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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

3.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2845, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30619252

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 11-13% of the world's population and greatly increases risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and death. It is characterized by systemic inflammation and disturbances in the blood leukocytes that remain incompletely understood. In particular, abnormalities in the numbers and relative proportions of the three major monocyte subsets-classical, intermediate, and non-classical-are described in CKD and end-stage renal disease. In this study, we characterized absolute numbers of blood leukocyte subtypes in adults with renal function varying from normal to advanced CKD. The primary aim was to identify monocyte subpopulations that associated most closely with current estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and subsequent rate of eGFR decline. Leucocyte and monocyte populations were enumerated by multi-color flow cytometry of whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from adults with CKD stage 1-5 (n = 154) and healthy adults (n = 33). Multiple-linear regression analyses were performed to identify associations between numbers of leucocyte and monocyte populations and clinical characteristics including eGFR and rate of eGFR decline with adjustment for age and gender. In whole blood, total monocyte and neutrophil, but not lymphocyte, numbers were higher in adults with CKD 1-5 compared to no CKD and were significantly associated with current eGFR even following correction for age. In PBMC, classical and intermediate monocyte numbers were higher in CKD 1-5 but only intermediate monocyte numbers were significantly associated with current eGFR in an age-corrected analysis. When intermediate monocytes were further sub-divided into those with mid- and high-level expression of class II MHC (HLA-DRmid and HLA-DRhi intermediate monocytes) it was found that only DRhi intermediate monocytes were increased in number in CKD 1-5 compared to no CKD and were significantly associated with eGFR independently of age among the total (No CKD + CKD 1-5) study cohort as well as those with established CKD (CKD 1-5 only). Furthermore, blood number of DRhi intermediate monocytes alone proved to be significantly associated with subsequent rate of renal functional decline. Together, our data confirm neutrophil and monocyte subset dysregulation in CKD and identify a distinct subpopulation of intermediate monocytes that is associated with higher rate of loss of kidney function.


Assuntos
Monócitos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Barreira de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(3): 786-792, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27797672

RESUMO

Context: Subclinical hypercortisolism (SH) occurs in 5% to 30% of adrenal incidentalomas (AIs). Common screening tests for adrenocorticotropin-independent hypercortisolism have substantial false-positive rates, mandating further time and resource-intensive investigations. Objective: To determine whether low basal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a sensitive and specific screening test for SH in AI. Setting and Patients: In total, 185 patients with AI were screened for adrenal medullary (plasma metanephrines) and cortical [1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (ONDST), 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC), serum DHEAS, plasma renin, and aldosterone] hyperfunction. Positive ONDST [≥1.8 mcg/dL (≥50 nmol/L)] and/or UFC (more than the upper limit of reference range) results were further investigated. We diagnosed SH when at least 2 of the following were met: raised UFC, raised midnight serum cortisol, 48-hour dexamethasone suppression test (DST) cortisol ≥1.8 mcg/dL (≥50 nmol/L). Results: 29 patients (16%) were diagnosed with SH. Adrenocorticotropin was <10 pg/mL (<2.2 pmol/L) in all patients with SH. We calculated age- and sex-specific DHEAS ratios (derived by dividing the DHEAS by the lower limit of the respective reference range) for all patients. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses demonstrated that a ratio of 1.12 was sensitive (>99%) and specific (91.9%) for the diagnosis of SH. Cortisol following 1 mg ONDST of 1.9 mcg/dL (53 nmol/L) was a sensitive (>99%) screening test for SH but had lower specificity (82.9%). The 24-hour UFC lacked sensitivity (69%) and specificity (72%). Conclusion: A single basal measurement of DHEAS offers comparable sensitivity and greater specificity to the existing gold-standard 1 mg DST for the detection of SH in patients with AIs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/sangue , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Adenoma/sangue , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Adulto , Aldosterona/sangue , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Cushing/etiologia , Dexametasona , Feminino , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/urina , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feocromocitoma/sangue , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Renina/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
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