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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 16, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460744

RESUMO

Well water could be a stable source of drinking water. Recently, the use of well water as drinking water has been encouraged in developing countries. However, many kinds of disorders caused by toxic elements in well drinking water have been reported. It is our urgent task to resolve the global issue of element-originating diseases. In this review article, our multidisciplinary approaches focusing on oncogenic toxicities and disturbances of sensory organs (skin and ear) induced by arsenic and barium are introduced. First, our environmental monitoring in developing countries in Asia showed elevated concentrations of arsenic and barium in well drinking water. Then our experimental studies in mice and our epidemiological studies in humans showed arsenic-mediated increased risks of hyperpigmented skin and hearing loss with partial elucidation of their mechanisms. Our experimental studies using cultured cells with focus on the expression and activity levels of intracellular signal transduction molecules such as c-SRC, c-RET, and oncogenic RET showed risks for malignant transformation and/or progression arose from arsenic and barium. Finally, our original hydrotalcite-like compound was proposed as a novel remediation system to effectively remove arsenic and barium from well drinking water. Hopefully, comprehensive studies consisting of (1) environmental monitoring, (2) health risk assessments, and (3) remediation will be expanded in the field of environmental health to prevent various disorders caused by environmental factors including toxic elements in drinking water.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Bário/toxicidade , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Camundongos , Poços de Água
2.
Sci China Life Sci ; 63(10): 1429-1449, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048164

RESUMO

Mammalian mitochondria have small genomes encoding very limited numbers of proteins. Over one thousand proteins and noncoding RNAs encoded by the nuclear genome must be imported from the cytosol into the mitochondria. Here, we report the identification of hundreds of circular RNAs (mecciRNAs) encoded by the mitochondrial genome. We provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence to show that mecciRNAs facilitate the mitochondrial entry of nuclear-encoded proteins by serving as molecular chaperones in the folding of imported proteins. Known components involved in mitochondrial protein and RNA importation, such as TOM40 and PNPASE, interact with mecciRNAs and regulate protein entry. The expression of mecciRNAs is regulated, and these transcripts are critical for the adaption of mitochondria to physiological conditions and diseases such as stresses and cancers by modulating mitochondrial protein importation. mecciRNAs and their associated physiological roles add categories and functions to the known eukaryotic circular RNAs and shed novel light on the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911586

RESUMO

The dearomatization of arenes represents a powerful synthetic methodology to provide three-dimensional chemicals of high added value. Here we report a general and practical protocol for regioselective dearomative annulation of indole and benzofuran derivatives in an electrochemical way. Under undivided electrolytic conditions, a series of highly functionalized five to eight-membered heterocycle-2,3-fused indolines and dihydrobenzofurans, which are typically unattainable under thermal conditions, can be successfully accessed in high yield with excellent regio- and stereo-selectivity. This transformation can also tolerate a wide range of functional groups and achieve good efficiency in large-scale synthesis under oxidant-free conditions. In addition, cyclic voltammetry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and kinetic studies indicate that the dehydrogenative dearomatization annulations arise from the anodic oxidation of indole into indole radical cation, and this process is the rate-determining step.

4.
Neuroimage ; 207: 116360, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760150

RESUMO

Visual and somatosensory spatial attention both induce parietal alpha (8-14 â€‹Hz) oscillations whose topographical distribution depends on the direction of spatial attentional focus. In the auditory domain, contrasts of parietal alpha power for leftward and rightward attention reveal qualitatively similar lateralization; however, it is not clear whether alpha lateralization changes monotonically with the direction of auditory attention as it does for visual spatial attention. In addition, most previous studies of alpha oscillation did not consider individual differences in alpha frequency, but simply analyzed power in a fixed spectral band. Here, we recorded electroencephalography in human subjects when they directed attention to one of five azimuthal locations. After a cue indicating the direction of an upcoming target sequence of spoken syllables (yet before the target began), alpha power changed in a task-specific manner. Individual peak alpha frequencies differed consistently between central electrodes and parieto-occipital electrodes, suggesting multiple neural generators of task-related alpha. Parieto-occipital alpha increased over the hemisphere ipsilateral to attentional focus compared to the contralateral hemisphere, and changed systematically as the direction of attention shifted from far left to far right. These results showing that parietal alpha lateralization changes smoothly with the direction of auditory attention as in visual spatial attention provide further support to the growing evidence that the frontoparietal attention network is supramodal.

6.
Elife ; 82019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782732

RESUMO

Both visual and auditory spatial selective attention result in lateralized alpha (8-14 Hz) oscillatory power in parietal cortex: alpha increases in the hemisphere ipsilateral to attentional focus. Brain stimulation studies suggest a causal relationship between parietal alpha and suppression of the representation of contralateral visual space. However, there is no evidence that parietal alpha controls auditory spatial attention. Here, we performed high definition transcranial alternating current stimulation (HD-tACS) on human subjects performing an auditory task in which they directed attention based on either spatial or nonspatial features. Alpha (10 Hz) but not theta (6 Hz) HD-tACS of right parietal cortex interfered with attending left but not right auditory space. Parietal stimulation had no effect for nonspatial auditory attention. Moreover, performance in post-stimulation trials returned rapidly to baseline. These results demonstrate a causal, frequency-, hemispheric-, and task-specific effect of parietal alpha brain stimulation on top-down control of auditory spatial attention.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Atenção , Percepção Auditiva , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto Jovem
7.
Neuroimage ; 202: 116151, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493531

