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1.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther ; 51(10): 478-491, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the most suitable existing generic and condition-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for active youth with and without a musculoskeletal injury, based on measurement properties, interpretability, and feasibility. DESIGN: Systematic review of clinimetrics. LITERATURE SEARCH: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Scopus from inception to April 30, 2020. STUDY SELECTION CRITERIA: Records with original data describing the evaluation of a PROM or PROM subscale in active youth (15-24 years old) with or without a musculoskeletal injury were included. Non-English studies and those including individuals with a cognitive, developmental, or systemic condition were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: This review was conducted according to the COSMIN user manual for systematic reviews of PROMs and the PRISMA guidelines. The COSMIN user manual guided our measurement property evaluation and interpretability and feasibility description. RESULTS: Of 6931 potential records, 21 studies were included. Eleven generic and 7 condition-specific PROMs were identified. No PROM received a final COSMIN recommendation of "A" because all lacked sufficient content validity. The 8-item Disablement in the Physically Active scale-mental summary component Short Form (DPA-MSC SF-8), Quality of Life Survey, and Functional Arm Scale for Throwers (FAST) were the most suitable existing PROMs, given their high-quality evidence for sufficient structural validity and internal consistency. CONCLUSION: No definitively robust PROM for measuring generic or condition-specific HRQoL of active youth was identified. Until one exists, we recommend the DPA-MSC SF-8, the Quality of Life Survey, or the FAST and applying mixed methods to best characterize the HRQoL of active youth. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2021;51(10):478-491. doi:10.2519/jospt.2021.10412.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444546

RESUMO

Wildfires are increasing in frequency, size, and intensity, and increasingly affect highly populated areas. Wildfire smoke impacts cardiorespiratory health; children are at increased risk due to smaller airways, a higher metabolic rate and ongoing development. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the risk of pediatric respiratory symptoms and healthcare visits following exposure to wildfire smoke. Medical and scientific databases and the grey literature were searched from inception until December 2020. Included studies evaluated pediatric respiratory-related healthcare visits or symptoms associated with wildfire smoke exposure. Prescribed burns, non-respiratory symptoms and non-pediatric studies were excluded. Risk of bias was evaluated using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation Risk of Bias Rating Tool. Data are presented narratively due to study heterogeneity. Of 2138 results, 1167 titles and abstracts were screened after duplicate removal; 65 full text screens identified 5 pre-post and 11 cross-sectional studies of rural, urban and mixed sites from the USA, Australia, Canada and Spain. There is a significant increase in respiratory emergency department visits and asthma hospitalizations within the first 3 days of exposure to wildfire smoke, particularly in children < 5 years old.


Assuntos
Incêndios Florestais , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
3.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(9): 906-917, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415887

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The need for home care services is expanding around the world with increased attention to the resources required to produce them. To assist decision making, there is a need to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative programs within home care. Electronic searches were performed in five databases (before February 2020) identifying 3292 potentially relevant studies that assessed new or enhanced home care interventions compared with usual care for adults with an accompanying economic evaluation. From these, 133 articles were selected for full-text screening; 17 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Six main areas of research were identified including the following: alternative nursing care (n = 4), interdisciplinary care coordination (n = 4), fall prevention (n = 4), telemedicine/remote monitoring (n = 2), restorative/reablement care (n = 2), and one multifactorial undernutrition intervention study. Risk of bias was found to be high/weak (n = 7) or have some concerns/moderate (n = 6) rating, in addition to inconsistent reporting of important information required for economic evaluations. Both health and cost outcomes had mixed results. Cost-effective interventions were found in two areas including alternative nursing care and reablement/restorative care. Clinicians and decision makers are encouraged to carefully evaluate the quality of the studies because of issues with risk of bias and incomplete reporting of economic outcomes.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Vida Independente/economia , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Economia da Enfermagem , Humanos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Telemedicina/economia
4.
J Pain ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450274

