirus qualified as a member of a new parvovirus species we named Eqcopivirus. These samples plus another 41 plasma samples from healthy horses were tested by real-time PCRs for multiple equine parvoviruses and hepacivirus. Over half the samples tested were positive for one to three viruses with eqcopivirus DNA detected in 20.5%, equine hepacivirus RNA and equine parvovirus-H DNA in 16% each, and horse parvovirus-CSF DNA in 12% of horses. Comparing viral prevalence in plasma none of the now three genetically characterized equine parvoviruses (all in the copiparvovirus genus) was significantly associated with neurological and respiratory signs in this limited sampling.

8.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652508

RESUMO

Cynomolgus macaques are common across South East Asian countries including Thailand. The National Primate Research Center of Thailand, Chulalongkorn University (NPRCT-CU) captures wild-borne cynomolgus macaque for research use. Limited information is available on the enteric viruses and possible zoonotic infections into or from cynomolgus macaques. We characterized and compare the fecal virome of two populations; healthy wild-originated captive cynomolgus macaques (n = 43) reared in NPRCT-CU and healthy wild cynomolgus macaques (n = 35). Over 90% of recognized viral sequence reads amplified from feces were from bacterial viruses. Viruses from seven families of mammalian viruses were also detected (Parvoviridae, Anelloviridae, Picornaviridae, Adenoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Herpesviridae, and Caliciviridae). The genomes of a member of a new picornavirus genus we named Mafapivirus, a primate chapparvovirus, and a circular Rep-encoding single-strand (CRESS) DNA virus were also characterized. Higher abundance of CRESS DNA viruses of unknown tropism and invertebrate-tropic ambidensovirus were detected in wild versus captive macaques likely reflecting dietary differences. Short term rearing in captivity did not have a pronounced effect on the diversity of mammalian viruses of wild cynomolgus macaques. This study is the first report of the fecal virome of cynomolgus macaques, non-human primates frequently used in biomedical research and vaccination studies.

9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1291-1299, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495287

RESUMO

To investigate the composition of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in anogenital warts (AGWs), viral nucleic acid in 110 AGWs, pooled into 11 specimen pools, were subjected to viral metagenomic analysis. After finding HPV7 in AGWs, conventional PCR screening was performed for HPV7 in other 190 individual AGW specimens. Viral metagenomic results indicated that 29 different types of HPV were recovered, with HPV11 and HPV6 showing the highest proportion of sequence reads. HPV7 was detected in 7 of 11 pools, 5 of which contained abundant HPV7 sequence reads. 24 complete genomes of HPV were acquired in viral metagenomic analysis, including 5 HPV7 genomes, based on which phylogenetic analysis and pairwise sequence comparison were conducted. PCR screening for HPV7 in other 190 individual AGW specimens revealed 25 positive cases (13.16%), of which the amplified fragments were sequenced and confirmed to be HPV7 sequences. Although HPV7 was generally found in hand warts and recently also in warts in toe webs, our data suggested that the role of HPV7 in AGW should be considered in the future clinical test and vaccine development for AGWs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Ânus/virologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/virologia , Metagenômica/métodos , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Verrugas/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
10.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190160, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411312

RESUMO

Human enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a wide spectrum of human diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequences of one EV-C99 strain and one E29 strain obtained from children suffering from acute gastroenteritis, without symptoms of enteroviral syndromes. This is the first report of EV-C99 in South America, and the second E29 genome described worldwide. Continuous surveillance on EVs is vital to provide further understanding of the circulation of new or rare EV serotypes in the country. The present study also highlights the capacity of EVs to remain in silent circulation in populations.


Assuntos
Enterovirus Humano B/genética , Enterovirus Humano C/genética , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Idoso , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Enterovirus Humano B/isolamento & purificação , Enterovirus Humano C/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética
11.
Virus Evol ; 5(1): vez013, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31191981

RESUMO

Nineteen families of phages infecting bacteria or archaea are currently recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Of these, only two have single-stranded DNA genomes, namely Inoviridae and Microviridae. The distribution, genetic characteristics, and ecological roles of Microviridae remain largely under explored. Here, using viral metagenomics, we investigate the intestinal virome from human and twenty-four species of animals, as well as freshwater samples, containing abundant sequence reads showing similarity to the Microviridae. Eight hundred and sixty complete or near complete Microviridae-related genomes were generated, showing high levels of co-infections and sequence divergence. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that the Microviridae subfamily Gokushovirinae was highly prevalent and that some strains may qualify as new subfamilies. This study significantly augments our knowledge of the genetic diversity, genome evolution, and distribution in animal species of members of the family Microviridae.

