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1.
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 69: 1-9, 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027693

RESUMO

Well-known issues amid in vivo research of natural product discovery and overproduction, such as unculturable or unmanipulable microorganisms, labor-intensive experimental cycles, and hidden rate-limiting steps, have hampered relevant investigations. To overcome these long-standing challenges, many researchers are turning toward in vitro platforms, which bypass the complicated cellular machinery and simplify the study of natural products. Here, we summarize the in vitro driven rational engineering and mining (iDREAM) strategy, which harnesses the flexibility and controllability of in vitro systems to rationally overproduce commodity chemicals and efficiently mine novel compounds. The iDREAM strategy promises to make further significant contributions toward both fundamental advances and industrial practices.

2.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932689

RESUMO

Actinosynnema species produce diverse natural products with important biological activities, which represent an important resource of antibiotic discovery. Advances in genome sequencing and bioinformatics tools have accelerated the exploration of the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding natural products. Herein, the completed BGCs of dnacin B1 were first discovered in two Actinosynnema pretiosum subsp. auranticum strains DSM 44131T (hereafter abbreviated as strain DSM 44131T) and X47 by comparative genome mining strategy. The BGC for dnacin B1 contains 41 ORFs and spans a 66.9 kb DNA region in strain DSM 44131T. Its involvement in dnacin B1 biosynthesis was identified through the deletion of a 9.7 kb region. Based on the functional gene analysis, we proposed the biosynthetic pathway for dnacin B1. Moreover, p-amino-phenylalanine (PAPA) unit was found to be the dnacin B1 precursor for the quinone moiety formation, and this was confirmed by heterologous expression of dinV, dinE and dinF in Escherichia coli. Furthermore, nine potential PAPA aminotransferases (APAT) from the genome of strain DSM 44131T were explored and expressed. Biochemical evaluation of their amino group transformation ability was carried out with p-amino-phenylpyruvic acid (PAPP) or PAPA as the substrate for the final product formation. Two of those, APAT4 and APAT9, displayed intriguing aminotransferase ability for the formation of PAPA. The proposed dnacin B1 biosynthetic machinery and PAPA biosynthetic investigations not only enriched the knowledge of tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ) biosynthesis, but also provided PAPA building blocks to generate their structurally unique homologues.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865309

RESUMO

The colinearity of canonical modular polyketide synthases, which creates a direct link between multienzyme structure and the chemical structure of the biosynthetic end-product, has become a cornerstone of knowledge-based genome mining. Here we report genetic and enzymatic evidence for the remarkable role of an enoylreductase in the polyketide synthase for azalomycin F biosynthesis. This internal enoylreductase domain, previously identified as acting only in the second of two chain extension cycles on an initial iterative module, is shown here also to catalyse enoylreduction in trans within the next module. The mechanism for this rare deviation from colinearity appears to involve direct cross-modular interaction of the reductase with the longer acyl chain, rather than backtransfer of the substrate into the iterative module, suggesting an additional and surprising plasticity in natural PKS assembly-line catalysis.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4501, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908132

RESUMO

Streptovaricin C is a naphthalenic ansamycin antibiotic structurally similar to rifamycins with potential anti-MRSA bioactivities. However, the formation mechanism of the most fascinating and bioactivity-related methylenedioxy bridge (MDB) moiety in streptovaricins is unclear. Based on genetic and biochemical evidences, we herein clarify that the P450 enzyme StvP2 catalyzes the MDB formation in streptovaricins, with an atypical substrate inhibition kinetics. Furthermore, X-ray crystal structures in complex with substrate and structure-based mutagenesis reveal the intrinsic details of the enzymatic reaction. The mechanism of MDB formation is proposed to be an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution resulting from the hydroxylation by the heme core and the keto-enol tautomerization via a crucial catalytic triad (Asp89-His92-Arg72) in StvP2. In addition, in vitro reconstitution uncovers that C6-O-methylation and C4-O-acetylation of streptovaricins are necessary prerequisites for the MDB formation. This work provides insight for the MDB formation and adds evidence in support of the functional versatility of P450 enzymes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Estreptovaricina/análogos & derivados , Acetilação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Biocatálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/ultraestrutura , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Metilação , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Estreptovaricina/biossíntese , Estreptovaricina/química , Estreptovaricina/metabolismo
5.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934080