RESUMO

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is common among older adults. This systematic review aimed to summarize: (1) the prevalence and incidence of CLBP in older adults, and (2) demographic, psychological, and clinical factors positively/negatively associated with prevalence/incidence of CLBP among older adults. Four databases were searched to identify relevant publications. Ten studies (31,080 older adults) were included after being screened by 5 independent reviewers using predetermined criteria. The methodological quality of these studies was evaluated by standardized tools. The quality of evidence for all factors were appraised by modified GRADE for cohort studies. Twenty-eight and 1 factors were associated with a higher prevalence and a lower 5-year cumulative incidence of CLBP, respectively. No prognostic factor was identified. There was very limited to limited evidence that females, obesity, anxiety, depression, mental disorders, self-expectation of recovery, self-perceived health status, lifestyle (smoking, daily fluoride consumption), previous falls or lower body injury, retirement/disability due to ill health, family history of body pain, comorbidity (knee osteoarthritis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with/without hypertension), weak abdominal muscles, leg pain, leg pain intensity, widespread pain, pain interference on functioning, use of pain medication, occupational exposure (driving for >20 years, or jobs involving bending/twisting for >10 years), disc space narrowing and severe facet osteoarthritis were significantly related to a higher prevalence of CLBP in older adults. However, very limited evidence suggested that intermediate level of leisure-time physical activity was associated with a lower prevalence of CLBP in older adults. Given the aging population and limited information regarding risk factors for CLBP in older adults, future high-quality prospective studies should identify relevant risk factors to help develop proper preventive and treatment strategies. PERSPECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of non-specific chronic low back pain among older adults, there is only very limited to limited evidence regarding factors associated with a higher prevalence of chronic low back pain in this population. Given the aging population, high-quality prospective studies are warranted to address this gap.

5.
J Emerg Nurs ; 47(5): 778-788, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sudden cardiac arrest is a leading cause of death. Family members often witness the event and attempt resuscitation. The physiological and psychological impact of a loved one's death, witnessed or unwitnessed, can be significant and long-lasting. However, little is known about the care needs of families during the cardiac arrest care of a loved one. This scoping review protocol was designed with, and will be performed in partnership with, persons with lived experience of sudden cardiac arrest (survivors and family members of survivors and nonsurvivors alike). METHODS: The review will be performed in accordance with accepted methods such as the Arksey and O'Malley methodology framework and the Levac extension. We will search multiple databases, and Google Scholar for both qualitative and quantitative scientific literature. Articles will be screened, extracted, and analyzed by a team with lived experience of cardiac arrest. Two reviewers will conduct all screening and data extraction independently. A descriptive overview, tabular and/or graphical summaries, and a directed content analysis will be carried out on extracted data. DISCUSSION: This protocol outlines a planned literature review to systematically examine the nature of existing evidence to describe what the care needs of families experiencing the cardiac arrest of a loved one are. Such evidence will contribute to the development of strategies to meet identified care needs. Persons with lived experience participated in the creation of this protocol, and they will also participate in the execution of this review as partners and coinvestigators, not as research subjects or participants. The results of the scoping review will be disseminated upon completion of the work described in this protocol.

6.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 102(8): 1606-1613, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine whether new tools and items have been developed to evaluate the risk of bias (RoB) and reporting of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in rehabilitation; (2) to determine which items are included in the existing reporting guidelines, and to create a matrix of items to report and conduct trials in rehabilitation as the first step for a starting a rigorous validation process. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health databases. STUDY SELECTION: Studies should describe a newly developed tool to evaluate the RoB or quality of reporting for RCTs in the area of rehabilitation. DATA EXTRACTION: (1) First, we extracted items from new tools identified by the electronic search strategies and then (2) we looked at the items provided by the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement and its relevant extensions. We determined whether these items were already included in our matrix of items. Items were classified based on methodological domains they accomplish, biases they were able to target, and whether they guide reporting or conduct. DATA SYNTHESIS: Among the 1596 citations found, 23 articles were potentially relevant. From these, only 3 new scales (National Institute for Complementary Medicine Acupuncture Network, Quality of reports on spa and balneotherapy [SPAC], Assessment of Study Quality and Reporting in Exercise) were found. In addition, the newly updated Cochrane RoB tool (RoB 2.0) was included. Our matrix contained 122 unique items for any rehabilitation area, 46 items (37.7%) were related to conduct, and 58 (47.5%) were related to the reporting; 18 (14.8%) were related to both. Overall, 76 new items were added among all domains. CONCLUSIONS: Many individual and diverse items have been used to guide the reporting and conduct of rehabilitation trials. This indicates a great variability in number of items and an apparent lack of consensus on a core set of items to be used in rehabilitation. Future research should look into developing a core set of items for the rehabilitation field.


