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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268476, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648790

RESUMO

Agriculture faces a contradiction between sustainable resource utilization and maintaining market competitiveness. As a major agricultural product, the sustainability and competitiveness of the apple industry have become important topics. This study analyzes the competitiveness of China's apple industry and the factors affecting it. Using 2004 and 2018 data for eight Chinese provinces, principal component analysis and spatial autocorrelation are used to examine competitiveness in terms of five aspects: market, production, technology, organization, and environment. The results indicate that Shandong, Shaanxi, and Gansu were the most competitive during the study period while Hebei, Henan, and Ningxia lagged behind. Regional differences are obvious, with Shandong in particular showing a clear competitive advantage. Although no spatial agglomeration is observed in China's apple industry, with ongoing industrial development, local spatial correlations in the five aspects of competitiveness in the eight provinces have been increasing and gradually stabilizing. This study's findings suggest that improved scientific production, reasonable capital investment, and an established industrial chain are needed to promote local agriculture, economic development, and the central role of the apple industry.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Desenvolvimento Industrial
2.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587727

RESUMO

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has been widely used in quantifying bacterial and fungal populations in various ecosystems, as well as the fungi to bacteria ratio (F:B ratio). Recently, researchers have begun to apply droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to this area; however, no study has systematically compared qPCR and ddPCR for quantitating both bacteria and fungi in environmental samples at the same time. Here, we designed probe-primer pair combinations targeting the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for the detection of bacteria and fungi, respectively, and tested both SYBR Green and TaqMan approaches in qPCR and ddPCR methods for mock communities and in real environmental samples. In mock communities, the quantification results of ddPCR were significantly closer to expected values (p < .05), and had smaller coefficients of variations (p < .05) than qPCR, suggesting ddPCR was more accurate and repeatable. In environmental samples, ddPCR consistently quantified ITS and 16S rRNA gene concentrations in all four habitats without abnormal overestimation or underestimation, and the F:B ratio obtained by ddPCR was consistent with phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Our results indicated that ddPCR had better precision, repeatability, sensitivity, and stability in bacterial and fungal quantitation than qPCR. Although ddPCR has high cost, complicated processes and restricted detection range, it shows insensitivity to PCR inhibitors and the potential of quantifying long target fragments. We expect that ddPCR, which is complementary to qPCR, will contribute to microbial quantification in environmental monitoring and evaluation.

3.
Front Neurol ; 13: 860083, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547390

RESUMO

Background: Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is severe relapsing and disabling autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Its optimal first-line treatment to reduce relapse rate and ameliorate neurological disability remains unclear. We will conduct a prospective, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to study the safety and effectiveness of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) in treating NMOSD. Methods: The trial is planned to recruit 430 AQP4-IgG seropositive NMOSD patients. It consists of three consecutive stages. The first stage will be carried out in the leading center only and aims to evaluate the safety of hUC-MSCs. Patients will be treated with three different doses of hUC-MSCs: 1, 2, or 5 × 106 MSC/kg·weight for the low-, medium-, and high-dose group, respectively. The second and third stages will be carried out in six centers. The second stage aims to find the optimal dosage. Patients will be 1:1:1:1 randomized into the low-, medium-, high-dose group and the controlled group. The third stage aims to evaluate the effectiveness. Patients will be 1:1 randomized into the optimal dose and the controlled group. The primary endpoint is the first recurrent time and secondary endpoints are the recurrent times, EDSS scores, MRI lesion numbers, OSIS scores, Hauser walking index, and SF-36 scores. Endpoint events and side effects will be evaluated every 3 months for 2 years. Discussion: Although hUC-MSC has shown promising treatment effects of NMOSD in preclinical studies, there is still a lack of well-designed clinical trials to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of hUC-MSC among NMOSD patients. As far as we know, this trial will be the first one to systematically demonstrate the clinical safety and efficacy of hUC-MSC in treating NMOSD and might be able to determine the optimal dose of hUC-MSC for NMOSD patients. Trial registration: The study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (CHICTR.org.cn) on 2 March 2016 (registration No. ChiCTR-INR-16008037), and the revised trial protocol (Protocol version 1.2.1) was released on 16 March 2020.