12.
Viruses ; 11(6)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146371

RESUMO

We characterized the 24 nearly full-length genomes of human parechoviruses (PeV) from children in the north of Brazil. The initial phylogenetic analysis indicated that 17 strains belonged to genotype 1, 5 to genotype 4, and 1 to genotype 17. A more detailed analysis revealed a high frequency of recombinant strains (58%): A total of 14 of our PeV-As were chimeric, with four distinct recombination patterns identified. Five strains were composed of genotypes 1 and 5 (Rec1/5); five strains shared a complex mosaic pattern formed by genotypes 4, 5, and 17 (Rec4/17/5); two strains were composed of genotypes 1 and 17 (Rec1/17); and two strains were composed of genotype 1 and an undetermined strain (Rec1/und). Coalescent analysis based on the Vp1 gene, which is free of recombination, indicated that the recombinant strains most likely arose in this region approximately 30 years ago. They are present in high frequencies and are circulating in different small and isolated cities in the state of Tocantins. Further studies will be needed to establish whether the detected recombinant strains have been replacing parental strains or if they are co-circulating in distinct frequencies in Tocantins.

13.
Pediatr Res ; 86(5): 616-621, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures are associated with adverse neurologic sequelae including epilepsy in childhood. Here we aim to determine whether levels of cytokines in neonates with brain injury are associated with acute symptomatic seizures or remote epilepsy. METHODS: This is a cohort study of term newborns with encephalopathy at UCSF between 10/1993 and 1/2000 who had dried blood spots. Maternal, perinatal/postnatal, neuroimaging, and epilepsy variables were abstracted by chart review. Logistic regression was used to compare levels of cytokines with acute seizures and the development of epilepsy. RESULTS: In a cohort of 26 newborns with neonatal encephalopathy at risk for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with blood spots for analysis, diffuse alterations in both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels were observed between those with (11/28, 39%) and without acute symptomatic seizures. Seventeen of the 26 (63%) patients had >2 years of follow-up and 4/17 (24%) developed epilepsy. Higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α within the IL-1ß pathway were significantly associated with epilepsy. CONCLUSIONS: Elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the IL-1ß pathway were associated with later onset of epilepsy. Larger cohort studies are needed to confirm the predictive value of these circulating biomarkers.

14.
J Virol ; 93(17)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189707

RESUMO

The influence of living in small remote villages on the diversity of viruses in the nasal mucosa was investigated in three Colombian villages with very different levels of geographic isolation. Metagenomic analysis was used to characterize viral nucleic acids in nasal swabs from 63 apparently healthy young children. Sequences from human virus members of the families Anelloviridae, Papillomaviridae, Picornaviridae, Herpesviridae, Polyomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Paramyxoviridae were detected in decreasing proportions of children. The number of papillomavirus infections detected was greater among Hispanic children most exposed to outside contacts, while anellovirus infections were more common in the isolated indigenous villages. The diversity of the other human viruses detected did not differ among the villages. Closely related variants of rhinovirus A or B were identified in 2 to 4 children from each village, reflecting ongoing transmission clusters. Genomes of viruses not currently known to infect humans, including members of the families Parvoviridae, Partitiviridae, Dicistroviridae, and Iflaviridae and circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA) virus, were also detected in nasal swabs, possibly reflecting environmental contamination from insect, fungal, or unknown sources. Despite the high levels of geographic and cultural isolation, the overall diversity of human viruses in the nasal passages of children was not reduced in highly isolated indigenous villages, indicating ongoing exposure to globally circulating viruses.IMPORTANCE Extreme geographic and cultural isolation can still be found in some indigenous South American villages. Such isolation may be expected to limit the introduction of otherwise common and widely distributed viruses. Very small population sizes may also result in rapid local viral extinction due to a lack of seronegative subjects to maintain transmission chains for rapidly cleared viruses. We compared the viruses in the nasal passages of young children in three villages with increasing levels of geographic isolation. We found that isolation did not reduce the overall diversity of viral infections. Multiple infections with nearly identical rhinoviruses could be detected within each village, likely reflecting recent viral introductions and transmission clusters among epidemiologically linked members of these very small communities. We conclude that, despite their geographic isolation, remote indigenous villages show evidence of ongoing exposure to globally circulating viruses.

