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1.
Molecules ; 25(9)2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349282

RESUMO

Creatine supplementation of the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) combined with an exercise program is known to be a possible therapy adjuvant with hypoglycemic effects. However, excessive administration of creatine leads to the production of methylamine which is deaminated by the enzyme semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) and as a result, cytotoxic compounds are produced. SSAO activity and reaction products are increased in the serum of T2DM patients. Creatine supplementation by diabetics will further augment the activity of SSAO. The current review aims to find a feasible way to ameliorate T2DM for patients who exercise and desire to consume creatine. Several natural agents present in food which are involved in the regulation of SSAO activity directly or indirectly are reviewed. Particularly, zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), histamine/histidine, caffeine, iron (Fe), and vitamin D are discussed. Inhibiting SSAO activity by natural agents might reduce the potential adverse effects of creatine metabolism in population of T2DM.

3.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276517

RESUMO

Oxidative stress triggers a lethal cascade, leading to Parkinson's disease by causing degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. In this study, eight antioxidants were screened for their neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells (pheochromocytoma cell line) under oxidative stress induced by salsolinol (OSibS). Hydroxytyrosol was found to be the strongest neuroprotective agent; it improved viability of PC12 cells by up to 81.69% under OSibS. Afterward, two synaptic vesicle proteins, synapsin-1 and septin-5, were screened for their neuroprotective role; the overexpression of synapsin-1 and the downregulation of septin-5 separately improved the viability of PC12 cells by up to 71.17% and 67.00%, respectively, compared to PC12 cells only treated with salsolinol (PoTwS) under OSibS. Subsequently, the PC12+syn++sep- cell line was constructed and pretreated with 100 µM hydroxytyrosol, which improved its cell viability by up to 99.03% and led to 14.71- and 6.37-fold reductions in the levels of MDA and H2O2, respectively, and 6.8-, 12.97-, 10.57-, and 7.57-fold increases in the activity of catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, respectively, compared to PoTwS under OSibS. Finally, alcohol dehydrogenase-6 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was expressed in PC12+syn++sep- cells to convert 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (an endogenous neurotoxin) into hydroxytyrosol. The PC12+syn++sep-+ADH6+ cell line also led to 22.38- and 12.33-fold decreases in the production of MDA and H2O2, respectively, and 7.15-, 13.93-, 12.08-, and 8.11-fold improvements in the activity of catalase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, respectively, compared to PoTwS under OSibS. Herein, we report the endogenous production of a powerful antioxidant, hydroxytyrosol, from 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, and evaluate its synergistic neuroprotective effect, along with synapsin-1 and septin-5, on PC12 cells under OSibS.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 156: 420-429, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289423

RESUMO

Cyclocarya paliurus is essential and only living specie of the genus Cyclocarya Iljinskaja. The leaves of this plant have been extensively used as food in the form of tea and green vegetable. Many compounds have been isolated from this plant, and their useful aspects explored, including the polysaccharides. Studies conducted on leaves show that different methods of extraction have been used, as well as a combination of different techniques that have been applied to isolate polysaccharides from the leaves. Their structure has been elucidated because the activity of polysaccharides mainly depends upon their composition. It has been reported that different activities exhibited by the isolated crude, purified as well as modified polysaccharides include, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-diabetic activities. In some studies, a comparison of crude extract, as well as purified polysaccharide, has been performed. In this review, we have summarized all the available literature available on the methods of extraction, structure, and biological activities of polysaccharides from the leaves of C. paliurus and indicated the potential research areas that should be focused on future studies. We believe that this review will provide an up to date knowledge regarding polysaccharides of C. paliurus for the researchers.

5.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179514

RESUMO

Metformin is an oral drug widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies have demonstrated the value of metformin in cancer treatment. However, for metformin to elicit effects on cancer this often requires a high dosage, and any underlying mechanism for how to improve its inhibitory effects remains unknown. Here we found that low mRNA expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) may predict a poor response to metformin treatment in 15 cancer cell lines. In vitro and in vivo, metformin treatment alone significantly suppressed cancer cell proliferation, a phenotype enhanced by GPD1 overexpression. Total cellular glycerol-3-phosphate concentration was significantly increased by the combination of GPD1 overexpression and metformin treatment, which suppressed cancer growth via inhibition of mitochondrial function. Eventually, increased reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial structural damage was observed in GPD1-overexpressing cell lines treated with metformin, which may contribute to cell death. In summary, this study demonstrates that GPD1 overexpression enhances the anti-cancer activity of metformin and that patients with increased GPD1 expression in tumor cells may respond better to metformin therapy.