Assuntos
Viés , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa de Reabilitação/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos
7.
Acad Med ; 96(7): 1057-1070, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830949

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the current state and quality of compassion education interventions offered to health care providers during training or practice, determine how the components of each education intervention map onto the domains of an empirically based clinical model of compassion, and identify the most common approaches to compassion education. METHOD: The MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, ERIC, and Education Research Complete databases were searched from inception to March 2020 in this systematic review. Studies that evaluated a compassion education intervention for health care providers or those in training to enhance compassion toward patients and/or families were included. A narrative synthesis of the included studies was performed. The components of each intervention were mapped onto the domains of compassion described in the Patient Compassion Model. RESULTS: One hundred eight peer-reviewed publications describing 103 interventions were included. Modalities ranged from establishing curricula and interventions in clinical settings to programs that used humanities-based reflective practices, clinical simulation, role modeling, and contemplative practices, with many education interventions adopting a multimodal approach. Most interventions mapped to the virtuous response domain of the Patient Compassion Model; very few mapped to the other domains of this model. CONCLUSIONS: Most interventions were limited as they focused on a single domain of compassion; did not adequately define compassion; were assessed exclusively by self-report; were devoid of a comparator/control group; and did not evaluate retention, sustainability, and translation to clinical practice over time. The authors suggest that compassion education interventions be grounded in an empirically based definition of compassion; use a competency-based approach; employ multimodal teaching methods that address the requisite attitudes, skills, behaviors, and knowledge within the multiple domains of compassion; evaluate learning over time; and incorporate patient, preceptor, and peer evaluations.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Educacional Precoce/métodos , Empatia/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo/tendências , Escolaridade , Humanos , Conhecimento , Liderança , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Revisão da Pesquisa por Pares/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Assistência Terminal/ética
8.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 56(6): 817-828, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Attrition, missing data, compliance, and related biases can influence the magnitude of treatment effects in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It is unclear which items should be considered when reporting and evaluating the influence of these biases in trial reports in the rehabilitation field. The aim was to describe which individual items considering attrition, missing data, compliance, and related biases are included in quality tools used in rehabilitation research. In addition, we aimed to determine whether the existing reporting guidelines, such as the CONSORT and its extensions include all relevant items related to these biases when reporting RCTs in the area of rehabilitation. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Comprehensive literature searches and a systematic approach to identify tools and items looking at attrition, missing data, compliance and related biases in rehabilitation were performed. We extracted individual items linked to these biases from all quality tools. We calculated the frequency of quality items used across tools and compared them to those found in the CONSORT statement and its extensions. A list of items to be potentially added to the CONSORT statement was generated. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Three new tools to assess the conduct and reporting of trials in the rehabilitation field were found. From these tools, 28 items were used to evaluate the reporting as well as the conduct of trials considering attrition, missing data, compliance, and related biases in the rehabilitation field. However, our team found that some of these items lack specificity in the information required and therefore more research is needed to determine a core set of items used for reporting as well as assessing the risk of bias (RoB) of RCT in the rehabilitation field. CONCLUSIONS: Although many items have been described by existing tools and the CONSORT statement (and its extensions) that deal with attrition, missing data, compliance, and related biases, several gaps in reporting were identified. It is crucial that future research investigate a core set of items to be used in the field of rehabilitation to facilitate the reporting as well as the conduct of RCTs.


