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1.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 3): 131963, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution has been linked with altered immune function in adults, but little is known about its effects on early life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to air pollution during prenatal and postnatal windows on cell-mediated immune function in preschoolers. METHODS: Pre-school aged children (2.9 ± 0.5 y old, n = 391) were recruited from a mother-child cohort study in Wuhan, China. We used a spatial-temporal land use regression (LUR) model to estimate exposures of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the specific trimesters of pregnancy and the first two postnatal years. We measured peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets and plasma cytokines as indicators of cellular immune function. We used multiple informant models to examine the associations of prenatal and postnatal exposures to air pollution with cell-mediated immune function. RESULTS: Prenatal exposures to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 during early pregnancy were negatively associated with %CD3+ and %CD3+CD8+ cells, and during late pregnancy were positively associated with %CD3+ cells. Postnatal exposures to these air pollutants during 1-y or 2-y childhood were positively associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and TNF-α. We also observed that the associations of prenatal or postnatal air pollution exposures with cellular immune responses varied by child's sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution during different critical windows of early life may differentially alter cellular immune responses, and these effects appear to be sex-specific.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Gravidez
2.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126683, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315024

RESUMO

Experimental studies have demonstrated that disinfection byproducts (DBPs) can cause ovarian toxicity including inhibition of antral follicle growth and disruption of steroidogenesis, but there is a paucity of human evidence. We aimed to investigate whether urinary biomarkers of exposure to drinking water DBPs were associated with ovarian reserve. The present study included 956 women attending an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China from December 2018 to January 2020. Antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume (OV), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured as indicators of ovarian reserve. Urinary dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were assessed as potential biomarkers of drinking water DBP exposures. Multivariate linear and Poisson regression models were applied to estimate the associations of urinary DCAA and TCAA concentrations with indicators of ovarian reserve. Elevated urinary DCAA and TCAA levels were monotonically associated with reduced total AFC (- 5.98%; 95% CI: - 10.30%, - 1.44% in DCAA and - 12.98%; 95% CI: - 17.00%, - 8.76% in TCAA comparing the extreme tertiles; both P for trends ≤ 0.01), and the former was only observed in right AFC but not in left AFC, whereas the latter was estimated for both right and left AFC. Moreover, elevated urinary TCAA levels were monotonically associated with decreased AMH (- 14.09%; 95% CI: - 24.79%, - 1.86% comparing the extreme tertiles; P for trend = 0.03). These negative associations were still observed for the exposure biomarkers modeled as continuous variables. Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking water DBPs may be associated with decreased ovarian reserve.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Reserva Ovariana , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção , Feminino , Humanos
3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813313

RESUMO

Disinfection byproduct (DBP) exposure has been associated with birth size, pregnancy oxidative stress, and other adverse perinatal outcomes. However, little is known about the potential effect of prenatal DBP exposure on intrauterine growth. The present study included 1516 pregnant women from the Xiaogan Disinfection By-Products (XGDBP) birth cohort who were measured for four blood trihalomethanes [i.e., chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] and two urinary haloacetic acids [i.e., dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA)] across pregnancy trimesters. Second- and third-trimester fetal ultrasound measures of the abdominal circumference (AC), head circumference, biparietal diameter, femur length, and estimated fetal weight and birth weight were converted into z-scores. After adjusting for potential confounders, linear mixed models showed a decreasing AC z-score across tertiles of blood brominated THM (Br-THMs, the sum of BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) and total THM (THM4, the sum of Br-THMs and TCM) concentrations (both p for trend <0.01). We also observed a decreasing AC z-score across categories of blood TBM during pregnancy trimesters (p for trend = 0.03). Urinary haloacetic acids were unrelated to fetal growth parameters. In summary, prenatal exposure to THMs, particularly during the first trimester, was associated with reduced fetal abdominal circumference.

