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Neuroimage ; 202: 116151, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493531


Spatial selective attention enables listeners to process a signal of interest in natural settings. However, most past studies on auditory spatial attention used impoverished spatial cues: presenting competing sounds to different ears, using only interaural differences in time (ITDs) and/or intensity (IIDs), or using non-individualized head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). Here we tested the hypothesis that impoverished spatial cues impair spatial auditory attention by only weakly engaging relevant cortical networks. Eighteen normal-hearing listeners reported the content of one of two competing syllable streams simulated at roughly +30° and -30° azimuth. The competing streams consisted of syllables from two different-sex talkers. Spatialization was based on natural spatial cues (individualized HRTFs), individualized IIDs, or generic ITDs. We measured behavioral performance as well as electroencephalographic markers of selective attention. Behaviorally, subjects recalled target streams most accurately with natural cues. Neurally, spatial attention significantly modulated early evoked sensory response magnitudes only for natural cues, not in conditions using only ITDs or IIDs. Consistent with this, parietal oscillatory power in the alpha band (8-14 â€‹Hz; associated with filtering out distracting events from unattended directions) showed significantly less attentional modulation with isolated spatial cues than with natural cues. Our findings support the hypothesis that spatial selective attention networks are only partially engaged by impoverished spatial auditory cues. These results not only suggest that studies using unnatural spatial cues underestimate the neural effects of spatial auditory attention, they also illustrate the importance of preserving natural spatial cues in assistive listening devices to support robust attentional control.

Chemosphere ; 235: 713-718, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279121


Chemical leukoderma is a patchy hypopigmentation in the skin. Phenol derivatives such as raspberry ketone have been reported to cause the development of occupationally induced leukoderma. Recently, 2% (w/w) rhododenol, a reduced form of raspberry ketone used in a skin-lightning agent, also caused the development of leukoderma in >16,000 users, about 2% of all users, in Asian countries including Japan. However, a method for assessing the risk of leukoderma caused by 2% rhododenol has not been established despite the fact that the development of leukoderma caused by 30% rhododenol was previously shown in animal experiments. Establishment of a novel technique for risk assessment of leukoderma in humans caused by external treatment with chemicals is needed to prevent a possible future chemical disaster. This study demonstrated that external treatment with 2% rhododenol and the same concentration of raspberry ketone caused the development of leukoderma in murine tail skin without exception with significant decreases in the amount of melanin and number of melanocytes in the epidermis. Thus, a novel in vivo technique that can assess the risk of leukoderma caused by 2% rhododenol was developed. The unique technique using tail skin has the potential to prevent chemical leukoderma in the future.

Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 36, 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101002


BACKGROUND: Melanin is detectable in various sense organs including the skin in animals. It has been reported that melanin adsorbs toxic elements such as mercury, cadmium, and lead. In this study, we investigated the adsorption of molybdenum, which is widely recognized as a toxic element, by melanin. METHODS: Molybdenum level of the mouse skin was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The pigmentation level of murine skin was digitalized as the L* value by using a reflectance spectrophotometer. An in vitro adsorption assay was performed to confirm the interaction between molybdenum and melanin. RESULTS: Our analysis of hairless mice with different levels of skin pigmentation showed that the level of molybdenum increased with an increase in the level of skin pigmentation (L* value). Moreover, our analysis by Spearman's correlation coefficient test showed a strong correlation (r = - 0.9441, p < 0.0001) between L* value and molybdenum level. Our cell-free experiment using the Langmuir isotherm provided evidence for the adsorption of molybdenum by melanin. The maximum adsorption capacity of 1 mg of synthetic melanin for molybdenum was 131 µg in theory. CONCLUSION: Our in vivo and in vitro results showed a new aspect of melanin as an adsorbent of molybdenum.

Melaninas/química , Molibdênio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Animais , Melaninas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Camundongos Transgênicos , Molibdênio/metabolismo , Molibdênio/farmacologia , Pele/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
Brain Stimul ; 11(4): 723-726, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482970


BACKGROUND: Theories of executive control propose that communication between medial frontal cortex (MFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) is critical for learning. 6-Hz phase synchronization may be the mechanism by which neural activity between MFC and lPFC is coordinated into a functional network. Recent evidence suggests that switching from eyes closed to open may induce a change in brain-state reflected by enhanced executive control and related functional connectivity. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To examine whether causal manipulation of MFC and lPFC can improve learning according to the brain-state induced by switching from eyes closed to open. METHODS: Within-subjects, sham-controlled, double-blind study of 30 healthy subjects, each receiving 6-Hz in-phase high definition transcranial alternating-current stimulation (HD-tACS) applied to MFC and right lPFC prior to performing a time estimation task. RESULTS: HD-tACS with eyes open improved learning ability relative to sham, whereas HD-tACS with eyes closed had no significant effect on behavior. CONCLUSION: Results suggest a phase-sensitive mechanism in frontal cortex mediates components of learning performance in a state-dependent manner.