RESUMO

Type II polyketides are a group of secondary metabolites with various biological activities. In nature, biosynthesis of type II polyketides involves multiple enzymatic steps whereby key enzymes, including ketoacyl-synthase (KSα), chain length factor (KSß), and acyl carrier protein (ACP), are utilized to elongate the polyketide chain through a repetitive condensation reaction. During each condensation, the biosynthesis intermediates are covalently attached to KSα or ACP via a thioester bond and are then cleaved to release an elongated polyketide chain for successive postmodification. Despite its critical role in type II polyketide biosynthesis, the enzyme and its corresponding mechanism for type II polyketide chain release through thioester bond breakage have yet to be determined. Here, kinamycin was used as a model compound to investigate the chain release step of type II polyketide biosynthesis. Using a genetic knockout strategy, we confirmed that AlpS is required for the complete biosynthesis of kinamycins. Further in vitro biochemical assays revealed high hydrolytic activity of AlpS toward a thioester bond in an aromatic polyketide-ACP analog, suggesting its distinct role in offloading the polyketide chain from ACP during the kinamycin biosynthesis. Finally, we successfully utilized AlpS to enhance the heterologous production of dehydrorabelomycin in Escherichia coli by nearly 25-fold, which resulted in 0.50 g/liter dehydrorabelomycin in a simple batch-mode shake flask culture. Taken together, our results provide critical knowledge to gain an insightful understanding of the chain-releasing process during type II polyketide synthesis, which, in turn, lays a solid foundation for future new applications in type II polyketide bioproduction.

6.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806589

RESUMO

The DNA phosphorothioate (PT) modification existing in many prokaryotes, including bacterial pathogens and commensals, confers multiple characteristics, including restricting gene transfer, influencing the global transcriptional response, and reducing fitness during exposure to chemical mediators of inflammation. While PT-containing bacteria have been investigated in a variety of environments, they have not been studied in the human microbiome. Here, we investigated the distribution of PT-harboring strains and verified their existence in the human microbiome. We found over 2000 PT gene-containing strains distributed in different body sites, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. PT-modifying genes are preferentially distributed within several genera, including Pseudomonas, Clostridioides, and Escherichia, with phylogenic diversities. We also assessed the PT modification patterns and found six new PT-linked dinucleotides (CpsG, CpsT, ApsG, TpsG, GpsC, ApsT) in human fecal DNA. To further investigate the PT in the human gut microbiome, we analyzed the abundance of PT-modifying genes and quantified the PT-linked dinucleotides in the fecal DNA. These results confirmed that human microbiome is a rich reservoir for PT-containing microbes and contains a wide variety of PT modification patterns.

7.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824158

RESUMO

Naphthoquinone-based meroterpenoids are hybrid polyketide-terpenoid natural products with chemical diversity and a broad range of biological activities. Here, we report the isolation of a group of naphthoquinone-containing compounds from Streptomyces sp. B9173, and their structures were elucidated by using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including 1D, 2D NMR, and high-resolution mass (HRMS) analysis. Seven flaviogeranin congeners or intermediates, three of which were new, have been derived from common naphthoquinone backbone and subsequent oxidation, methylation, prenylation, and amino group incorporation. Both flaviogeranin B1 (1) and B (2) contain an amino group which was incorporated into the C8 of 1,3,6,8-terhydroxynaphthalene (THN). Flaviogeranin D (3) contains an intact C-geranylgeranyl residue attached to the C2 of THN, while the O-geranylgeranyl group of 2 links with the hydroxyl on the C2 site of THN. Four compounds were selected and tested for antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity, with 3 and flaviogeranin C2 (5) displaying potent activity against selected bacteria and cancer cell lines. In light of the structure features of isolated compounds and the biosynthetic genes, a biosynthetic pathway of naphthoquinone-based flaviogeranins has been proposed. These isolated compounds not only extend the structural diversity but also represent new insights into the biosynthesis of naphthoquinone-based meroterpenoids.