5.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 1): 132464, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619260

RESUMO

Studies indicate that phthalates can disrupt spermatogenesis and lead to the reduction of semen quality. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the associations of phthalate exposures as individual chemicals and mixtures with spermatogenesis-related miRNA106a. We detected eight phthalate metabolites in repeated urine samples and a single seminal plasma specimen among 111 men from an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China. Spermatogenesis-related miRNA106a was measured in seminal plasma. We used multivariable linear regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) models to separately evaluate the associations of phthalate metabolites as individual chemicals and mixtures with spermatogenesis-related miRNA106a. Elevated tertiles of urinary mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) was associated with decreased miRNA106a (-61.71%; 95%CI: 81.92, -18.93% for the highest vs. lowest tertile; P for trend = 0.01). Similarly, an inverse exposure-response relationship between seminal plasma MEHP concentrations and miRNA106a was also observed (-59.44%; 95%CI: 79.19, -20.95% for the highest vs. lowest tertile; P for trend = 0.01). The BKMR models showed that the mixtures of seminal plasma phthalate metabolites were associated with decreased miRNA106a when the chemical mixtures were ≥35th percentile compared to their medians. Nonlinear associations with miRNA106a were estimated for urinary and seminal plasma MEHP while fixing other phthalate metabolites at their medians. Our findings suggest that mixtures of phthalate metabolites in seminal plasma were negatively associated with spermatogenesis-related miRNA106a, and individual MEHP was the major contributor to the adverse effects.

6.
Environ Int ; 157: 106838, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxicological studies suggest that maternal exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) can impair fetal neurodevelopment. However, evidence from epidemiological studies is scarce and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the trimester-specific associations between maternal blood trihalomethane (THM) and urinary haloacetic acid (HAA) concentrations and neonatal neurobehavioral development, and the potential mediating role of oxidative stress (OS). METHODS: We included 438 pregnant Chinese women from the Xiaogan Disinfection By-Products (XGDBP) birth cohort. Biospecimens were repeatedly collected across trimesters and measured for blood THMs, urinary HAAs, and urinary OS biomarker concentrations. On the third day after birth, the Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) test was administered to newborns. Associations of trimester-specific DBP measurements and OS biomarkers with neonatal NBNA scores were assessed using linear regression models with generalized estimating equations. The potential mediating role of maternal OS biomarkers was also investigated using mediation analyses. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, blood bromodichloromethane (BDCM) concentrations in the first trimester were inversely associated with NBNA scores [percent change comparing the extreme BDCM tertiles = -28.1% (95% CI: -55.2%, -0.88%); p for trend = 0.043]. Besides, third-trimester urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) concentrations were inversely associated with NBNA scores [percent change comparing the extreme TCAA tertiles = -32.9% (95% CI: -64.7%, -1.0%); p for trend = 0.046]. These inverse associations differed across pregnancy trimesters (Type 3p-value = 0.066 and 0.053, respectively) and were stronger in male infants and mothers aged ≥25 years. There was no evidence of mediating effect by 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA), or 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α). CONCLUSIONS: Higher prenatal BDCM and TCAA concentrations during specific pregnancy trimesters were associated with lower NBNA scores. However, additional research is required to investigate underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Exposição Materna , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Trimestres da Gravidez , Ácido Tricloroacético , Trialometanos/toxicidade
7.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117386, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051689