15.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(9)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217274

RESUMO

Community-acquired (CA) sepsis is a major public health problem worldwide, yet the etiology remains unknown for >50% of the patients. Here we applied metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to characterize the human virome in 492 clinical samples (384 sera, 92 pooled nasal and throat swabs, 10 stools, and 6 cerebrospinal fluid samples) from 386 patients (213 adults and 173 children) presenting with CA sepsis who were recruited from 6 hospitals across Vietnam between 2013 and 2015. Specific monoplex PCRs were used subsequently to confirm the presence of viral sequences detected by mNGS. We found sequences related to 47 viral species belonging to 21 families in 358 of 386 (93%) patients, including viruses known to cause human infections. After PCR confirmation, human viruses were found in 52 of 386 patients (13.4%); picornavirus (enteroviruses [n = 14], rhinovirus [n = 5], and parechovirus [n = 2]), hepatitis B virus (n = 10), cytomegalovirus (n = 9), Epstein-Barr virus (n = 5), and rotavirus A (n = 3) were the most common viruses detected. Recently discovered viruses were also found (gemycircularvirus [n = 5] and WU polyomavirus, Saffold virus, salivirus, cyclovirus-VN, and human pegivirus 2 [HPgV2] [n, 1 each]), adding to the growing literature about the geographic distribution of these novel viruses. Notably, sequences related to numerous viruses not previously reported in human tissues were also detected. To summarize, we identified 21 viral species known to be infectious to humans in 52 of 386 (13.4%) patients presenting with CA sepsis of unknown cause. The study, however, cannot directly impute sepsis causation to the viruses identified. The results highlight the fact that it remains a challenge to establish the causative agents in CA sepsis patients, especially in tropical settings such as Vietnam.

16.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 35, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097029

RESUMO

Viral metagenomic analysis of the liver of a black headed python (Aspidites melanocephalus) euthanized for a proliferative spinal lesion of unknown etiology yielded the first characterized genome of a reptile-infecting circovirus (black-headed python circovirus or BhPyCV). BhPyCV-specific in situ hybridization (ISH) showed that viral nucleic acids were strongly expressed in the intestinal lining and mucosa and multifocally in the liver. To investigate the presence of this virus in other snakes and its possible pathogenicity, 17 snakes in the python family with spinal disease were screened with ISH yielding a second BhP positive in intestinal tissue, and a Boelen's python (Morelia boeleni) positive in the liver. BhPyCV specific PCR was used to screen available frozen tissues from 13 of these pythons, four additional deceased pythons with and without spinal disease, and fecal samples from 37 live snakes of multiple species with unknown disease status. PCR detected multiple positive tissues in both of the ISH positive BhP and in the feces of another two live BhP and two live annulated tree boas (Corallus annulatus). Preliminary analysis indicates this circovirus can infect BhPs where it was found in 4/5 BhPs tested (2/2 with spinal disease, 2/3 live with unknown status), Boelen's python (1/2 with spinal disease), and annulated tree boa (2/6 live with unknown status) but was not detected in other python species with the same spinal lesions. This circovirus' causal or contributory role in spinal disease remains speculative and not well supported by these initial data.