8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(9): 5026-5031, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790600

RESUMO

A novel actinomycete, designated WYY166T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of Suaeda australis Moq. collected in Dongfang, PR China. The taxonomic position of this strain was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on its 16S rRNA gene referred strain WYY166T to the genus Nonomuraea, and it was most closely related to the type strains Nonomuraea candida HMC10T, Nonomuraea turkmeniaca DSM 43926T, Nonomuraea maritima NBRC 106687T and Nonomuraea polychroma DSM 43925T (98.35, 97.60, 97.36 and 97.30% sequence similarity, respectively). Genome sequencing revealed a genome size of 11.27 Mbp and a G+C content of 71.10 mol%. The genome average nucleotide identity (ANI) values and the digital DNA - DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain WYY166T and the other species of the genus were found to be low (ANI 81.63~85.23 %, dDDH 23.6~31.6 %), suggesting that it represented a new species. The physiological evaluation showed that it had remarkable nitrate reduction activity. The whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and madurose. The N-acyl type of muramic acid was acetyl. The major menaquinones were MK-9 (H4) (86.9 %) and MK-9 (H2) (13.1 %). The predominant fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 (53.2 %), 10-methyl C17 : 0 (10.7 %), C17 : 1 ω6c (8.3 %) and iso-C16 : 1 h (7.3 %). These physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data suggested that strain WYY166T should be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea, for which the name Nonomuraea nitratireducens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WYY166T (=MCCC 1K03779T=KCTC 49343T).

9.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(9): 2558-2567, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816442

RESUMO

DNA phosphorothioation (PT) exists in many pathogenic bacteria; however, the mechanism of PT-DNA resistance to the immune response is unclear. In this work, we meticulously investigated the peroxynitrite (PN) tolerance using PT-bioengineered E. coli strains. The in vivo experiment confirms that the S+ strain survives better than the S- strain under moderately oxidative stress. The LCMS, IC, and GCMS experiments demonstrated that phosphorothioate partially converted to phosphate, and the byproduct included sulfate and elemental sulfur. When O,O-diethyl thiophosphate ester (DETP) was used, the reaction rate k1 was determined to be 4.3 ± 0.5 M-1 s-1 in the first-order for both phosphorothioate and peroxynitrite at 35 °C and pH of 8.0. The IC50 values of phosphorothioate dinucleotides are dramatically increased by 400-700-fold compared to DETP. The SH/OH Yin-Yang mechanism rationalizes the in situ DNA self-defense against PN-mediated oxidative stress at the extra bioenergetic cost of DNA modification.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3958, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769971

RESUMO

Catalytic versatility is an inherent property of many enzymes. In nature, terpene cyclases comprise the foundation of molecular biodiversity as they generate diverse hydrocarbon scaffolds found in thousands of terpenoid natural products. Here, we report that the catalytic activity of the terpene cyclases AaTPS and FgGS can be switched from cyclase to aromatic prenyltransferase at basic pH to generate prenylindoles. The crystal structures of AaTPS and FgGS provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of this cryptic function. Moreover, aromatic prenyltransferase activity discovered in other terpene cyclases indicates that this cryptic function is broadly conserved among the greater family of terpene cyclases. We suggest that this cryptic function is chemoprotective for the cell by regulating isoprenoid diphosphate concentrations so that they are maintained below toxic thresholds.


