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1.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221305, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the prevalence of CTCs in breast cancer (BC) patients undergoing neoadjuvant or palliative therapy with a label-free microfluidic platform (ClearCell FX), and its prognostic relevance in metastatic BC (mBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 108 BC patients before starting a new line of treatment ("baseline"), majority of whom had mBC (76/108; 70.4%). CTCs were retrieved by dean flow fractionation that enriched for larger cells, and enumerated using immunofluorescence-based staining. Progression-free survival (PFS) in mBC patients was analysed using Kaplan-Meier method; cox proportional hazard models were used for univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The detection rate of CTCs before starting a new line of treatment was 75.9% (n = 108; median: 8 CTCs/7.5 ml blood) at a cut off of ≥2 CTCs. PFS was inferior for mBC patients with baseline CTC count ≥5 CTCs/7.5 ml blood vs. those with < 5 CTCs/7.5 ml blood (median PFS: 4.3 vs. 7.0 months; p-value: 0.037). The prognostic relevance of CTCs was most significant in patients with HER2- mBC (median PFS: 4.1 vs. 8.3 months; p-value: 0.032), luminal (HR+HER2-) subtype (median PFS: 4.2 vs. 8.3 months; p-value: 0.048), and patients who had one or more prior treatments (median PFS: 4.2 vs. 7.0 months; p-value: 0.02). On multivariable analysis, baseline CTC level (hazard ratio (HR): 1.84, p-value: 0.02) and pre-treatment status (HR: 1.87, p-value: 0.05) were independent predictors of PFS. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates the prognostic significance of CTCs in mBC detected using a label-free size-based enrichment platform.

2.
Virchows Arch ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407032

RESUMO

The proliferation marker Ki-67 is frequently used to assess aggressiveness in the pathological evaluation of cancer, but its role remains uncertain in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We aimed to quantify and localize Ki-67 expression in both epithelial and immune compartments in TNBC and investigate its association with clinicopathological parameters and survival outcomes. A total of 406 TNBC cases diagnosed between 2003 and 2015 at Singapore General Hospital were recruited. Using state-of-the-art, 7-colour multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) tissue microarrays (TMAs) were stained to assess the abundance, density and spatial distribution of Ki-67-positive tumour cells and immune cells co-decorated with cytokeratin (CK) and leukocyte common antigen (CD45) respectively. Furthermore, MKI67 mRNA profiles were analysed using NanoString technology. In multivariate analysis adjusted for tumour size, histologic grade, age at diagnosis, and lymph node stage, a high Ki-67 labelling index (LI) > 0.3% was associated with improved disease-free survival (DFS; HR = 0.727; p = 0.027). High Ki-67-positive immune cell count per TMA was a favourable prognostic marker for both DFS (HR = 0.379; p = 0.00153) and overall survival (OS; HR = 0.473; p = 0.0482). The combination of high Ki-67 LI and high MKI67 expression was associated with improved DFS (HR = 0.239; p = 0.00639) and OS (HR = 0.213; p = 0.034). This study is among the first to highlight that Ki-67 is associated with favourable prognosis in an adjuvant setting in TNBC, and the mIF-based evaluation of Ki-67 expression on both tumour and immune cells represents a novel prognostic approach.