Assuntos
Viés , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa de Reabilitação/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos
9.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 56(6): 799-816, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165312

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Attrition, missing data, compliance, and related biases are three interrelated concepts. Previous research has found that these biases can affect the treatment estimates of randomized trials (RCTs). The extent to which the effects of attrition, missing data, compliance and related biases influence effect size estimates in rehabilitation as well as the effect of analytic strategies to mitigate these biases is unknown. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: To compile and synthetize the empirical evidence regarding the effects of attrition and compliance related biases on treatment effect estimates in rehabilitation RCTs. Electronic searches were conducted. Studies were included if they investigated the effects of attrition, missing data, compliance and related biases on treatment estimates. The seven studies meeting inclusion criteria were coded for type of biases and summarized using a narrative and/or quantitative approach when appropriate. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Findings demonstrated that trials reporting higher levels of attrition (differences in ES: 0.18 [95%CI: 0.15, 0.22 ]), exclusion of participants from analyses (differences in ES: 0.13 [95% CI: -0.03, 0.29]), lack of good control of incomplete outcome data (differences in ES: 0.14 [95%CI: -0.02, 0.30]) and analysis by "as treated"(differences in ES:-0.39 [95%CI: -0.99, 0.2]) or "per protocol" (differences in ES:-0.46 [95%CI: -0.92, 0]) analyses were more likely to have higher effects than those that did not. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that attrition, missing data, compliance, and related biases have an influence in treatment effect estimates in rehabilitation trials. Therefore, these results should be taken into consideration when designing, conducting and reporting trials in the rehabilitation field.


Assuntos
Viés , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Pesquisa de Reabilitação/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(9): e22079, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A necessary shift from in-person to remote delivery of psychotherapy (eg, teletherapy, eHealth, videoconferencing) has occurred because of the COVID-19 pandemic. A corollary benefit is a potential fit in terms of the need for equitable and timely access to mental health services in remote and rural locations. Owing to COVID-19, there may be an increase in the demand for timely, virtual delivery of services among trauma-affected populations, including public safety personnel (PSP; eg, paramedics, police, fire, correctional officers), military members, and veterans. There is a lack of evidence on the question of whether digital delivery of trauma-therapies for military members, veterans, and PSP leads to similar outcomes to in-person delivery. Information on barriers and facilitators and recommendations regarding digital-delivery is also scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the scope and quality of peer-reviewed literature on psychotherapeutic digital health interventions delivered remotely to military members, veterans, and PSP and synthesize the knowledge of needs, gaps, barriers to, and facilitators for virtual assessment of and virtual interventions for posttraumatic stress injury. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified using MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica dataBASE), APA (American Psychological Association) PsycINFO, CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature) Plus with Full Text, and Military & Government Collection. For collation, analysis, summarizing, and reporting of results, we used the CASP (Critical Skills Appraisal Program) qualitative checklist, PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) scale, level of evidence hierarchy, PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews), and narrative synthesis. RESULTS: A total of 38 studies were included in this review. Evidence for the effectiveness of digital delivery of prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive processing therapy, behavioral activation treatment with therapeutic exposure to military members, veterans, and PSP was rated level 1a, whereas evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy was conflicting. The narrative synthesis indicated that virtual delivery of these therapies can be as effective as in-person delivery but may reduce stigma and cost while increasing access to therapy. Issues of risk, safety, potential harm (ie, suicidality, enabling avoidance), privacy, security, and the match among the therapist, modality, and patient warrant further consideration. There is a lack of studies on the influences of gender, racial, and cultural factors that may result in differential outcomes, preferences, and/or needs. An investigation into other therapies that may be suitable for digital delivery is needed. CONCLUSIONS: Digital delivery of trauma therapies for military members, veterans, and PSP is a critical area for further research. Although promising evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of digital health within these populations, many questions remain, and a cautious approach to more widespread implementation is warranted.