RESUMO

Spatial selective attention enables listeners to process a signal of interest in natural settings. However, most past studies on auditory spatial attention used impoverished spatial cues: presenting competing sounds to different ears, using only interaural differences in time (ITDs) and/or intensity (IIDs), or using non-individualized head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). Here we tested the hypothesis that impoverished spatial cues impair spatial auditory attention by only weakly engaging relevant cortical networks. Eighteen normal-hearing listeners reported the content of one of two competing syllable streams simulated at roughly +30° and -30° azimuth. The competing streams consisted of syllables from two different-sex talkers. Spatialization was based on natural spatial cues (individualized HRTFs), individualized IIDs, or generic ITDs. We measured behavioral performance as well as electroencephalographic markers of selective attention. Behaviorally, subjects recalled target streams most accurately with natural cues. Neurally, spatial attention significantly modulated early evoked sensory response magnitudes only for natural cues, not in conditions using only ITDs or IIDs. Consistent with this, parietal oscillatory power in the alpha band (8-14 â€‹Hz; associated with filtering out distracting events from unattended directions) showed significantly less attentional modulation with isolated spatial cues than with natural cues. Our findings support the hypothesis that spatial selective attention networks are only partially engaged by impoverished spatial auditory cues. These results not only suggest that studies using unnatural spatial cues underestimate the neural effects of spatial auditory attention, they also illustrate the importance of preserving natural spatial cues in assistive listening devices to support robust attentional control.

8.
Chemosphere ; 235: 713-718, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279121

RESUMO

Chemical leukoderma is a patchy hypopigmentation in the skin. Phenol derivatives such as raspberry ketone have been reported to cause the development of occupationally induced leukoderma. Recently, 2% (w/w) rhododenol, a reduced form of raspberry ketone used in a skin-lightning agent, also caused the development of leukoderma in >16,000 users, about 2% of all users, in Asian countries including Japan. However, a method for assessing the risk of leukoderma caused by 2% rhododenol has not been established despite the fact that the development of leukoderma caused by 30% rhododenol was previously shown in animal experiments. Establishment of a novel technique for risk assessment of leukoderma in humans caused by external treatment with chemicals is needed to prevent a possible future chemical disaster. This study demonstrated that external treatment with 2% rhododenol and the same concentration of raspberry ketone caused the development of leukoderma in murine tail skin without exception with significant decreases in the amount of melanin and number of melanocytes in the epidermis. Thus, a novel in vivo technique that can assess the risk of leukoderma caused by 2% rhododenol was developed. The unique technique using tail skin has the potential to prevent chemical leukoderma in the future.


Assuntos
Hipopigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Animais , Butanóis , Butanonas , Células Epidérmicas , Epiderme , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Melaninas , Melanócitos , Camundongos , Pele
9.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 36, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanin is detectable in various sense organs including the skin in animals. It has been reported that melanin adsorbs toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium, and lead. In this study, we investigated the adsorption of molybdenum, which is widely recognized as a toxic element, by melanin. METHODS: Molybdenum level of the mouse skin was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The pigmentation level of murine skin was digitalized as the L* value by using a reflectance spectrophotometer. An in vitro adsorption assay was performed to confirm the interaction between molybdenum and melanin. RESULTS: Our analysis of hairless mice with different levels of skin pigmentation showed that the level of molybdenum increased with an increase in the level of skin pigmentation (L* value). Moreover, our analysis by Spearman's correlation coefficient test showed a strong correlation (r = - 0.9441, p < 0.0001) between L* value and molybdenum level. Our cell-free experiment using the Langmuir isotherm provided evidence for the adsorption of molybdenum by melanin. The maximum adsorption capacity of 1 mg of synthetic melanin for molybdenum was 131 µg in theory. CONCLUSION: Our in vivo and in vitro results showed a new aspect of melanin as an adsorbent of molybdenum.


Assuntos
Melaninas/química , Molibdênio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Animais , Melaninas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Camundongos Transgênicos , Molibdênio/metabolismo , Molibdênio/farmacologia , Pele/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
10.
Cogn Neurodyn ; 13(2): 201-217, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956724

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease is a type of motor dysfunction disease that is induced mainly by abnormal interactions between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP) neurons. Periodic oscillatory activities with frequencies of 13-30 Hz are the main physiological characteristics of Parkinson's disease. In this paper, we built a class of STN-GP networks to explore beta oscillation conditions. A theoretical formula was obtained for generating oscillations without internal GP connections. Based on this formula, we studied the effects of cortex inputs, striatum inputs, coupling weights and delays on oscillation conditions, and the theoretical results are in good agreement with the numerical results. The onset mechanism can be explained by the model, and the internal GP connection has little effect on oscillations. Finally, we compared oscillation conditions with those in previous studies and found that the delays and coupling weights required for generating oscillations may decrease as the number of nuclei increases. We hope that the results obtained will inspire future theoretical and experimental studies.

11.
Brain Stimul ; 11(4): 723-726, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Theories of executive control propose that communication between medial frontal cortex (MFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) is critical for learning. 6-Hz phase synchronization may be the mechanism by which neural activity between MFC and lPFC is coordinated into a functional network. Recent evidence suggests that switching from eyes closed to open may induce a change in brain-state reflected by enhanced executive control and related functional connectivity. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To examine whether causal manipulation of MFC and lPFC can improve learning according to the brain-state induced by switching from eyes closed to open. METHODS: Within-subjects, sham-controlled, double-blind study of 30 healthy subjects, each receiving 6-Hz in-phase high definition transcranial alternating-current stimulation (HD-tACS) applied to MFC and right lPFC prior to performing a time estimation task. RESULTS: HD-tACS with eyes open improved learning ability relative to sham, whereas HD-tACS with eyes closed had no significant effect on behavior. CONCLUSION: Results suggest a phase-sensitive mechanism in frontal cortex mediates components of learning performance in a state-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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