4.
Microb Ecol ; 2022 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364696

RESUMO

Soil microbes assemble in highly complex and diverse microbial communities, and microbial diversity patterns and their drivers have been studied extensively. However, diversity correlations and co-occurrence patterns between bacterial, fungal, and archaeal domains and between microbial functional groups in arid regions remain poorly understood. Here we assessed the relationships between the diversity and abundance of bacteria, fungi, and archaea and explored how environmental factors influence these relationships. We sampled soil along a 1500-km-long aridity gradient in temperate grasslands of Inner Mongolia (China) and sequenced the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea and the ITS2 gene of fungi. The diversity correlations and co-occurrence patterns between bacterial, fungal, and archaeal domains and between different microbial functional groups were evaluated using α-diversity and co-occurrence networks based on microbial abundance. Our results indicate insignificant correlations among the diversity patterns of bacterial, fungal, and archaeal domains using α-diversity but mostly positive correlations among diversity patterns of microbial functional groups based on α-diversity and co-occurrence networks along the aridity gradient. These results suggest that studying microbial diversity patterns from the perspective of functional groups and co-occurrence networks can provide additional insights on patterns that cannot be accessed using only overall microbial α-diversity. Increase in aridity weakens the diversity correlations between bacteria and fungi and between bacterial and archaeal functional groups, but strengthens the positive diversity correlations between bacterial functional groups and between fungal functional groups and the negative diversity correlations between bacterial and fungal functional groups. These variations of the diversity correlations are associated with the different responses of microbes to environmental factors, especially aridity. Our findings demonstrate the complex responses of microbial community structure to environmental conditions (especially aridity) and suggest that understanding diversity correlations and co-occurrence patterns between soil microbial groups is essential for predicting changes in microbial communities under future climate change in arid regions.

5.
Environ Res ; 212(Pt B): 113298, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35430281

RESUMO

Fungi could play an important role during anaerobic digestion (AD), but have received less attention than prokaryotes. Here, AD bioreactors of food waste were performed to explore fungal succession and their potential ecological and engineering value. We found that similar patterns in fungal biomass and diversity, decreasing from the initial time point (Day 0) to the lowest value within 3-6 days and then started to rise and stabilized between 9 and 42 days. Throughout the entire AD process, variations in fungal community composition were observed and dominant fungal taxa have the potential ability to degrade complex organic matter and alleviate fatty acid and ammonia accumulation. Furthermore, we found that deterministic processes gradually dominated fungal assembly succession (up to 84.85% at the final stage), suggesting changing environmental status responsible for fungal community dynamics and specifically, fungal community structure, diversity and biomass were regulated by different environmental variables or the same variables with opposite effects. AD bioreactors could directionally select specific fungal taxa over time, but some highly abundant fungi could not be mapped to any fungal species with defined function in the reference database, so function prediction relying on PICRUSt2 may underestimate fungal function in AD systems. Collectively, our study confirmed fungi have important ecological and engineering values in AD systems.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Metano
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 435: 128985, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483268

RESUMO

The propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environments has evoked many attentions, however, how to identify their host pathogenic bacteria in situ remains a great challenge. Here we explored the bacterial host distribution and dissemination of a typical ARG, sul1 gene, in agricultural soils through the simultaneous detection of sul1 and its host 16S rRNA gene by emulsion paired isolation and concatenation PCR (epicPCR). Compared to chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer (chicken manure) led to a higher prevalence of sul1 gene in the soil, and dominant bacterial hosts of sul1 gene were classified into Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. Additionally, significant higher diversity of antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB), higher rate of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), higher rate of mobile genetic elements (MGE) and higher proportion of pathogens were all observed in the treatment of organic fertilizer. This study alerts potential health risks of manure applications in agricultural soils.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Esterco , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fertilizantes/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(2): 274-280, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332729

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the differences of oral mycobiome and bacteriome between the healthy controls (H) and oral lichen planus (OLP) patients, and the co-occurrence patterns of the salivary mycobiome and bacteriome and the association with host immunity. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from clinical OLP patients (n=35) and healthy volunteers (n=18). Microbiome DNA was extracted for bacterial 16S rRNA genes sequencing and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequencing. Bioinformatics analysis was performed on the data.The levels of IL-17 and IL-23, two pro-inflammatory cytokines, in the saliva were examined, and their correlation with the bacteria was analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference in the overall community structure of the mycobiome and the bacteriome between OLP patients and healthy controls. The abundance of Prevotellaand Solobacterium in the saliva bacteriome was significantly increased in the OLP group (P<0.05), and the relative abundance of Candidaand Aspergillusin the saliva mycobiome was also significantly increased (P<0.05). The co-occurrence pattern of the salivary mycobiome and bacteriome showed that the aforementioned difference was not related. However, the correlation between Aspergillusand bacteria was altered in the H group and the OLP group, and co-occurrence was reduced in the latter group. The level of IL-17 in the saliva was significantly increased in the OLP group. IL-17 and clinical scores were significantly correlated with the abundance of Porphyromonas. Conclusion: The increased abundance of Prevotella, Solobacterium, Candida, and Aspergillus was associated with the pathogenesis of OLP, and the changes of the microbiome co-occurrence relationship and host immunity may be involved in the pathogenesis of OLP.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal , Micobioma , Bactérias/genética , Humanos , Líquen Plano Bucal/genética , Líquen Plano Bucal/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Saliva
8.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 801083, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35283849