3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 178(2): 295-305, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We used multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) to determine whether mitotic rate represents an independent prognostic marker in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Secondary aims were to confirm the prognostic significance of immune cells in TNBC, and to investigate the relationship between immune cells and proliferating tumour cells. METHODS: A retrospective Asian cohort of 298 patients with TNBC diagnosed from 2003 to 2015 at the Singapore General Hospital was used in the present study. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples were analysed on tissue microarrays using mIF, which combined phospho-histone H3 (pHH3) expression with cytokeratin (CK) and leukocyte common antigen (CD45) expression to identify tumour and immune cells, respectively. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that a high pHH3 index was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS; p = 0.004), but this was not significantly associated with disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.22). Similarly, multivariate analysis also revealed that a pHH3 positive count of > 1 cell per high-power field in the malignant epithelial compartment was an independent favourable prognostic marker for OS (p = 0.033) but not for DFS (p = 0.250). Furthermore, a high CD45 index was an independent favourable prognostic marker for DFS (p = 0.018), and there was a significant positive correlation between CD45 and pHH3 index (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, 0.250; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Mitotic rates as determined by pHH3 expression in epithelial cells are significantly associated with improved survival in TNBC. mIF analysis of pHH3 in combination with CK and CD45 could help clinicians in prognosticating patients with TNBC.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(25): 2257-2269, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050911

RESUMO

The DNA damage response (DDR) pathway coordinates the identification, signaling, and repair of DNA damage caused by endogenous or exogenous factors and regulates cell-cycle progression with DNA repair to minimize DNA damage being permanently passed through cell division. Severe DNA damage that cannot be repaired may trigger apoptosis; as such, the DDR pathway is of crucial importance as a cancer target. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is the best-known element of the DDR, and several PARP inhibitors have been licensed. However, there are approximately 450 proteins involved in DDR, and a number of these other targets are being investigated in the laboratory and clinic. We review the most recent evidence for the clinical effect of PARP inhibition in breast and ovarian cancer and explore expansion into the first-line setting and into other tumor types. We critique the evidence for patient selection techniques and summarize what is known about mechanisms of PARP inhibitor resistance. We then discuss what is known about the preclinical rationale for targeting other members of the DDR pathway and the associated tumor cell genetics that may confer sensitivity to these agents. Examples include DNA damage sensors (MLH1), damage signaling molecules (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated; ataxia-telangiectasia mutated-related and Rad3-related; CHK1/2; DNA-dependent protein kinase, catalytic subunit; WEE1; CDC7), or effector proteins for repair (POLQ [also referred to as POLθ], RAD51, poly [ADP-ribose] glycohydrolase). Early-phase clinical trials targeting some of these molecules, either as a single agent or in combination, are discussed. Finally, we outline the challenges that must be addressed to maximize the therapeutic opportunity that targeting DDR provides.

5.
Future Oncol ; 15(17): 1951-1961, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977385

RESUMO

The PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab received US FDA accelerated approval as treatment for PD-L1-positive metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). In IMpassion130, combining atezolizumab with first-line nab-paclitaxel for metastatic TNBC significantly improved progression-free survival and showed a clinically meaningful effect on overall survival in patients with PD-L1-positive tumors. The placebo-controlled randomized Phase III IMpassion132 (NCT03371017) trial is evaluating atezolizumab with first-line chemotherapy (capecitabine [mandatory in platinum-pretreated patients] or gemcitabine/carboplatin) for inoperable locally advanced/metastatic TNBC recurring ≤12 months after completing standard (neo)adjuvant anthracycline and taxane chemotherapy. Stratification factors are: visceral metastases, tumor immune cell PD-L1 status and selected chemotherapy. Patients are randomized to atezolizumab 1200 mg or placebo every 3 weeks with the chosen chemotherapy, continued until progression, unacceptable toxicity or withdrawal. The primary end point is overall survival.

6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 34, 2019 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728081