Assuntos
Dimetilaliltranstransferase/metabolismo , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Alternaria/enzimologia , Domínio Catalítico , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/química , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fusarium/enzimologia , Indóis/química , Indóis/metabolismo , Liases Intramoleculares/química , Cinética , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Prenilação , Terpenos/metabolismo
11.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(8): 2107-2115, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649177

RESUMO

Polycyclic xanthones are characterized by highly oxygenated, angular hexacyclic frameworks and exhibit diverse biological activities. Although many of them have been isolated and chemically synthesized, the detailed biosynthetic machinery awaits discovery. Recently, xanthone construction in the xantholipin (1) pathway was shown to involve cryptic demethoxylation. This suggested a rationale for the existence of three O-methyltransferase (OMT) genes in the gene cluster, although there are only two O-methyl groups in the structure of 1. Here, in vivo and in vitro analysis have been used to show that the three paralogous OMTs, XanM1-M3, introduce individual methyl groups at specific points in the biosynthetic pathway. Each OMT can to some extent take over the role of the other OMTs, although they exhibit highly substrate-dependent regiospecificity. In addition, phylogenetic analysis suggests their evolution from a common ancestor. Four putative ancestral proteins were constructed, and one of them performed all the functions of XanM1-M3, while the others possessed more limited catalytic functions. The results suggest that a promiscuous common ancestor may have been able to catalyze all three reactions prior to gene duplication and functional divergence. The characterization of XanM1-M3 expands the enzyme inventory for polycyclic xanthone biosynthesis and suggests novel directed evolution approaches to diversifying natural product pathways.

12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8755-8766, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621606

RESUMO

The sulfur atom of phosphorothioated DNA (PT-DNA) is coordinated by a surface cavity in the conserved sulfur-binding domain (SBD) of type IV restriction enzymes. However, some SBDs cannot recognize the sulfur atom in some sequence contexts. To illustrate the structural determinants for sequence specificity, we resolved the structure of SBDSpr, from endonuclease SprMcrA, in complex with DNA of GPSGCC, GPSATC and GPSAAC contexts. Structural and computational analyses explained why it binds the above PT-DNAs with an affinity in a decreasing order. The structural analysis of SBDSpr-GPSGCC and SBDSco-GPSGCC, the latter only recognizes DNA of GPSGCC, revealed that a positively charged loop above the sulfur-coordination cavity electrostatically interacts with the neighboring DNA phosphate linkage. The structural analysis indicated that the DNA-protein hydrogen bonding pattern and weak non-bonded interaction played important roles in sequence specificity of SBD protein. Exchanges of the positively-charged amino acid residues with the negatively-charged residues in the loop would enable SBDSco to extend recognization for more PT-DNA sequences, implying that type IV endonucleases can be engineered to recognize PT-DNA in novel target sequences.

13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(18)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651204

RESUMO

Xantholipin (compound 1), a polycyclic xanthone antibiotic, exhibited strong antibacterial activities and showed potent cytotoxicity. The biosynthetic gene cluster of compound 1 has been identified in our previous work, and the construction of xanthone nucleus has been well demonstrated. However, limited information of the halogenation involved in compound 1 biosynthesis is available. In this study, based on the genetic manipulation and biochemical assay, we characterized XanH as an indispensable flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent halogenase (FDH) for the biosynthesis of compound 1. XanH was found to be a bifunctional protein capable of flavin reduction and chlorination and exclusively used the NADH. However, the reduced flavin could not be fully and effectively utilized, and the presence of an extra flavin reductase (FDR) and chemical-reducing agent could promote the halogenation. XanH accepted its natural free-standing substrate with angular fused polycyclic aromatic systems. Meanwhile, it exhibited moderate halogenation activity and possessed high substrate specificity. The requirement of extra FDR for higher halogenation activity is tedious for future engineering. To facilitate efforts in engineering XanH derivative proteins, we constructed the self-sufficient FDR-XanH fusion proteins. The fusion protein E1 with comparable activities to that of XanH could be used as a good alternative for future protein engineering. Taken together, these findings reported here not only improve the understanding of polycyclic xanthones biosynthesis but also expand the substrate scope of FDH and pave the way for future engineering of biocatalysts for new active substance synthesis.IMPORTANCE Halogenation is important in medicinal chemistry and plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites. Halogenases have evolved to catalyze reactions with high efficiency and selectivity, and engineering efforts have been made to engage the selective reactivity in natural product biosynthesis. The enzymatic halogenations are an environmentally friendly approach with high regio- and stereoselectivity, which make it a potential complement to organic synthesis. FDHs constitute one of the most extensively elucidated class of halogenases; however, the inventory awaits to be expanded for biotechnology applications and for the generation of halogenated natural product analogues. In this study, XanH was found to reduce flavin and halogenated the freely diffusing natural substrate with an angular fused hexacyclic scaffold, findings which were different from those for the exclusively studied FDHs. Moreover, the FDR-XanH fusion protein E1 with comparable reactivity to that of XanH serves as a successful example of genetic fusions and sets an important stage for future protein engineering.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648341