Assuntos
Socorristas/psicologia , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Telemedicina , Veteranos/psicologia , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-29, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242464

RESUMO

Purpose: To synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for the management of LBP on beliefs of the general public and health care providers, LBP-related disability, health utilization, and LBP clinical outcomes.Materials and Methods: Five electronic databases were searched from inception to December 17, 2019. Any studies evaluating the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for LBP were eligible. Primary outcome was general public LBP beliefs, while secondary outcomes included health care provider beliefs as well as LBP-related disability, health utilization, and clinical outcomes.Results: The search resulted in 4,164 unique records, of which 18 studies were included. These 18 studies predominantly used quasi-experimental methods to evaluate seven LBP mass media campaigns conducted in seven countries. All studies evaluating LBP beliefs in the general public detected positive effects. Health care provider beliefs also consistently improved. Results for behavioural outcomes (disability behaviour and health utilization) were mixed and appeared dependent on campaign characteristics and local context.Conclusions: Mass media campaigns for LBP appear effective for improving beliefs of the general public and health care providers.Registration: Prospero CRD42018116797IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONMass media campaigns about low back pain (LBP) appear effective for improving beliefs of the general public and health care providers, aligning beliefs with current evidence and self-management principles.Rehabilitation professionals should be aware of and seek to support public education initiatives in their communities related to LBP and other disabling health conditions.Rehabilitation professionals can highlight and reinforce campaign messages when providing education and reassurance to individual patients.Several campaign resources (i.e., posters, pamphlets, electronic resources, etc.) are available for rehabilitation professionals to use in their efforts to reduce disability related to LBP.

12.
Clin J Sport Med ; 30 Suppl 1: S11-S28, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gait deviations resulting from concussion are important to consider in the diagnosis, treatment progression, and return to activity after a concussion. OBJECTIVE: To identify quantifiable gait deviations associated with concussion across populations and time since injury. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Six electronic databases were systematically searched from January 1974 to September 2016. Studies selected included original data, had an analytic design, and reported a quantifiable gait parameter in individuals who had sustained a concussion as defined by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine or related definitions. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines were followed. Two independent authors assessed study quality [Downs and Black (DB) criteria] and level of evidence (Oxford Center of Evidence-Based Medicine Model). RESULTS: Of 2650 potentially relevant articles, 21 level 4 studies were included. The median DB score was 12/33 (range 10-16). Heterogeneity in gait parameters and timing of postconcussion testing precluded meta-analysis. There is consistent level 4 evidence of increased medial-lateral center-of-mass displacement, and inconsistent level 4 evidence of decreased gait velocity after concussion. Further, there is preliminary level 4 evidence that gait deficits may exist beyond the typical 10-day recovery period and return to activity. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that individuals who have suffered a concussion may sway more in the frontal plane, and walk slower compared to healthy controls. Consensus about the most important gait parameters for concussion diagnosis and clinical management are lacking. Further, high-quality prospective cohort studies evaluating changes in gait from time of concussion to return to activity, sport, recreation and/or work are needed.

13.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(3): 183-190, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977325

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Some recent studies suggest that double blinding should not be considered a validity criterion in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on real-life circumstances. This study aims to assess whether blinding vs. nonblinding have been analyzed conceptually in the rehabilitation literature. Propositions on the role of blinding in RCTs on rehabilitation are presented based on the conceptual analysis. DESIGN: Study questions, literature search strategy, and inclusion and exclusion criteria for the original studies were formulated. A health science librarian carried out the literature search. Eligibility was assessed and data extraction was performed by two independent researchers. RESULTS: The literature search identified a total of 1052 citations, of which 13 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. None of the included studies answered our research questions, and thus we were unable to extract any relevant data. CONCLUSIONS: The ideas on blinding vs. nonblinding in RCTs have not been considered in the rehabilitation research literature. This conceptual systematic review proposes that a physical therapy modality is a single core element, and when the study question is on effectiveness of this single core element itself, double blinding in an RCT is indicated. In all other RCTs in rehabilitation, double blinding is not indicated and double blinding should not be considered a criterion for the assessment of risk of bias.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Pesquisa de Reabilitação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos
14.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(3): 198-209, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the association between different types of blinding on treatment effects estimates in the area of rehabilitation. METHODS: Evidence synthesis was used for the design of the study. This study included any systematic review or meta-epidemiological study that investigated associations between any blinding component and treatment effects estimates in randomized control trials in the area of rehabilitation. The information obtained from the included studies was organized by type of blinding and summarized using a narrative and/or quantitative approach when possible. If there were enough data of estimates for any type of blinding, we decided to pool them in an exploratory fashion. RESULTS: The literature search identified a total of 1015 citations, of which 7 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies show overestimation, underestimation, or neutral associations for different types of blinding on treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS: Associations were mixed and did not follow a consistent pattern. Lack/poor reporting of blinding, small sample sizes, and heterogeneity of data sets could have led to nonsignificant and inconsistent results obtained by the included studies. Although the evidence regarding the association between blinding and treatment effect estimates is still inconclusive in the rehabilitation field, based on the available literature, researchers should select creative solutions to avoid performance and detection bias.