RESUMO

The role of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains to be fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of PD-1 as a prognostic marker for TNBC in an Asian cohort (n = 269). Samples from patients with TNBC were labeled with antibodies against PD-L1 and PD-1, and subjected to NanoString assays to measure the expression of immune-related genes. Associations between disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and biomarker expression were investigated. Multivariate analysis showed that tumors with high PD-1+ immune infiltrates harbored significantly increased DFS, and this increase was significant even after controlling for clinicopathological parameters (HR 0.95; P = 0.030). In addition, the density of cells expressing both CD8 and PD-1, but not the density of CD8-PD-1+ immune infiltrates, was associated with improved DFS. Notably, this prognostic significance was independent of clinicopathological parameters and the densities of total CD8+ cell (HR 0.43, P = 0.011). At the transcriptional level, high expression of PDCD1 within the tumor was significantly associated with improved DFS (HR 0.38; P = 0.027). In line with these findings, high expression of IFNG (HR 0.38; P = 0.001) and IFN signaling genes (HR 0.46; p = 0.027) was also associated with favorable DFS. Inclusion of PD-1 immune infiltrates and PDCD1 gene expression added significant prognostic value for DFS (ΔLRχ2 = 6.35; P = 0.041) and OS (ΔLRχ2 = 9.53; P = 0.008), beyond that provided by classical clinicopathological variables. Thus, PD-1 mRNA and protein expression status represent a promising, independent indicator of prognosis in TNBC.

7.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382534

RESUMO

Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) adversely affects cancer patients. We had previously demonstrated that the BDNF Val66Met genetic polymorphism is associated with lower odds of subjective CRCI in the multitasking and verbal ability domains among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. To further assess our previous findings, we evaluated the association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with subjective and objective CRCI in a temporally separate cohort of patients and pooled findings from both the original (n = 145) and current (n = 193) cohorts in a meta-analysis. Subjective CRCI was assessed using FACT-Cog. Objective CRCI was evaluated using computerized neuropsychological tests. Genotyping was carried out using Sanger sequencing. The association of BDNF Val66Met genotypes and CRCI was examined with logistic regression. A fixed-effect meta-analysis was conducted using the inverse variance method. In the meta-analysis (n = 338), significantly lower odds of CRCI were associated with Met allele carriers based on the global FACT-Cog score (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.94). Furthermore, Met allele carriers were at lower odds of developing impairment in the domains of memory (OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.17-0.70), multitasking (OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.59), and verbal ability (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.24-0.88). Consistent with the previous study, lower odds of subjective CRCI among patients with the BDNF Met allele was observed after adjusting for potential confounders in the multitasking (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.14-0.67) domain. In conclusion, carriers of the BDNF Met allele were protected against global subjective CRCI, particularly in the domains of memory, multitasking, and verbal ability. Our findings further contribute to the understanding of CRCI pathophysiology.

9.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 4: 19, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062102

RESUMO

Breast cancer is an increasing problem in Asia, with a higher proportion of premenopausal patients who are at higher risk of recurrence. Targeted sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from primary tumor specimens of 63 premenopausal Asian patients who relapsed after initial diagnosis of non-metastatic breast cancer. The most prevalent alterations included: TP53 (65%); PIK3CA (32%); GATA3 (29%); ERBB2 (27%); MYC (25%); KMT2C (21%); MCL1 (17%); PRKDC, TPR, BRIP1 (14%); MDM4, PCDH15, PRKAR1A, CDKN1B (13%); CCND1, KMT2D, STK11, and MLH1 (11%). Sixty of the 63 patients (95%) had at least one genetic alteration in a signaling pathway related to cell cycle or p53 signaling. The presence of MCL1 amplification, HIF-1-alpha transcription factor network pathway alterations, and direct p53 effectors pathway alterations were independent predictors of inferior overall survival from initial diagnosis. Comparison with non-Asian premenopausal tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed a higher prevalence of TP53 mutations among HER2-positive cancers, and more frequent TP53, TET2, and CDK12 mutations among hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative cancers in our cohort. Given the limited number of non-Asian premenopausal breast cancers that had relapsed in TCGA, we compared the frequency of mutations in our cohort with 43 premenopausal specimens from both TCGA and International Cancer Genome Consortium that had relapsed. There was a trend toward higher prevalence of TP53 mutations in our cohort. Certain genomic aberrations may be enriched in tumors of poor-prognosis premenopausal Asian breast cancers. The development of novel therapies targeting these aberrations merit further research.