RESUMO

Studies have documented that exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is linked with breast cancer, but the underlying biological mechanisms are still unknown. This study included 313 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 313 controls in Wuhan, China, and measured 18 OCPs in serum and 3 oxidative stress biomarkers in urine. Multivariable adjusted regression models were used to evaluate the associations among OCPs, oxidative stress biomarkers, and breast cancer. The mediating effect of oxidative stress was assessed by mediation analysis. We observed that most OCPs were positively associated with risk of breast cancer (all FDR-P values < 0.05 or 0.10). Moreover, we found that p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, dieldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide were positively associated with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α), which in turn were positively associated with risk of breast cancer. Mediation analysis indicated that HNE-MA and 8-isoPGF2ɑ mediated the positive associations between these OCPs and risk of breast cancer, with mediating proportion ranging from 6.23% to 19.9%. Our results suggest that lipid peroxidation may mediate the positive associations between OCP exposures and risk of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Praguicidas , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Praguicidas/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147184, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with various adverse health outcomes. Recently, an increasing concern on its alternatives such as bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) has been aroused due to the restriction use of BPA. Few studies have identified predictors of exposure to BPA alternatives and assessed their health risks. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of BPA and its alternatives and to assess their health risks among pregnant women. METHODS: We detected first morning urinary concentrations of BPA and its alternatives (BPS and BPF) among 1097 pregnant women from an established Chinese cohort. A questionnaire was conducted to obtain demographic characteristics, dietary habits, and lifestyles. We examined the predictors of creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA and its alternatives concentrations using multivariable linear regression. Risk assessment of exposure to BPA and its alternatives was calculated based on the estimated of daily intake (EDI). RESULTS: Geometric means of creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS were 0.92, 0.12, and 0.08 µg/g creatinine, respectively. Pregnant women from Wuhan had lower concentrations of BPA, BPF, and ∑BPs (sum of BPA, BPF, and BPS) than those from Xiaogan. Intake of fried food was related to higher concentrations of BPA, and intake of pickled food was associated with higher concentrations of BPF and ∑BPs. The maximum EDI values for exposure to BPA, BPF, BPS, and ∑BPs ranged from 5.6428 to 13.3356 nmol/kg body weight/day, which were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for BPA defined by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (18 nmol/kg body weight/day). The maximum hazard index (HI) value was 0.7409. CONCLUSION: Several predictors identified in this study may inform public recommendations to reduce exposure to BPA and its alternatives.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Gestantes , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Fenóis , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
9.
Environ Int ; 146: 106305, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) can cause detrimental effects on fetal growth. However, the effects of BPA alternatives, such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS), on fetal growth are less known. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships of prenatal BPA, BPF, and BPS exposures with fetal growth parameters and gestational age. METHODS: Urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS were measured in 1,197 pregnant women before delivery in a Chinese cohort. The associations of prenatal exposure to BPA, BPF, and BPS with fetal growth parameters and gestational age were examined, and associations stratified by fetal sex were also conducted. We used a restricted cubic splines (RCS) model to examine the dose-response associations between exposures and outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal urinary BPA and BPF were negatively related to birth length (-0.30 cm, 95% CI: -0.44, -0.15 and -0.21 cm, 95% CI: -0.36, -0.07 comparing the extreme exposure groups, respectively, both p for trends < 0.01). These associations were more pronounced in girls with inverted U-shaped dose-response relationships. Maternal urinary BPA and BPF were positively related to ponderal index (0.05 g/cm3 × 100, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.09 and 0.04 g/cm3 × 100, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08 comparing the extreme exposure groups, respectively, both p for trends = 0.02), and maternal urinary BPS was associated with shorter gestational age (-0.20 weeks, 95% CI: -0.37, -0.03 comparing the extreme exposure groups, p for trend = 0.02). These associations were only observed in girls and exhibited a linear dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal BPA, BPF, and BPS exposures were associated with detrimental effects on fetal growth parameters, and stronger effects were noted in female infants.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenóis , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
10.
Environ Pollut ; 272: 116416, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433341

RESUMO

Prior human studies have explored effects of phthalate exposures on thyroid function, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain poorly unclear. We aimed to explore the associations between phthalate exposures and thyroid function among a potentially susceptible population such as patients with thyroid nodules, and further to assess the mediating role of oxidative stress. We measured eight phthalate metabolites, three oxidative stress biomarkers [8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)] in urine and three thyroid function biomarkers [thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4)] in serum among 214 patients with thyroid nodules. Multivariate regression models were applied to assess the associations among urinary phthalate metabolites, oxidative stress and thyroid function biomarkers. The potential mediating role of oxidative stress was explored by mediation analysis. We observed that multiple urinary phthalate metabolites were associated with altered FT4 and increased oxidative stress biomarkers (all FDR-adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Meanwhile, we found that 8-isoPGF2α was negatively associated with FT3/FT4 among patients with benign thyroid nodules (FDR-adjusted P = 0.08). The mediation analysis indicated that 8-isoPGF2α mediated the associations of urinary MEHHP and %MEHP with FT3/FT4, with 55.6% and 32.6% proportion of the mediating effects, respectively. Our data suggest that lipid peroxidation may be an intermediate mechanism involved in the effects of certain phthalate exposures on altered thyroid function among patients with benign thyroid nodules.


Assuntos
Ácidos Ftálicos , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111694, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396025

RESUMO

Experimental studies have shown that nonradioactive strontium (Sr), in the form of Sr2+, have a positive effect on semen quality, but human evidence is lacking. This study aimed to examine the associations between nonradioactive Sr exposure and semen quality in Chinese men (n = 394). We recruited men who presented at an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China to seek for semen parameter analyses. Urinary Sr concentration as an exposure biomarker was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. We estimated the associations between urinary Sr concentrations and semen parameters using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. In multivariable linear regressions models, positive dose-response associations were estimated for sperm concentration, motility, and count across increasing urinary Sr quartiles (all p for trends<0.05), and the consistent positive associations were also observed for urinary Sr concentration modeled as a continuous exposure. In multivariable logistic models, decreased risks of below-reference sperm concentration, motility, and count were also estimated across increasing urinary Sr quartiles (all p for trends<0.05). Our results suggest that nonradioactive Sr exposure may have a beneficial effect on semen quality, but more investigations are warranted to confirm the results.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Análise do Sêmen , Estrôncio/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Clínicas de Fertilização , Humanos , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/citologia
12.
Chemosphere ; 268: 128856, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189401