RESUMO

Lantibiotics are a type of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (termed lanthipeptides) with often potent antimicrobial activity. Herein, we report the discovery of a new lantibiotic, lexapeptide, using the library expression analysis system (LEXAS) approach. Lexapeptide has rare structural modifications, including N-terminal (N,N)-dimethyl phenylalanine, C-terminal (2-aminovinyl)-3-methyl-cysteine, and d-Ala. The characteristic lanthionine moiety in lexapeptide is formed by three proteins (LxmK, LxmX, and LxmY), which are distinct from enzymes known to be involved in lanthipeptide biosynthesis. Furthermore, a novel F420 H2 -dependent reductase (LxmJ) from the lexapeptide biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) is identified to catalyze the reduction of dehydroalanine to install d-Ala. Our findings suggest that lexapeptide is the founding member of a new class of lanthipeptides that we designate as class V. We also identified further class V lanthipeptide BGCs in actinomycetes and cyanobacteria genomes, implying that other class V lantibiotics await discovery.

15.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713197

RESUMO

Two new spirotetronate natural products, lobophorin L (1) and lobophorin M (2), together with three known lobophorin-like spirotetronate antibiotics (3-5) and two known ansamycins (6-7), were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. 4506. The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of HRESIMS as well as 1D and 2D NMR datasets. Antibacterial assay showed that, compounds 1 and 3-5 exhibited strong to moderate antibacterial activities against Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus thuringiensis with MIC values ranging from 0.0625 to 8 µg/mL, while compounds 3 and 6 showed weak antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA. The antibacterial activities of the lobophorins in this study indicated that the more substitution number of the sugar moieties at C-9 of the lobophorin, the stronger antimicrobial properties it may deserve, and the higher the oxidation degree of substituent group at C-3D, the better antibacterial activities of its corresponding compound could be.

16.
Small ; : e2002169, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612774

RESUMO

The ongoing global novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 outbreak has engendered numerous cases of infection and death. COVID-19 diagnosis relies upon nucleic acid detection; however, currently recommended methods exhibit high false-negative rates and are unable to identify other respiratory virus infections, thereby resulting in patient misdiagnosis and impeding epidemic containment. Combining the advantages of targeted amplification and long-read, real-time nanopore sequencing, herein, nanopore targeted sequencing (NTS) is developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses simultaneously within 6-10 h, with a limit of detection of ten standard plasmid copies per reaction. Compared with its specificity for five common respiratory viruses, the specificity of NTS for SARS-CoV-2 reaches 100%. Parallel testing with approved real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction kits for SARS-CoV-2 and NTS using 61 nucleic acid samples from suspected COVID-19 cases show that NTS identifies more infected patients (22/61) as positive, while also effectively monitoring for mutated nucleic acid sequences, categorizing types of SARS-CoV-2, and detecting other respiratory viruses in the test sample. NTS is thus suitable for COVID-19 diagnosis; moreover, this platform can be further extended for diagnosing other viruses and pathogens.