10.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1209, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899747

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women, but the heterogeneity of the condition is a significant obstacle to effective treatment. Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) do not express HER2 or the receptors for estrogen or progesterone, and so often have a poor prognosis. Tumor-infiltrating T cells have been well-characterized in TNBC, and increased numbers are associated with better outcomes; however, the potential roles of B cells and plasma cells have been large. Here, we conducted a retrospective correlative study on the expression of B cell/plasma cell-related genes, and the abundance and localization of B cells and plasma cells within TNBCs, and clinical outcome. We analyzed 269 TNBC samples and used immunohistochemistry to quantify tumor-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells, coupled with NanoString measurement of expression of immunoglobulin metagenes. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients bearing TNBCs with above-median densities of CD38+ plasma cells had significantly better disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.26-0.77; p = 0.004) but not overall survival (OS), after adjusting for the effects of known prognostic factors. In contrast, TNBCs with higher immunoglobulin gene expression exhibited improved prognosis (OS p = 0.029 and DFS p = 0.005). The presence of B cells and plasma cells was positively correlated (p < 0.0001, R = 0.558), while immunoglobulin gene IGKC, IGHM, and IGHG1 mRNA expression correlated specifically with the density of CD38+ plasma cells (IGKC p < 0.0001, R = 0.647; IGHM p < 0.0001, R = 0.580; IGHG1 p < 0.0001, R = 0.655). Interestingly, after adjusting the multivariate analysis for the effect of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell density, the expression levels of all three genes lost significant prognostic value, suggesting a biologically important role of plasma cells. Last but not least, the addition of intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell density to clinicopathological features significantly increased the prognostic value for both DFS (ΔLRχ2 = 17.28, p = 1.71E-08) and OS (ΔLRχ2 = 10.03, p = 6.32E-08), compared to clinicopathological features alone. The best combination was achieved by integrating intratumoral CD38+ plasma cell density and IGHG1 which conferred the best added prognostic value for DFS (ΔLRχ2 = 27.38, p = 5.22E-10) and OS (ΔLRχ2 = 21.29, p = 1.03E-08). Our results demonstrate that the role of plasma cells in TNBC warrants further study to elucidate the relationship between their infiltration of tumors and disease recurrence.

11.
J Oncol Pract ; 14(5): 281-289, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746805

RESUMO

The working immunohistochemical definition of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is admittedly reductionist and has only limited usefulness for informing oncologists about therapeutic decisions beyond chemotherapy. Early molecular taxonomies of TNBC based heavily on gene expression profiling, which is not readily available in the clinic today, do not necessarily encompass other molecular targets already incorporated into rationally designed clinical trials. We state that it is possible to delineate five subgroups of TNBC relevant to present-day clinical practice and cover the evidence that lends credence to emerging biomarker-directed treatment strategies for each subgroup.