Assuntos
Boidae/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus , Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Animais , Circovirus/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Hibridização In Situ/veterinária , Masculino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Serpentes/virologia
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(7): 1911-1914, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982088

RESUMO

A novel picornavirus, named "lorikeet picornavirus 1" (LoPV-1), was detected in a fecal sample from rainbow lorikeets using viral metagenomic analysis, and its complete genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The genome of LoPV-1 is 7862 nt long, including a 617-nt 5' UTR, a type IV IRES 5'UTR with an '8-like' motif, a 7032-nt polyprotein ORF, and a 213-nt 3' UTR. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise asequence comparisons based on the amino acid sequences of P1, P2, and P3 indicated that LoPV-1 showed the closest relationship to two picornaviruses that were isolated recently from red-crowned cranes and clustered together with members of the genus Avihepatovirus.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral/genética , Papagaios/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Fezes/virologia , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(4): e1006849, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978183

RESUMO

Quantitative viral outgrowth assays (QVOA) use limiting dilutions of CD4+ T cells to measure the size of the latent HIV-1 reservoir, a major obstacle to curing HIV-1. Efforts to reduce the reservoir require assays that can reliably quantify its size in blood and tissues. Although QVOA is regarded as a "gold standard" for reservoir measurement, little is known about its accuracy and precision or about how cell storage conditions or laboratory-specific practices affect results. Owing to this lack of knowledge, confidence intervals around reservoir size estimates-as well as judgments of the ability of therapeutic interventions to alter the size of the replication-competent but transcriptionally inactive latent reservoir-rely on theoretical statistical assumptions about dilution assays. To address this gap, we have carried out a Bayesian statistical analysis of QVOA reliability on 75 split samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 5 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed participants, measured using four different QVOAs at separate labs, estimating assay precision and the effect of frozen cell storage on estimated reservoir size. We found that typical assay results are expected to differ from the true value by a factor of 1.6 to 1.9 up or down. Systematic assay differences comprised a 24-fold range between the assays with highest and lowest scales, likely reflecting differences in viral outgrowth readout and input cell stimulation protocols. We also found that controlled-rate freezing and storage of samples did not cause substantial differences in QVOA compared to use of fresh cells (95% probability of < 2-fold change), supporting continued use of frozen storage to allow transport and batched analysis of samples. Finally, we simulated an early-phase clinical trial to demonstrate that batched analysis of pre- and post-therapy samples may increase power to detect a three-fold reservoir reduction by 15 to 24 percentage points.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1 , Carga Viral/métodos , Latência Viral , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Cadeias de Markov , Método de Monte Carlo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Replicação Viral
19.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180574, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970051

RESUMO

Human sapoviruses (HSaV) are considered important causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. However, knowledge of the genetic characteristics of the whole genome of HSaV in Brazil is limited. Here we report the complete genome sequences of six HSaVs GI.2 and two GI.3 strains obtained from children with acute gastroenteritis in the Northern region of Brazil. Next generation sequencing was used to obtain the full genome and molecular characterization of the genome was performed. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome was also performed. Only one complete HSaV GI.2 genome characterization in the country precedes that of the present study. This is the first complete genome sequence of genotype GI.3 in Brazil. The data obtained in this investigation can contribute to the augmentation of the database on the molecular diversity of HSaVs strains circulating in Brazil, and to the improvement of current typing protocols.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Sapovirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Brasil , Criança , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Zebrafish ; 16(3): 291-299, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939077

RESUMO

Zebrafish have been extensively used as a model system for research in vertebrate development and pathogen-host interactions. We describe the complete genome of a novel picornavirus identified during a viral metagenomics analysis of zebrafish gut tissue. The closest relatives of this virus showed identity of <20% in their P1 capsids and <36% in their RdRp qualifying zebrafish picornavirus-1 (ZfPV-1) as member of a novel genus with a proposed name of Cyprivirus. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR testing of zebrafish from North America, Europe, and Asia showed ZfPV-1 to be globally distributed, being detected in 23 of 41 (56%) institutions tested. In situ hybridization of whole zebrafish showed viral RNA was restricted to a subset of enterocytes and cells in the subjacent lamina propria of the intestine and the intestinal mucosa. This naturally occurring and apparently asymptomatic infection (in wild-type zebrafish lineage AB) provides a natural infection system to study picornavirus-host interactions in an advanced vertebrate model organism. Whether ZfPV-1 infection affects any immunological, developmental, or other biological processes in wild-type or mutant zebrafish lineages remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Peixe-Zebra , Animais
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