RESUMO

Global warming is likely to affect the underground microbial communities in various ecosystems, but the response of soil microbial communities along a vertical depth profile to global warming has been elusive. Herein, we leveraged a warming field experiment in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grassland and investigated the community structure of prokaryotes and fungi from the upper (0-15 cm) and lower (15-30 cm) strata under ambient and elevated temperature treatments. Three-years continual warming only significantly shifted the prokaryotic community within the upper strata and there was no significant effect observed for the fungal community. Additionally, under ambient temperature, there were significant differences between the two strata in both the prokaryotic and fungal communities, but under warming, this effect was alleviated. Next, the prokaryotic and fungal community assembly processes were measured by a phylogenetic-bin-based null approach (iCAMP). Though deterministic and stochastic processes dominated the assembly of prokaryotic and fungal communities, respectively, the deterministic processes were strengthened under warming for both communities. Specifically, the increased portion of homogeneous selection, contributing to a homogenous state, led to a smaller difference between prokaryotic communities of the two soil strata under warming. The smaller difference in the stochastic process component, i.e., dispersal limitation, contributed to the similar fungal community structures between the two strata under warming. This study deepens our understanding of warming effects on grassland microbial communities and gives greater insights on the underlying mechanisms for microbial assembly between upper and lower soil strata under warming scenarios.

9.
Sci Total Environ ; 827: 154285, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248637

RESUMO

Although autotrophic phytoplankton and heterotrophic zooplankton both play important roles in the food web of marine ecosystem, their comprehensive interactions and spatial patterns at continental scale remain poorly studied. Here, we collected 251 seawater samples along 13,000 km of Chinese coastline, and microscopically investigated the latitudinal gradients of planktonic diversities. In total, 307 phytoplanktonic and 311 zooplanktonic species were visually identified. Using the newly developed Inter-Domain Ecological Networks (IDENs) approach, the phytoplankton-zooplankton interaction networks were constructed. We found that the phyto-zooplankton network structure was varied across three regions, more complex and numerous connections along the southern coast than in the north. In addition, some particular associations between zooplanktonic and phytoplanktonic groups were found to be localized in specific regions. Furthermore, the seawater temperature and salinity were the major driving force for shaping planktonic interaction networks. These results provide a deeper understanding of planktonic biogeography and phytoplankton-zooplankton interaction patterns.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton , Zooplâncton , Animais , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Plâncton
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 822: 153539, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104532

RESUMO

The levels of organic pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are increasing worldwide, yet we lack clarity on how these pollutants affect microbial communities of different trophic levels, including protists, fungi, and bacteria. Herein, we conducted soil microcosm incubation experiments to investigate the effects of pyrene, a typical PAH, on microbial communities along concentration gradients from 0 to 500 mg kg-1 soil. Protistan communities were more sensitive to pollutants than fungal and bacterial communities, and protistan consumers and phototrophs were the dominant trophic functional groups. In addition, by assessing changes in the diversity and structure of the soil microbiome and ecological networks, we found that the microbial communities, including the protistan community and the two trophic communities composed of protists and their prey, were destabilized with increasing stress and pyrene concentrations. We identified links and complicated relationships between phototrophs, bacteria, and consumers in food webs, which explain the importance of protists in stabilizing the microbial community. Collectively, our work provides novel evidence that protists are considerably sensitive to pollution stress, and caution should be exercised in future evaluations of the protistan and multitrophic communities in polluted soil ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Bactérias , Fungos , Pirenos/toxicidade , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
Ecol Appl ; : e2575, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191122