Assuntos
Método Duplo-Cego , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa de Reabilitação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos
15.
Health Expect ; 21(6): 1208-1230, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a scoping review of the tools used to measure therapeutic relationship in patients with haemophilia. BACKGROUND: Haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of a clotting factor in the blood. Therapeutic relationship is foundational to the management of patients with chronic diseases like haemophilia. A reliable and valid measurement tool for assessing therapeutic relationship is needed to evaluate the quality of care received by these patients, and to rigorously study the association between therapeutic relationship and the outcomes of treatment. METHODS: We adopted the Arksey and O'Malley framework for scoping studies. The following electronic databases were searched for studies that measured a construct related to therapeutic relationships in haemophilia care: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. We inventoried these studies, identified the measurement tools used, and described each tool by purpose, content, measurement properties and target population. We identified gaps in the current evidence and directions for future research. RESULTS: There were 253 unique records retrieved in the search, and twenty studies were deemed relevant. Ten measurement tools were identified. None of the tools measured therapeutic relationship as a single entity; however, six tools measured constructs considered part of patient-provider relationship (eg trust, communication, working alliance). There has been little validation testing of these tools in haemophilia patient populations. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for a validated tool for measuring therapeutic relationship in the care of patients with haemophilia. This review provides a foundation for future research in this area.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Hemofilia A , Relações Médico-Paciente , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente
16.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 519, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent worldwide, but some groups are at greater risk. We aim to evaluate vitamin D levels in different occupations and identify groups vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: An electronic search conducted in Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL Plus with Full Text generated 2505 hits; 71 peer-reviewed articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Occupations investigated included outdoor and indoor workers, shiftworkers, lead/smelter workers, coalminers, and healthcare professionals. We calculated the pooled average metabolite level as mean ± SD; deficiency/insufficiency status was described as % of the total number of subjects in a given category. RESULTS: Compared to outdoor workers, indoor workers had lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels (40.6 ± 13.3 vs. 66.7 ± 16.7 nmol/L; p < 0.0001). Mean 25-(OH)D levels (in nmol/L) in shiftworkers, lead/smelter workers and coalminers were 33.8 ± 10.0, 77.8 ± 5.4 and 56.6 ± 28.4, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D < 50 nmol/L), was high in shiftworkers (80%) and indoor workers (78%) compared to outdoor workers (48%). Among healthcare professionals, medical residents and healthcare students had the lowest levels of mean 25-(OH)D, 44.0 ± 8.3 nmol/L and 45.2 ± 5.5 nmol/L, respectively. The mean 25-(OH)D level of practising physicians, 55.0 ± 5.8 nmol/L, was significantly different from both medical residents (p < 0.0001) and healthcare students (p < 0.0001). Nurses and other healthcare employees had 25-(OH)D levels of 63.4 ± 4.2 nmol/L and 63.0 ± 11.0 nmol/L, respectively, which differed significantly compared to practising physicians (p = 0.01), medical residents (p < 0.0001) and healthcare students (p < 0.0001). Rates of vitamin D deficiency among healthcare professionals were: healthcare students 72%, medical residents 65%, practising physicians 46%, other healthcare employees 44%, and nurses 43%. Combined rates of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (25-(OH)D < 75 nmol/L) were very high in all investigated groups. Potential confounders such as gender and body composition were not consistently reported in the primary studies and were therefore not analyzed. Furthermore, the descriptions of occupational characteristics may be incomplete. These are limitations of our systematic review. CONCLUSIONS: Our review demonstrates that shiftworkers, healthcare workers and indoor workers are at high risk to develop vitamin D deficiency, which may reflect key lifestyle differences (e.g. sunlight exposure). This may help target health promotion and preventive efforts.