12.
Chin Clin Oncol ; 7(2): 13, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764158

RESUMO

The immune system plays a complex role in the recognition/prevention, early eradication as well as progression of cancer. Recently, we have witnessed great momentum in the field of immuno-oncology. Checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy have now entered the clinic, with impressive and durable clinical responses seen across a broad array of tumor types. There are several lines of evidence supporting the development of an immune targeted approach in breast cancer. Emerging data of early clinical trials evaluating monotherapy checkpoint inhibition have shown modest activity in breast cancer, in particular high grade and aggressive subtypes such as triple negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and luminal B breast cancers. A considerable amount of effort is currently underway in exploring the use of combinatory strategies where therapies with distinct and potentially complementary mechanisms of actions may further enhance the immune response broadening out the group of breast cancer patients who would benefit from this strategy of cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss approaches to targeting the immune system in breast cancer adopted through understanding why the host immune system has failed in natural tumor suppression as well as the processes evolved by the tumor to circumvent an active immune system.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos
13.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 459, 2018 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer significantly impacts quality of life of patients and families as they cope with symptom burden, treatment decision-making, uncertainty and costs of treatment. In Singapore, information about the experiences of advanced cancer patients and families and the financial cost they incur for end-of-life care is lacking. Understanding of this information is needed to inform practice and policy to ensure continuity and affordability of care at the end of life. The primary objectives of the Cost of Medical Care of Patients with Advanced Serious Illness in Singapore (COMPASS) cohort study are to describe changes in quality of life and to quantify healthcare utilization and costs of patients with advanced cancer at the end of life. Secondary objectives are to investigate patient and caregiver preferences for diagnostic and prognostic information, preferences for end-of-life care, caregiver burden and perceived quality of care and to explore how these change as illness progresses and finally to measure bereavement adjustment. The purpose of this paper is to present the COMPASS protocol in order to promote scientific transparency. METHODS: This cohort study recruits advanced cancer patients (n = 600) from outpatient medical oncology clinics at two public tertiary healthcare institutions in Singapore. Patients and their primary informal caregiver are surveyed every 3 months until patients' death; caregivers are followed until 6 months post patient death. Patient medical and billing records are obtained and merged with patient survey data. The treating medical oncologists of participating patients are surveyed to obtain their beliefs regarding care delivery for the patient. DISCUSSION: The study will allow combination of self-report, medical, and cost data from various sources to present a comprehensive picture of the end-of-life experience of advanced cancer patients in a unique Asian setting. This study is responsive to Singapore's National Strategy for Palliative Care which aims to identify opportunities to meet the growing need for high quality care for Singapore's aging population. Results will also be of interest to policy makers and researchers beyond Singapore who are interested to understand and improve the end-of-life experience of cancer patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02850640 (Prospectively registered on June 9, 2016).

14.
Hum Gene Ther ; 29(8): 874-885, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385852

RESUMO

Gene transfer targeting hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in children has shown sustained therapeutic benefit in the treatment of genetic diseases affecting the immune system, most notably in severe combined immunodeficiencies affecting T-cell function. The HSC compartment has also been successfully targeted using gene transfer in children with genetic diseases affecting the central nervous system, such as metachromatic leukodystrophy and adrenoleukodystrophy. HSCs are also a target for genetic modification in strategies aiming to confer drug resistance to chemotherapy agents so as to reduce off-target toxicity, and to allow for chemotherapy dose escalation with the possibility of enhanced therapeutic benefit. In a trial of this strategy in adult glioma patients, significant engraftment of gene-modified HSCs expressing a mutant of the DNA repair protein O6-methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT(P140K)) showed potential in conferring drug resistance against the combined effect of O6-benzylguanine (O6BG)/temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. The aim was to test the safety and feasibility of this approach in children with poor prognosis brain tumors. In this Phase I trial, seven patients received gene-modified HSC following myelo-suppressive conditioning, but with only transient low-level engraftment of MGMT(P140K) gene-modified cells detectable in four patients. All patients received O6BG/TMZ chemotherapy following infusion of gene-modified cells, with five patients eligible for chemotherapy dose escalation, though in the absence of demonstrable transgene-mediated chemoprotection. Since all gene-modified cell products met the criteria for release and assays for engraftment potential met expected outcome measures, inadequate cell dose, conditioning chemotherapy, and/or underlying bone-marrow function may have contributed to the lack of sustained engraftment of gene-modified cells. We were able to demonstrate safe conduct of a technically complex Phase I study encompassing manufacture of the gene therapy vector, genetically modified cells, and a drug product specifically for the trial in compliance with both local and national regulatory requirements.