RESUMO

Ecological restoration is essential to reverse land degradation worldwide. Most studies have assessed the restoration of ecosystem functions individually, as opposed to a holistic view. Here we developed a network-based ecosystem multifunctionality (EMF) framework to identify key functions in evaluating EMF restoration. Through synthesizing 293 restoration studies (2900 observations) following cropland abandonment, we found that individual soil functions played different roles in determining the restoration of belowground EMF. Soil carbon, total nitrogen, and phosphatase were key functions to predict the recovery of belowground EMF. On average, abandoned cropland recovered ~19% of EMF during 18 years. The restoration of EMF became larger with longer recovery time and higher humidity index, but lower with increasing soil depth and initial soil carbon. Overall, this study presents a network-based EMF framework, effectively helping to evaluate the success of ecosystem restoration and identify the key functions.

12.
Environ Microbiol ; 24(1): 179-194, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750948

RESUMO

Understanding biogeographical patterns and underlying processes of belowground community assembly is crucial for predicting soil functions and their responses to global environmental change. However, little is known about potential differences of belowground community assembly among bacteria, fungi, protists and soil animals, particularly for alpine ecosystems. Based on the combination of large-scale field sampling, high-throughput marker-gene sequencing and multiple statistical analyses, we explored patterns and drivers of belowground community assembly in alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau. Our results revealed that the distance-decay rates varied among trophic levels, with organisms of higher trophic level having weaker distance-decay pattern. The spatial and environmental variables explained limited variations of belowground communities. By contrast, the stochastic processes, mainly consisting of dispersal limitation and drift, played a primary role in regulating belowground community assembly. Moreover, the relative importance of stochastic processes varied among trophic levels, with the role of dispersal limitation weakening whereas that of drift enhancing in the order of bacteria, fungi, protists and soil animals. These findings advance our understanding of patterns and mechanisms driving belowground community assembly in alpine ecosystems and provide a reference basis for predicting the dynamics of ecosystem functions under changing environment.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Pradaria , Animais , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Processos Estocásticos , Tibet
13.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112143, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600881

RESUMO

Although fungi are regarded as the important degraders of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in various environments, the dynamic succession and interaction of their community under aromatic hydrocarbon stress has been rarely reported. In this study, we systematically investigated the responses of the fungal community and the associations among fungal species when facing the continuous stress of two typical AHs, benzene and naphthalene. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we demonstrated that fungal diversity displayed a significant downward trend during six weeks of continuous aromatic hydrocarbon treatment. Community succession was observed during the operational period, and the relative abundance of some typical degraders, such as Exophiala sp. and Candida sp., increased during the later period of operation. Meanwhile, by predicting the functions of the fungal community through PICRUSt2, we found that some relevant enzymes, such as peroxidase, dioxygenase, and monooxygenase, may play an important role in the degradation process and maintaining overall community multifunctionality. Furthermore, the measurement of modified normalized stochasticity ratio (MST) indicated that continuous aromatic hydrocarbon stress resulted in a stronger deterministic process in community assembly over time, suggesting environmental selection dominated succession of the fungal community in activated sludge. Finally, molecular ecological network analysis (MENA) demonstrated that, the cooperative behaviors among members, the network keystone genera related to biodegradation, such as Exophiala sp. and Haglerozyma sp., and a well-organized topological structure, together, maintained the structural stability of the fungal community under AH stress. Our study provides new insights for understanding the stability of fungal communities during the degradation of contaminants in activated sludge.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Micobioma , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fungos , Esgotos
14.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 745582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950114

RESUMO

The relationship between plants and their associated soil microbial communities plays a crucial role in maintaining ecosystem processes and function. However, identifying these complex relationships is challenging. In this study, we constructed an interdomain ecology network (IDEN) of plant-bacteria based on SparCC pairwise associations using synchronous aboveground plant surveys and belowground microbial 16S rRNA sequencing among four different natural forest types along the climate zones in China. The results found that a total of 48 plants were associated with soil bacteria among these four sites, and soil microbial group associations with specific plant species existed within the observed plant-bacteria coexistence network. Only 0.54% of operational taxonomy units (OTUs) was shared by the four sites, and the proportion of unique OTUs for each site ranged from 43.08 to 76.28%, which occupied a large proportion of soil bacterial community composition. The plant-bacteria network had a distinct modular structure (p < 0.001). The tree Acer tetramerum was identified as the network hubs in the warm temperate coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests coexistence network and indicates that it may play a key role in stabilizing of the community structure of these forest ecosystems. Therefore, IDEN of plant-bacteria provides a novel perspective for exploring the relationships of interdomain species, and this study provides valuable insights into understanding coexistence between above-ground plants and below-ground microorganisms.