6.
Analyst ; 145(8): 2892-2896, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124870

RESUMO

A methodology is presented for the determination of four pyrethroid (PYR) preservatives in wooden food contact materials (FCMs) using direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled with quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap HRMS). The sampling mode and critical parameters of the DART-Q-Orbitrap HRMS protocol were systematically investigated. Good linearity was achieved for the four analytes with correlation coefficients all greater than 0.99. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the method were in the range of 0.04-0.20 mg kg-1 and 0.10-0.50 mg kg-1, respectively. The mean recoveries ranged from 72.1% to 82.7% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 5.2% to 11.8% at three spiked levels. The developed method was proved to be suitable for rapid screening of PYRs in complex wooden FCM samples to ensure product safety and consumer health.

7.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-11, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009448

RESUMO

By HPLC-MSn and HRMS analyses, the structures of 52 polyoxypregnane glycosides were rapidly inferred from Dregea sinensis Hemsl on the basis of their sodium-cationized molecules [M + Na]+ and predominant diagnostic ions resulting from the saccharic chain on C3 and the neutral loss of substituent on C11 and C12. Compounds 1 and 7 significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro.[Formula: see text].

8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1617: 460830, 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902577

RESUMO

There is an urgent need for the development of efficient and comprehensive analytical methods for organic chemical compounds due to their increasing number and diversity in children's toy products. The presence of these chemicals in toys poses an extreme risk for the health and development of children. In this study, an analytical methodology has been developed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). This hybrid instrumentation together with an in-house accurate-mass database and a mass spectral library, allows for wide-scope screening and identification of hazardous substances in plastic toys. A total number of 200 compounds belonging to eight chemical families were investigated, such as coloring agents, plasticizers, fragrance allergens, nitrosamines, primary aromatic amines, flame retardants, perfluorinated compounds, and endocrine disruptors. Following a straightforward and efficient dissolution/precipitation method for sample preparation, chemical screening and confirmation were conducted by comparing the experimentally measured exact mass, retention time, and isotopic pattern with the accurate-mass database and by matching the acquired MS/MS spectra against the mass spectral library. The matrix effect, linearity, sensitivity, precision, and recovery of the proposed method were properly evaluated. The obtained limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) were in the range of 0.01-0.98 mg kg-1 and 0.03-2.99 mg kg-1, respectively. The applicability of the developed protocol was verified through the analysis of 55 real plastic toy products.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936548

RESUMO

Obesity is a worldwide prevalent metabolic disorder that is associated with diabetes, among many other diseases. Bearing this in mind, prevention and treatment ways need to be improved. Notably, activity of the enzyme semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is found to be elevated in overweight subjects. Moreover, SSAO inhibition has resulted in an increase of histamine activity in adipose tissue and the limitation of body fat. The current review aims to overview the risks of obesity, rationalize the molecular ways of SSAO activity, and outline the strategies of inhibiting upregulated enzyme levels. It describes the differences between SSAO inhibitors and advances the prospective agents. Based on evidence, caffeine is proposed as an effective, safe, and reliable choice to inhibit SSAO activity. Furthermore, the histamine in adipocytes has been associated with SSAO activity. Therefore, it is suggested as one of the key compounds to be studied for obesity management. To conclude, inhibiting SSAO may attenuate weight gain and prevent related diseases.

10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 522(4): 910-916, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806377

RESUMO

As a cancer treatment strategy, irradiation therapy is widely used that can cause DNA breakage and increase free radicals, which leads to different types of cell death. Among them, apoptosis and autophagy are the most important and the most studied cell death processes. Although the exploration of the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy has been a major area of focus, still the molecular mechanisms of autophagy on apoptosis remain unclear. Here, we have revealed that apoptosis was enhanced by the death receptor 5 (DR5) pathway, and the effect of autophagy on apoptosis was promoted by DR5 interacting with LC3B as well as Caspase8 in gliomas after irradiation. Interestingly, we observed that the addition of four different autophagy inducers, rapamycin (RAP), CCI779, ABT737 and temozolomide (TMZ), induced the differences of DR5 expression and cell apoptosis after irradiation. Unlike RAP and CCI779, ABT737 and TMZ were able to increase DR5 expression and further induce cell death. Therefore, we have concluded that DR5 plays a novel and indispensable role in promoting cell apoptosis under irradiation and suggest a potential therapeutic approach for glioblastoma treatment.