RESUMO

Toxicological and epidemiologic evidence has suggested that exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) impairs semen quality, while the underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of oxidative stress in association between DBP exposure and semen quality. We measured a urinary biomarker of DBP exposure [trichloroacetic acid (TCAA)] and three urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress [8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)] among men from an infertility clinic (n = 299). The associations of oxidative stress biomarkers with urinary TCAA and semen quality were evaluated using multivariable linear regression models, and the mediating role of oxidative stress biomarkers was assessed by a mediation analysis. Urinary TCAA was positively associated with urinary 8-OHdG and 8-isoPGF2α in a dose-response manner (both P for trend < 0.001). Significantly inverse dose-response associations were observed between urinary 8-isoPGF2α and sperm concentration and between urinary 8-OHdG and sperm motility (both P for trend < 0.05). The mediation analysis indicated a significant indirect effect of urinary 8-isoPGF2α in the association between urinary TCAA and decreased sperm concentration (P = 0.01). Our results suggest that lipid peroxidation may be an intermediate mechanism by which DBP exposure impairs semen quality.


Assuntos
Clínicas de Fertilização , Análise do Sêmen , Biomarcadores , Desinfecção , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Estresse Oxidativo , Motilidade Espermática
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 736: 139695, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497885

RESUMO

Nitrosamines, as a class of emerging frequently detected nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) in drinking water, have gained increasing attention due to their potentially high health risk. Few studies focus on the occurrence variation and carcinogenic health risk of nitrosamines in drinking water systems. Our study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of nitrosamines in a drinking water system and to conduct a carcinogenic health risk assessment. Three types of water samples, including influent water, treated water and tap water, were collected monthly during an entire year in a drinking water system utilizing a combination of chlorine dioxide and chlorine in central China, and 9 nitrosamines were measured. The nitrosamine formation potentials (FPs) in influent water were also determined. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was the most prevalent compound and was dominant in the water samples with average concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 67.4 ng/L, followed by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosopiperidine (NPIP). Nitrosamine occurrence varied monthly, and significant seasonal differences were observed in tap water (p < .05). There were decreasing mean NDMA, NDEA and NPIP concentrations from influent water to treated water to tap water, but no significant spatial variability was observed within the water distribution system (p > .05). The average and 95th percentile total lifetime cancer risks for the three main nitrosamines were 4.83 × 10-5 and 4.48 × 10-4, respectively, exceeding the negligible risk level (10-6) proposed by the USEPA. Exposure to nitrosamines in drinking water posed a higher cancer risk for children than for adults, and children aged 0.75 to 1 years suffered the highest cancer risk. These results suggest that nitrosamine occurrence in tap water varied temporally but not spatially. Exposure to drinking water nitrosamines may pose a carcinogenic risk to human health, especially to children.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Nitrosaminas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Criança , China , Humanos , Lactente , Medição de Risco
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139834, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531598