15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(10): 3425-3438, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708602

RESUMO

The facultative anaerobic and strict anaerobic microorganisms enriched and acclimated during the anaerobic digestion process are crucial for the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion system. Most of the problems encountered during running anaerobic digestion processes could be effectively improved via stimulation of microbial metabolic activity. Benefited from the rapid development of microbiome techniques, deeper insights into the microbial diversity in anaerobic digestion systems, e.g. the microbe-microbe interactions and microbe-environment interactions, have been gained. A complex and intricate metabolic network exists in the anaerobic digestion system of solid organic wastes. However, little is known about these interactions and the underlying mechanisms. This review briefly summarized the representative interactions between microbial communities during anaerobic digestion process discovered to date. In addition, typical issues encountered during the anaerobic digestion of solid organic wastes and how microbes can tackle and alleviate these issues were discussed. Finally, future priorities on microbiome research were proposed based on present contribution of microbiome analysis in anaerobic digestion system.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Interações Microbianas
16.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576824

RESUMO

Changes in species composition across communities, i.e., ß-diversity, is a central focus of ecology. Compared to macroorganisms, the ß-diversity of soil microbes and its drivers are less studied. Whether the determinants of soil microbial ß-diversity are consistent between soil depths and between abundant and rare microorganisms remains controversial. Here, using the 16S-rRNA of soil bacteria and archaea sampled at different soil depths (0-10 and 30-50 cm) from 32 sites along an aridity gradient of 1500 km in the temperate grasslands in northern China, we compared the effects of deterministic and stochastic processes on the taxonomic and phylogenetic ß-diversity of soil microbes. Using variation partitioning and null models, we found that the taxonomic ß-diversity of the overall bacterial communities was more strongly determined by deterministic processes in both soil layers (the explanatory power of environmental distance in topsoil: 25.4%; subsoil: 47.4%), while their phylogenetic counterpart was more strongly determined by stochastic processes (the explanatory power of spatial distance in topsoil: 42.1; subsoil 24.7%). However, in terms of abundance, both the taxonomic and phylogenetic ß-diversity of the abundant bacteria in both soil layers was more strongly determined by deterministic processes, while those of rare bacteria were more strongly determined by stochastic processes. In comparison with bacteria, both the taxonomic and phylogenetic ß-diversity of the overall abundant and rare archaea were strongly determined by deterministic processes. Among the variables representing deterministic processes, contemporary and historical climate and aboveground vegetation dominated the microbial ß-diversity of the overall and abundant microbes of both domains in topsoils, but soil geochemistry dominated in subsoils. This study presents a comprehensive understanding on the ß-diversity of soil microbial communities in the temperate grasslands in northern China. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth, phylogenetic turnover, and species abundance in the assembly processes of soil microbial communities.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 722626, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34552573

RESUMO

In the plant rhizosphere and endosphere, some fungal and bacterial species regularly co-exist, however, our knowledge about their co-existence patterns is quite limited, especially during invasion by bacterial wilt pathogens. In this study, the fungal communities from soil to endophytic compartments were surveyed during an outbreak of tobacco wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. It was found that the stem endophytic fungal community was significantly altered by pathogen invasion in terms of community diversity, structure, and composition. The associations among fungal species in the rhizosphere and endosphere infected by R. solanacearum showed more complex network structures than those of healthy plants. By integrating the bacterial dataset, associations between fungi and bacteria were inferred by Inter-Domain Ecological Network (IDEN) approach. It also revealed that infected samples, including both the rhizosphere and endosphere, had more complex interdomain networks than the corresponding healthy samples. Additionally, the bacterial wilt pathogenic Ralstonia members were identified as the keystone genus within the IDENs of both root and stem endophytic compartments. Ralstonia members was negatively correlated with the fungal genera Phoma, Gibberella, and Alternaria in infected roots, as well as Phoma, Gibberella, and Diaporthe in infected stems. This suggested that those endophytic fungi may play an important role in resisting the invasion of R. solanacearum.