12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115050, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426951

RESUMO

In recent years, ultraviolet (UV) protection films made from cellulose nanofibril (CNF) have drawn significant attention, owing to its high transparency, high mechanical strength and relatively high thermostability. Generally, CNF films had poor UV-shielding performance, and required UV absorbent to enhance their UV-shielding ability. Herein, a simple thermal treatment is proposed to directly improve the UV blocking properties of CNF films without incorporating UV absorbent. After thermal treatment at 160 °C, the CNF films exhibited a near-complete UV blocking ability. In particular, they exhibited full absorption of ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB), and also showed a high visible light transmittance of 72%. In addition, the UV-shielding films performed stable UV-blocking when exposed to UV irradiation. Simultaneously, the hornification induced by thermal treatment endowed an improved hydrophobicity for CNF films. However, the tensile strength of the CNF films decreased from 133 MPa to 81 MPa after thermal treatment at 160 °C.

13.
Radiat Res ; 192(4): 440-450, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393823

RESUMO

Radiotherapy to treat brain tumors can potentially harm the central nervous system (CNS). The radiation stimulates a series of immune responses in both the CNS as well as peripheral immune system. To date, studies have mostly focused on the changes occurring in the immune response within the CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of γ-ray-induced CNS injury on the peripheral immune response using a cell co-culture model and a whole-brain irradiation (WBI) rat model. Nerve cells (SH-SY5Y and U87 MG cells) were γ-ray irradiated, then culture media of the irradiated cells (conditioned media) was used to culture immune cells (THP-1 cells or Jurkat cells). Analyses were performed based on the response of immune cells in conditioned media. Sprague-Dawley rats received WBI at different doses, and were fed for one week to one month postirradiation. Spleen and peripheral blood were then isolated and analyzed. We observed that the number of monocytes in peripheral blood, and the level of NK cells and NKT cells in spleen increased after CNS injury. However, the level of T cells in spleen did not change and the level of B cells in the spleen decreased after γ-ray-induced CNS injury. These findings indicate that CNS injury caused by ionizing radiation induces a series of changes in the peripheral immune system.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/lesões , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama/efeitos adversos , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Quimiocinas/sangue , Quimiotaxia/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/sangue , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Irradiação Corporal Total/efeitos adversos
14.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330945

RESUMO

We have developed a methodology to capture acidic proteins, alkaline proteins, and glycoproteins separately in mouse serum using a combination of three functionalized temperature-responsive chromatographic stationary phases. The temperature-responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) was attached to the stationary phase, silica. The three temperature-responsive chromatographic stationary phase materials were prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Alkaline, acidic, and boric acid functional groups were introduced to capture acidic proteins, alkaline proteins, and glycoproteins, respectively. The protein enrichment and release properties of the materials were examined using the acidic protein, bovine serum albumin; the alkaline protein, protamine; and the glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase. Finally, the three materials were used to analyze mouse serum. Without switching the mobile phase, the capture and separation of mouse serum was achieved by the combination of three temperature-responsive chromatographic stationary phase materials. On the whole, 313 proteins were identified successfully. The number of different proteins identified using the new method was 1.46 times greater than the number of proteins that has been identified without applying this method. To our knowledge, this method is the first combinatorial use of three functionalized temperature-responsive chromatographic stationary phase silica materials to separate proteins in mouse serum.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Cromatografia , Temperatura , Animais , Cromatografia/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Camundongos , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria
15.
Neurochem Int ; 129: 104484, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173779

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder, and its common characteristics include the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the accumulation of a special type of cytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which are more prevalent in the elderly. However, the pathophysiology of PD is still elusive. In this review, we summarized five common factors involved in PD, namely, (i) oxidative stress, (ii) mitochondrial dysfunction, (iii) inflammation, (iv) abnormal α-synuclein, and (v) endogenous neurotoxins, and proposed a hypothesis involving a damaging cycle. Oxidative stress-triggered aldehydes react with biogenic amines to produce endogenous neurotoxins. They cause mitochondrial dysfunction and the formation of inflammasomes, which induce the activation of neuroglial cells and the infiltration of T lymphocytes. The synergistic effect of these processes fosters chronic inflammation and α-synuclein aggregation and further exacerbates the impact of oxidative stress to establish a damaging cycle that eventually results in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. This damaging cycle provides an explanation of progressive neuronal death during the pathogenesis of PD and provides new potential targets beneficial for developing new drugs and approaches for clinical neuroprotection.