Assuntos
Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Vitamina D/sangue , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 4(1): e000169, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28176972

RESUMO

A significant proportion of patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) with asthma exacerbations will relapse within 4 weeks. This systematic review summarises the evidence regarding relapses and factors associated with relapse in adult patients discharged from EDs after being treated for acute asthma. Following a registered protocol, comprehensive literature searches were conducted. Studies tracking outcomes for adults after ED management and discharge were included if they involved adjusted analyses. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the Risk of Bias (RoB) Tool. Results were summarised using medians and IQRs or mean and SD, as appropriate. 178 articles underwent full-text review and 10 studies, of various methodologies, involving 32 923 patients were included. The majority of the studies were of high quality according to NOS and RoB Tool. Relapse proportions were 8±3%, 12±4% and 14±6% at 1, 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Female sex was the most commonly reported and statistically significant factor associated with an increased risk of relapse within 4 weeks of ED discharge for acute asthma. Other factors significantly associated with relapse were past healthcare usage and previous inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) usage. A median of 17% of patients who are discharged from the ED will relapse within the first 4 weeks. Factors such as female sex, past healthcare usage and ICS use at presentation were commonly and significantly associated with relapse occurrence. Identifying patients with these features could provide clinicians with guidance during their ED discharge decision-making.

18.
Br J Sports Med ; 51(7): 580-585, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 5 electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. 2 independent authors assessed the quality (Downs and Black (DB) criteria) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). RESULTS: Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low-quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3-15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). 4 studies considered inter-relationships between risk factors, 7 reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention programme targeting individuals identified as high risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should focus on high-quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and LE injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based on screening tests with validated test properties.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos da Perna/diagnóstico , Movimento , Esportes , Atletas , Humanos , Militares , Fatores de Risco
19.
Am J Manag Care ; 21(2): e171-85, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Presenteeism (decreased productivity while at work) is reported to be a major occupational problem in many countries. Challenges exist for identifying the optimal approach to measure presenteeism. Evidence of the relative value of presenteeism instruments to support their use in primary studies is needed. OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the measurement properties (ie, validity, reliability, responsiveness) and the quality of the evidence of presenteeism instruments. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Comprehensive searches of electronic databases were conducted up to October 2012. Twenty-three presenteeism instruments were examined. Methodological quality was appraised with the COSMIN (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments) checklist. A best-evidence synthesis approach was used in the analysis. RESULTS: The titles and abstracts of 1767 articles were screened, with 289 full-text articles reviewed for eligibility. Of these, 40 studies assessing the measurement properties of presenteeism instruments were identified. The 3 presenteeism instruments with the strongest level of evidence on more than 1 measurement property were the Stanford Presenteeism Scale, 6-item version (content validity, internal consistency, construct validity, convergent validity, and responsiveness); the Endicott Work Productivity Scale (internal consistency, convergent validity, and responsiveness); and the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ; internal consistency and structural validity). Only the HWQ was assessed for criterion validity, with unknown quality of the evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Most presenteeism instruments have been examined for some form of validity; evidence for criterion validity is virtually absent. The selection of instruments for use in primary studies depends on weak forms of validity. Further research should focus on the goal of a comprehensive evaluation of the psychometric properties of existing tests of presenteeism, with emphasis on criterion validity.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Presenteísmo/organização & administração , Presenteísmo/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Lista de Checagem , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inovação Organizacional , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Adm Policy Ment Health ; 42(1): 10-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24477885

RESUMO

Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP) is a 3-year home visitation/harm reduction intervention to prevent alcohol exposed births, thereby births with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, among high-risk women. This article used a decision analytic modeling technique to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and the net monetary benefit of the P-CAP within the Alberta Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Service Networks in Canada. The results indicate that the P-CAP is cost-effective and support placing a high priority not only on reducing alcohol use during pregnancy, but also on providing effective contraceptive measures when a program is launched.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/prevenção & controle , Alberta , Abstinência de Álcool , Administração de Caso/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/economia , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Modelos Econométricos
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