18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(24): 6331-6347, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544207

RESUMO

Global warming may alter microbially mediated ecosystem functions through reshaping of microbial diversity and modified microbial interactions. Here, we examined the effects of 5-year experimental warming on different microbial hierarchical groups in a coastal nontidal soil ecosystem, including prokaryotes (i.e., bacteria and archaea), fungi, and Cercozoa, which is a widespread phylum of protists. Warming significantly altered the diversity and structure of prokaryotic and fungal communities in soil and additionally decreased the complexity of the prokaryotic network and fragmented the cercozoan network. By using the Inter-Domain Ecological Network approach, the cross-trophic interactions among prokaryotes, fungi, and Cercozoa were further investigated. Under warming, cercozoan-prokaryotic and fungal-prokaryotic bipartite networks were simplified, whereas the cercozoan-fungal network became slightly more complex. Despite simplification of the fungal-prokaryotic network, the strengthened synergistic interactions between saprotrophic fungi and certain prokaryotic groups, such as the Bacteroidetes, retained these phyla within the network under warming. In addition, the interactions within the fungal community were quite stable under warming conditions, which stabilized the interactions between fungi and prokaryotes or protists. Additionally, we found the microbial hierarchical interactions were affected by environmental stress (i.e., salinity and pH) and soil nutrients. Interestingly, the relevant microbial groups could respond to different soil properties under ambient conditions, whereas under warming these two groups tended to respond to similar soil properties, suggesting network hub species responded to certain environmental changes related to warming, and then transferred this response to their partners through trophic interactions. Finally, warming strengthened the network modules' negative association with soil organic matters through some fungal hub species, which might trigger soil carbon loss in this ecosystem. Our study provides new insights into the response and feedback of microbial hierarchical interactions under warming scenario.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Archaea , Fungos , Interações Microbianas , Solo
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11824-11834, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415164

RESUMO

The spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has gained much attention worldwide, while the contribution of vertical gene transfer (VGT) and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is still elusive. Here, we improved an emerging high-throughput single-cell-based technology, emulsion, paired isolation, and concatenation polymerase chain reaction (epicPCR), by lengthening the sequence of ARG in the fused ARG-16S rRNA fragments to cover the variance of both ARG and its hosts. The improved epicPCR was applied to track the hosts of a widely detected ARG, sul1 gene, in five urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTPs) during two seasons. The sul1 host bacteria were highly diverse and mostly classified as Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Clear seasonal divergence of α-diversity and interaction networks were present in the host community. The consensus phylogenetic trees of the sul1 gene and their host demonstrated incorrespondence on the whole and regularity on abundant groups, suggesting the important role of both HGT and VGT, respectively. The relative importance of these two ways was further measured; HGT (54%) generally played an equal or even more important role as VGT (46%) in UWTPs. The application of the improved epicPCR technology provides a feasible approach to quantify the relative contributions of VGT and HGT in environmental dissemination of ARGs.


Assuntos
Transferência Genética Horizontal , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tecnologia
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 798: 149362, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375268

RESUMO

The alpine meadow ecosystem, as the main ecosystem of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, has been heavily degraded over the past several decades due to overgrazing and climate change. Although soil microorganisms play key roles in the stability and succession of grassland ecosystems, their response to grassland degradation has not been investigated at spatial scale. Here, we systematically analyzed the spatial turnover rates of soil prokaryotic and fungal communities in degraded and undegraded meadows through distance-decay relationship (DDR) and species area relationship (SAR), as well as the community assembly mechanisms behind them. Although the composition and structure of both fungal and prokaryotic communities showed significant changes between undegraded and degraded meadows, steeper spatial turnover rates were only observed in fungi (Degraded Alpine Meadow ß = 0.0142, Undegraded Alpine Meadow ß = 0.0077, P < 0.05). Mantel tests indicated that edaphic variables and vegetation factors showed significant correlations to the ß diversity of fungal community only in degraded meadow, suggesting soil and vegetation heterogeneity both contributed to the variation of fungal community in that system. Correspondingly, a novel phylogenetic null model analysis demonstrated that environmental selection was enhanced in the fungal community assembly process during meadow degradation. Interestingly, dispersal limitation was also enhanced for the fungal community in the degraded meadow, and its relative contribution to other assembly process (i.e. selection and drift) showed a significant linear increase with spatial distance, suggesting that dispersal limitation played a greater role as distance increased. Our findings indicated the spatial scaling of the fungal community is altered during meadow degradation by both niche selection and dispersal limitation. This study provides a new perspective for the assessment of soil microbial responses to vegetation changes in alpine areas.


Assuntos
Pradaria , Micobioma , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Tibet
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