16.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 181: 244-251, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151037

RESUMO

In this paper, we report the use of amphiphilic crosslinked starch nanoparticles (CSTNs) as biocompatible, biodegradable and effective stabilizer for Pickering emulsion formulation. The nearly monodispersed CSTNs (˜140 nm) were synthesized through alkali-freezing method followed by crosslinking using citric acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, zeta-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The efficacy of the CSTNs toward the stability, the oil droplet size distribution and the surface area moment mean diameter (d3,2) of sunflower oil-in-water emulsions were then assessed as a function of pH. Increase in pH from 3 to 5 and 7.4 led to an enhance in the emulsion stability, decrease in d3,2 and narrowing of the size distribution of emulsions droplets. Moreover, the abundance of nanoparticles increased with pH so that the surface coverage for pH 3, 5 and 7.4 were calculated 10.6, 14.8 and 22.2%, respectively. In vitro controlled release studies showed that the encapsulated curcumin, as a lipophilic and therapeutic compound, into the Pickering emulsion can be tuned by pH of the release media; drug release increases with pH. Collectively, the facile preparation of emulsions stabilized by solid particles derived from biocompatible and renewable resources along with the pH responsivity of these emulsions make them promising drug carriers to treat gastrointestinal tissue disorders via oral drug delivery.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Amido/química , Tensoativos/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Emulsões/síntese química , Emulsões/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/síntese química
17.
Appl Ergon ; 78: 76-85, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046962

RESUMO

The use of riding lawn equipment (RLE) is related to a significant number of accidents every year. To provide basis for product design and enhance user performance and safety, a usability and performance assessment of modern riding lawn-mowing tractor designs and features was conducted in a real-world test environment. Five current commercially available RLEs were tested with response measures including task performance time and accuracy, physiological workload, system usability scores (SUS), and subjective rankings of RLE models. This data was used to identify sensitivity of responses to variations in RLE design features and functionality. The data was also used to assess the validity of new tractor design standard conformance tool, the RLEval methodology. This tool made comprehensive evaluation of RLE models compliance with over 70 specific design standards and was applied by human factors experts. Experiment results revealed sensitivity of all response measures to design differences among the five RLE models, except the objective workload measures. Response measures including task performance, SUSs and subjective rankings showed partial agreement with the RLEval scores. In general, the study results demonstrated a comprehensive experimental methodology for usability and performance evaluations of RLEs as well as merit of using the RLEval as preliminary method to compare design features. Some aspects of the usability experimentation and the RLEval method appear to be complementary.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Jardinagem , Utensílios Domésticos/normas , Segurança , Adulto , Ergonomia/normas , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poaceae , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
18.
Se Pu ; 37(4): 343-347, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977335

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are hemispherical vesicles that have a lipid bilayer. Studies have shown that EVs have important biological functions. The amount, types, and compositional changes of proteins, lipids and ribonucleic acids are closely related to diseases. The separation and capture of EVs from the complicated body fluid samples is a prerequisite for medical research and liquid biopsy based on EVs. However, presently the majority of EVs separation and capture still use the traditional separation methods with low purity and low efficiency. Therefore, efficient and highly selective EVs separation method is in urgent need. To meet this challenge, advanced microfluidic chip technology, which has the advantages of miniaturization, integration, and automation, can be utilized. The development of EV separation technology combined with microfluidic chips has become the focus of research. This paper summarizes the latest research progress in this area.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Microfluídica/tendências
19.
Cell Signal ; 59: 152-162, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926388

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has made great breakthroughs in the field of cancer. However, the immunotherapeutic effect of prostate cancer is unsatisfactory. We found that the expression of TRIB1 was significantly correlated with the infiltration of CD163+ macrophages in prostate cancer. This study focused on the effects of TRIB1 on macrophage polarization in the immune microenvironment of prostate cancer. RNA sequencing analysis demonstrated that TRIB1 has significant effects on the regulation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway and downstream cytokines. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to examine THP-1 cells cultured in conditioned medium from prostate cancer cells overexpressing TRIB1 and showed that overexpression of TRIB1 promoted the secretion of CXCL2 and interleukin (IL)8 by PC3 cells, which increased the secretion of IL12 by THP-1 cells as well as the expression of CD163 on THP-1 cells. IKB-zeta, regulated by TRIB1, was expressed in PC3 cells but was barely detectable in DU145 cells. The reductions in CXCL2 and IL8 by the inhibition of TRIB1 were rescued by the deletion of IKB-zeta. Here we showed that TRIB1 promoted the secretion of cytokines from prostate cancer cells and induced the differentiation of monocytes/macrophages into M2 macrophages.

20.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709052

RESUMO

Four new glucosyloxybenzyl 2R-benzylmalate derivatives, named Arundinoside H (2), I (5), J (6), K (8) as well as four known compounds Arundinoside D (1), G (3), F (4), E (7) were isolated and characterized by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. Besides, 24 unreported compounds were inferred from ESI-MSn data. The anti-liver fibrotic activities of the isolates were determined as proliferation inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC-T6). The result suggested Arundinosides D, H, F, I and K showed moderate inhibitory effects in vitro.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ácidos Mandélicos/química , Ácidos Mandélicos/farmacologia , Orchidaceae/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Estrutura Molecular
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