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have suggested that phthalate exposures were associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, such as low oocyte yield and reduced embryo quality, but the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. Oxidative stress may be a potential contributor to phthalate-induced adverse reproductive outcomes. To explore the associations between phthalate exposure and levels of oxidative stress among women seeking in vitro fertilization (IVF), we measured the concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress, including 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), in follicular fluid (FF) samples collected from 332 women. Multivariable linear regression models were used to assess the associations between phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress in FF samples. The concentrations of most tested phthalate metabolites were positively associated with the 8-OHdG levels. The metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were inversely associated with the TAC levels. The concentrations of mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were positively associated with the MDA levels. Our results revealed a positive association between phthalate metabolites and oxidative stress levels in FF, while more toxicological and epidemiological studies are required to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Ácidos Ftálicos , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Líquido Folicular , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125805, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to affect normal fetal growth, but human evidence on its analogues (BPF and BPS) is limited. OBJECT: To examine the associations between prenatal exposure to BPA and its analogues (BPF and BPS) and ultrasound parameters of fetal growth. METHODS: We measured urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS concentrations among 322 pregnant women during late pregnancy from a cohort study in Wuhan, China. Fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), femur length (FL), and abdominal circumference (AC) were measured by ultrasonography. The associations of maternal urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS concentrations with ultrasound parameters of fetal growth were estimated by multivariable adjusted models. RESULTS: We observed a gender difference in association of maternal urinary BPA concentrations and fetal HC (P for interaction = 0.003); each ln-unit increase in maternal urinary BPA concentration was associated with a mean decrease of 0.10 cm (95%CI: 0.18, -0.02) among boys and a mean increase of 0.14 cm (95%CI: 0.00, 0.28) among girls for HC. The associations were robust for urinary BPA concentrations modeled as tertiles or including urinary BPA, BPF, and BPS into mutual adjustment models. We did not observe robust associations between maternal urinary BPF and BPS concentrations and ultrasound parameters of fetal growth, though an inverse association with AC and a positive association with FL were estimated for maternal urinary BPF concentrations modeled as continuous variables. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to BPA but not BPF and BPS was sex-specifically associated with certain fetal growth parameters.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , China , Estudos de Coortes , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenóis/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ultrassonografia , Vitaminas
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121189, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541958

RESUMO

Phthalates have been reported to affect the function and growth of thyroid. However, there is little data on the effect of phthalates on thyroid oncogenesis. Here we explored the associations between phthalates exposure and the risks of thyroid cancer and benign nodule. We sex-matched 144 thyroid cancer, 138 benign nodule patients and 144 healthy adults from Wuhan, China. Eight phthalate metabolites in spot urine samples were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of creatinine-corrected urinary phthalate metabolites with the risks of thyroid cancer and benign nodule were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. We found that urinary monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono(2-ethyl-5hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) associated with increased risks of thyroid cancer and nodule, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.74 to 4.78 comparing the extreme tertiles, and urinary monobutyl phthalate (MBP) was associated with decreased risks of thyroid cancer and benign nodule (all P for trends < 0.05). Male-specific positive associations of urinary monoethyl phthalate (MEP) with thyroid cancer and nodule as well as urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) with thyroid cancer were also observed. Our results suggest that exposure to certain phthalates may contribute to increased risks of thyroid cancer and benign nodule.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Adulto , Biomarcadores , China/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt A): 108778, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence from animals indicates that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the effects of phthalate exposure on male reproductive dysfunctions, which has never been thoroughly explored in humans. OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential mediating role of oxidative stress in the association of phthalate exposure with semen quality among 1034 Chinese men. METHOD: Repeated urine samples gathered from the male partners of sub-fertile couples were analyzed for 3 oxidative stress markers [8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)], using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariate regression models were constructed to evaluate the associations of urinary oxidative stress markers with urinary phthalate metabolites and semen quality. We also explored the potential mediation effects by oxidative stress markers. RESULTS: Significantly positive dose-dependent relationships were observed between each individual phthalate metabolite and all analyzed oxidative stress markers (all p for trend<0.05), except for monoethyl phthalate (MEP) in relation to HNE-MA. Additionally, significantly or suggestively inverse dose-dependent relationships were exhibited between urinary 8-isoPGF2α and sperm concentration (p for trend = 0.05), and between urinary 8-OHdG and percent of normal sperm morphology (p for trend = 0.01). Mediation analysis showed that urinary 8-isoPGF2α suggestively mediated 12% of the inverse association between monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and sperm concentration, and that urinary 8-OHdG suggestively mediated 32% of the inverse association of MEP with percent of normal sperm morphology (both p < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Although further investigations are required, our results suggest that oxidative stress may play a mediating role in the effects of phthalate exposure on impaired semen quality.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Animais , China , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Reprodução , Contagem de Espermatozoides
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(20): 12026-12034, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525872