15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 168(3): 713-721, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29313215

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) are reported to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Hence, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction, is hypothesized to correlate with the onset of CRF and CRCI. This study aims to evaluate the association between peripheral blood mtDNA content reduction and severity of CRF and CRCI in patients receiving chemotherapy. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Early-stage breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline- or taxane-based chemotherapy were recruited. CRF was assessed using MFSI-SF, and CRCI was assessed using FACT-Cog and CANTAB at two timepoints: baseline (T1; prior to treatment) and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment (T2). mtDNA content was measured at both timepoints using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Multiple logistic regression was utilized to evaluate the association between mtDNA reduction and worsening of CRF and CRCI, adjusting for age, anxiety, insomnia, plasma cytokines concentrations, and other clinically important covariates. RESULTS: A total of 108 patients (age 52.0 ± 9.2 years; 82.4% Chinese; 64.8% receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy) were recruited. Proportions of patients with worsening of CRF increased from the lower to the upper quartiles of mtDNA reduction (22.2, 33.3, 55.6, and 63.0% in quartiles 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, p = 0.001 for trend). Reduction of mtDNA content was significantly greater among those with worsening of CRF and CRCI compared to those without CRF [mean reduction (± SD): 36.5 (46.1) vs. 9.4 (34.5), p < 0.001]. After adjusting for covariates, every 1-unit reduction of the mtDNA content was associated with a 4% increased risk for worsening of CRF (95% CI, 1-6%; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that the reduction of mtDNA content in peripheral blood is associated with the onset of CRF in patients receiving chemotherapy. Further validation studies are required to confirm the findings.

16.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(3): 302-308, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327055

RESUMO

Importance: Studies of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens using anthracyclines followed by taxanes have reported a doubling of pathological complete remission (pCR) rates compared with anthracycline-based regimens alone. A reverse sequence did not reduce activity. Nab-paclitaxel is an albumin-bound nanoparticle of paclitaxel that allows for safe infusion without premedication, and its use led to a significantly higher rate of pCR in the GeparSepto trial. Objective: To determine whether nab-paclitaxel improves the outcomes of early and locally advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2/HER2)-negative breast cancer compared with paclitaxel when delivered in a neoadjuvant setting. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter, open-label study, in collaboration with Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama (GEICAM) and Breast Cancer Research Center-Western Australia (BCRC-WA), patients with newly diagnosed and centrally confirmed ERBB2/HER2-negative breast cancer were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to paclitaxel, 90 mg/m2 (349 patients), or nab-paclitaxel, 125 mg/m2 (346 patients). The 2 drugs were given on weeks 1, 2, and 3 followed by 1 week of rest for 4 cycles before 4 cycles of an anthracycline regimen per investigator choice. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the rate of pCR, defined as absence of invasive cells in the breast and axillary nodes (ie, ypT0/is ypN0) at the time of surgery. A secondary end point was to assess tolerability and safety of the 2 regimens. Results: From May 2013 to March 2015, 814 patients were registered to the study; 695 patients met central confirmation eligibility and were randomly allocated to receive either paclitaxel (349), or nab-paclitaxel (346) (median age, 50 years; range, 25-79 years). The intention-to-treat analysis of the primary end point pCR revealed that the improved pCR rate after nab-paclitaxel (22.5%) was not statistically significant compared with paclitaxel (18.6%; odds ratio [OR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.52-1.13; P = .19). Overall, 38 of 335 patients (11.3%) 11.3% of patients had at least 1 serious adverse event in the paclitaxel arm and 54 of 337 patient (16.0%) in the nab-paclitaxel arm. Peripheral neuropathy of grade 3 or higher occurred in 6 of 335 patients (1.8%) and in 15 of 337 (4.5%), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: The improved rate of pCR after nab-paclitaxel was not statistically significant. The multivariate analysis revealed that tumor subtype (triple-negative vs luminal B-like) was the most significant factor (OR, 4.85; 95% CI, 3.28-7.18) influencing treatment outcome. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01822314.