17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14322-14330, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518115

RESUMO

Phosphorothioate (PT) DNA modifications-in which a nonbonding phosphate oxygen is replaced with sulfur-represent a widespread, horizontally transferred epigenetic system in prokaryotes and have a highly unusual property of occupying only a small fraction of available consensus sequences in a genome. Using Salmonella enterica as a model, we asked a question of fundamental importance: How do the PT-modifying DndA-E proteins select their GPSAAC/GPSTTC targets? Here, we applied innovative analytical, sequencing, and computational tools to discover a novel behavior for DNA-binding proteins: The Dnd proteins are "parked" at the G6mATC Dam methyltransferase consensus sequence instead of the expected GAAC/GTTC motif, with removal of the 6mA permitting extensive PT modification of GATC sites. This shift in modification sites further revealed a surprising constancy in the density of PT modifications across the genome. Computational analysis showed that GAAC, GTTC, and GATC share common features of DNA shape, which suggests that PT epigenetics are regulated in a density-dependent manner partly by DNA shape-driven target selection in the genome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Epigenômica , Fosfatos/metabolismo , 2-Aminopurina , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Sequência Consenso , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Salmonella enterica/genética
18.
Small ; 16(32): e2002169, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578378

RESUMO

The ongoing global novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 outbreak has engendered numerous cases of infection and death. COVID-19 diagnosis relies upon nucleic acid detection; however, currently recommended methods exhibit high false-negative rates and are unable to identify other respiratory virus infections, thereby resulting in patient misdiagnosis and impeding epidemic containment. Combining the advantages of targeted amplification and long-read, real-time nanopore sequencing, herein, nanopore targeted sequencing (NTS) is developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses simultaneously within 6-10 h, with a limit of detection of ten standard plasmid copies per reaction. Compared with its specificity for five common respiratory viruses, the specificity of NTS for SARS-CoV-2 reaches 100%. Parallel testing with approved real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction kits for SARS-CoV-2 and NTS using 61 nucleic acid samples from suspected COVID-19 cases show that NTS identifies more infected patients (22/61) as positive, while also effectively monitoring for mutated nucleic acid sequences, categorizing types of SARS-CoV-2, and detecting other respiratory viruses in the test sample. NTS is thus suitable for COVID-19 diagnosis; moreover, this platform can be further extended for diagnosing other viruses and pathogens.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Nanoporos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Genes Virais , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Mutação , Nanotecnologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(7): 917-928, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251370

RESUMO

Bacteria have evolved diverse mechanisms to fend off predation by bacteriophages. We previously identified the Dnd system, which uses DndABCDE to insert sulfur into the DNA backbone as a double-stranded phosphorothioate (PT) modification, and DndFGH, a restriction component. Here, we describe an unusual SspABCD-SspE PT system in Vibrio cyclitrophicus, Escherichia coli and Streptomyces yokosukanensis, which has distinct genetic organization, biochemical functions and phenotypic behaviour. SspABCD confers single-stranded and high-frequency PTs with SspB acting as a nickase and possibly introducing nicks to facilitate sulfur incorporation. Strikingly, SspABCD coupled with SspE provides protection against phages in unusual ways: (1) SspE senses sequence-specific PTs by virtue of its PT-stimulated NTPase activity to exert its anti-phage activity, and (2) SspE inhibits phage propagation by introducing nicking damage to impair phage DNA replication. These results not only expand our knowledge about the diversity and functions of DNA PT modification but also enhance our understanding of the known arsenal of defence systems.

20.
iScience ; 23(4): 100984, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240951

RESUMO

Ubiquitin chain specificity has been described for some deubiquitinases (DUBs) but lacks a comprehensive profiling in vivo. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the seven lysine-linked ubiquitin chains between wild-type yeast and its 20 DUB-deletion strains, which may reflect the linkage specificity of DUBs in vivo. Utilizing the specificity and ubiquitination heterogeneity, we developed a method termed DUB-mediated identification of linkage-specific ubiquitinated substrates (DILUS) to screen the ubiquitinated lysine residues on substrates modified with certain chains and regulated by specific DUB. Then we were able to identify 166 Ubp2-regulating substrates with 244 sites potentially modified with K63-linked chains. Among these substrates, we further demonstrated that cyclophilin A (Cpr1) modified with K63-linked chain on K151 site was regulated by Ubp2 and mediated the nuclear translocation of zinc finger protein Zpr1. The K48-linked chains at non-K151 sites of Cpr1 were mainly regulated by Ubp3 and served as canonical signals for proteasome-mediated degradation.

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