RESUMO

The effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on adverse birth outcomes remain unsettled. Maternal genetic variants in relation to DBP metabolism may modify this effect. Pregnant women during late pregnancy (n = 1306) were included from a Chinese cohort. Maternal urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was measured as a biomarker of DBP exposure. Maternal genotyping was conducted in cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1; rs2031920, rs3813867, and rs915906) and glutathione S-transferase zeta-1 (GSTZ1; rs7975). The associations between maternal urinary TCAA and birth outcomes and statistical interactions between maternal exposure and genetic polymorphisms were estimated. We found that maternal urinary TCAA levels were associated with decreased birth weight (P for trend = 0.003) and ponderal index (P for trend = 0.004). Interaction analyses showed that maternal urinary TCAA in association with decreased birth weight was observed only among subjects with CYP2E1 rs3813867 GC/CC versus GG (Pint = 0.07) and associations with decreased birth length, ponderal index, and gestational age were observed only among subjects with GSTZ1 rs7975 GA/AA versus GG (Pint = 0.07, 0.02, and 0.02, respectively). Our results suggested that prenatal DBP exposure was negatively associated with birth weight and ponderal index, and maternal genetic polymorphisms in CYP2E1 and GSTZ1 might modify these associations.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1 , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Biomarcadores , Peso ao Nascer , Desinfecção , Feminino , Glutationa Transferase , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Polimorfismo Genético , Gravidez , Trialometanos
19.
Environ Res ; 170: 128-133, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been shown to be reproductive and developmental toxicity. However, few studies examine the effect of prenatal exposure to DBPs on fetal growth via ultrasound measures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between maternal exposure to DBPs during late pregnancy and ultrasound measures of fetal growth. METHODS: We included 332 pregnant women who presented to a hospital to wait for delivery in Wuhan, China. Ultrasound parameters of fetal growth including femur length (FL), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were assessed. We measured maternal TCAA concentrations in first morning urine collected from late pregnancy as a biomarker of in utero DBP exposure levels. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the associations between maternal urinary TCAA concentrations during late pregnancy and ultrasound parameters of fetal growth. RESULTS: We found that elevated maternal creatinine (Cr)-adjusted urinary TCAA levels had negative associations with BPD, HC and FL in boys but not in girls (P interaction = 0.04, 0.05 and 0.08, respectively). Male fetal BPD, HC and FL had decreases of 0.21 cm (95% CI: -0.35, -0.07; P for trend = 0.003), 0.46 cm (95% CI: -0.81, -0.10; P for trend = 0.01) and 0.17 cm (95% CI: -0.30, -0.04; P for trend = 0.01) for the highest vs. lowest tertile of Cr-adjusted urinary TCAA, respectively. These negative associations persisted for maternal Cr-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations modeled as continuous variables. CONCLUSION: The results from our study suggest that maternal exposure to TCAA during late pregnancy may have adverse effects on male fetal growth.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Desinfecção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Ácido Tricloroacético/urina , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
20.
Environ Int ; 123: 301-309, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) are increasingly used as alternatives to endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA). Evidence from in vitro and animal studies demonstrates that BPA, BPF and BPS induce oxidative stress, a proposed mechanism that is relevant to various adverse health effects. Evaluation in humans is hampered by the potentially high within-subject variability of urinary measurements. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the variability and associations of levels of BPA, BPS, BPF and 3 oxidative stress markers [i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-mercapturic acid (HNE-MA)] in urine collected on multiple occasions over 3 months. METHOD: A total of 529 spot urine samples, including 88 first morning voids (FMVs) and 24-h specimens, were gathered from 11 adult men on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for BPA, BPF, BPS, 8-OHdG, 8-isoPGF2α and HNE-MA. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated to characterize the reproducibility of urinary bisphenols and oxidative stress markers, and linear mixed models were applied to assess the associations between markers of exposure and response. RESULTS: BPA and BPF were detected in ≥85% of the spot samples, while BPS in 13% of the samples. High degrees of within-subject variability were found for BPA, BPF, 8-OHdG, 8-isoPGF2α and HNE-MA in spot samples, FMVs and 24-h specimens (creatinine-corrected ICCs ≤ 0.37). The sensitivities were low-to-moderate (0.30-0.63) when using single spot samples or FMVs to predict high (>27th, or 36th percentile) 3-month average urinary levels of BPA, BPF, 8-OHdG, 8-isoPGF2α and HNE-MA. Collecting repeated specimens at different time points improved the accuracy of classification for markers of exposure and response. Elevated urinary BPA and BPF were associated with significantly higher levels of oxidative stress markers. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated urinary specimens are required to characterize bisphenol exposure levels and the oxidative stress status of individuals. Exposure to BPA and BPF may partly contribute to the elevated urinary levels of oxidative stress makers in adult men.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/urina , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis/urina , Sulfonas/urina , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Animais , Variação Biológica Individual , Biomarcadores/urina , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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