17.
Psychooncology ; 27(4): 1185-1192, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Currently, there are no studies that have established the self-perceived cognitive trajectories experienced by breast cancer patients (BCPs) post-chemotherapy. Therefore, we characterized the long-term trajectory of self-perceived cognitive function among Asian early-stage BCPs using the minimal clinically important difference of a subjective measure of cognitive function. METHODS: Early-stage BCPs who received chemotherapy were recruited and assessed at 4 time points: Before chemotherapy initiation (T1), 6 weeks post-chemotherapy initiation (T2), 12 weeks post-chemotherapy initiation (T3), and 15-months post-chemotherapy initiation (T4). All assessments were performed approximately within 2 weeks post-chemotherapy. Subjective and objective cognitive function were assessed using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive (version 3) and Headminder™. RESULTS: A total of 166 BCPs were recruited, of whom 131 completed assessment at all time points. Using the minimal clinically important difference of Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive, 5 distinct cognitive trajectories were established. Of the 131 patients, 70 (53.4%) did not report any clinically significant cognitive impairment. Twenty-one (16.0%) patients reported acute cognitive changes during chemotherapy (T2 and/or T3) but not at T4. Forty patients (30.5%) reported clinically significant cognitive impairment at T4, of whom 18 did not report any cognitive impairment at earlier time points. Fifteen (11.5%) patients reported persistent cognitive impairment throughout all time points, while 7 (5.3%) patients reported intermittent cognitive impairment at T2 and T4 but not at T3. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to establish the existence of heterogeneous cognitive trajectories based on clinically significant thresholds of self-perceived cognitive impairment. The findings have important implications on the window for screening and management of post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment.

18.
Support Care Cancer ; 26(1): 203-211, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733699

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the natural history of taxane-associated acute pain syndrome (TAPS) in a docetaxel patient cohort and to examine the long-term manifestation of TAPS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For three consecutive treatment cycles, taxane-naive breast cancer patients completed diaries on days 1-7, 14, and 21 and telephone questionnaires 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months following treatment. Questionnaires to assess pain and interference were adapted from the Brief Pain Inventory. To examine the experience of arthralgia and myalgia as one syndrome, information on patient experiences with arthralgia or myalgia was elicited separately in order to determine how closely experiences of each toxicity correlated with each other. A ≥2 point increase from baseline was defined as an arthralgia or myalgia "pain flare," and only those with "flare" were included in calculations of incidence. RESULTS: A total of 278 patients were accrued. Thirty-eight patients were omitted due to missing information, and 24 patients were omitted due to metastatic disease, for a total of 216 patients overall and 188 in the docetaxel cohort. A total of 74.5% of docetaxel patients experienced joint pain flare, and 78.2% experienced muscle pain flare at some point in the overall course of three treatment cycles. Joint and muscle pain peaked on days 4-5 for each cycle, and median pain severity for both joint and muscle pain was 4/10 during the 21-day period. Median onset of joint pain flare was 3 days for cycle 1 and 4 days for cycles 2 and 3, with an average median duration of 4 days. Median onset of muscle pain flare was 4 days for all three cycles, with a median duration of 4 days for cycles 1 and 2, and 5 days for cycle 3. Both joint and muscle pain persisted 1 year after treatment in approximately half of responding patients. CONCLUSION: This study documents the significant incidence of TAPS in patients treated with docetaxel chemotherapy and shows a long-term persistence of the syndrome.


Assuntos
Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Mialgia/induzido quimicamente , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/induzido quimicamente , Docetaxel , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
20.
Breast ; 35: 203-217, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28822332

RESUMO

The 3rd International Consensus Conference for Breast Cancer in Young Women (BCY3) took place in November 2016, in Lugano, Switzerland organized by the European School of Oncology (ESO) and the European Society of Medical Oncologists (ESMO). Consensus recommendations for the management of breast cancer in young women were updated from BCY2 with incorporation of new evidence to inform the guidelines, and areas of research priorities were identified. This manuscript summarizes the ESO-ESMO international consensus recommendations, which are also endorsed by the European Society of Breast Specialists (EUSOMA).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Consenso , Oncologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
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