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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 31: 100727, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35569909

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is widespread and locally frequent in southern Africa where it affects humans, livestock, and wild mammals. However, most data from the region are old and do not provide information on the causative Echinococcus species. For Namibian livestock only anecdotal records were available prior to this preliminary survey. Our retrospective analysis of slaughterhouse records of CE in cattle from the commercial farming area in central and southern Namibia resulted in 1.65% CE prevalence among 35,143 slaughtered cattle in the period 2015-2016. For comparison, carcasses of ruminant livestock were prospectively examined in the communal farming areas of northern Namibia, resulting in three CE cases among only 12 cattle, and no cases among nine goats. To determine the Echinococcus species affecting Namibian livestock, a total of 53 cysts were collected from all parts of the country and analysed for species and genotype by amplification and sequencing of the nad1 gene. All 50 cattle cysts (isolated from 40 cattle), both from the commercial and communal farming areas, were Echinococcus ortleppi (all fertile, and 42/50 from the lungs), while three opportunistically collected cysts from three sheep in southern Namibia were E. canadensis G7. Our data suggest that E. ortleppi is the only CE agent that is relevant for cattle infection in Namibia, and that low prevalence in the commercial farming areas contrasts with high CE burden in the northern traditional husbandry systems. The present data provide baseline information to stimulate epidemiological studies on the transmission pathways of various CE agents in livestock, wildlife, and humans in Namibia and neighbouring countries.


Assuntos
Cistos , Equinococose , Echinococcus , Doenças das Cabras , Animais , Bovinos , Cistos/veterinária , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus/genética , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Gado , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ovinos
2.
Pathogens ; 11(5)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631039

RESUMO

Both alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) are lacking pathognomonic clinical signs; consequently imaging technologies and serology remain the main pillars for diagnosis. The present study included 100 confirmed treatment-naïve AE and 64 CE patients that were diagnosed in Switzerland or Kyrgyzstan. Overall, 10 native Echinococcus spp. antigens, 3 recombinant antigens, and 4 commercial assays were comparatively evaluated. All native E. multilocularis antigens were produced in duplicates with a European and a Kyrgyz isolate and showed identical test values for the diagnosis of AE and CE. Native antigens and three commercial tests showed high diagnostic sensitivities (Se: 86-96%) and specificities (Sp: 96-99%) for the diagnosis of AE and CE in Swiss patients. In Kyrgyz patients, values of sensitivities and specificities were 10-20% lower as compared to the Swiss patients' findings. For the sero-diagnosis of AE in Kyrgyzstan, a test-combination of an E. multilocularis protoscolex antigen and the recombinant antigen Em95 appears to be the most suitable test strategy (Se: 98%, Sp: 87%). For the diagnosis of CE in both countries, test performances were hampered by major cross-reactions with AE patients and other parasitic diseases as well as by limited diagnostic sensitivities (93% in Switzerland and 76% in Kyrgyzstan, respectively).

3.
Pathogens ; 11(4)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since the change in the millennium, an increase in cases of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has been observed in endemic European countries. Previous studies indicate that a significant proportion of the new AE cases have an immunosuppression-associated condition (IAC). The aim of the current study was to determine how IACs impact the number of new AE diagnoses per year and the characteristics of AE at diagnosis and its clinical course at our center. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 189 patients with AE diagnosed between 2000 and 2021 and participating in the Zurich Echinococcosis Cohort Study (ZECS) included clinical characteristics of AE at diagnosis and report of an IAC, as well as the clinical course during follow-up. RESULTS: Of 189 patients participating in this study, 38 had an IAC reported at, or shortly after, AE diagnosis. Over time, there was a steeper increase in the number of newly diagnosed AE patients without an IAC than the number of patients with IAC. Patients with an IAC were older at diagnosis, more frequently had an incidental finding of AE, smaller mean lesion size, and negative Em18 serology. All but two showed favorable outcomes on the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: IACs have little impact on the increase in new AE cases, as well as on the extent of the disease at diagnosis and clinical course.

4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(1): e0010146, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35089933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an orphan zoonosis of increasing concern in endemic areas, including Europe. It frequently presents in an advanced, inoperable stage, that requires life-long parasitostatic benzimidazole therapy. In some patients, long-term therapy leads to negative anti-Em18 antibody ELISA and PET. It is disputed, whether these patients are truly cured and treatment can be safely discontinued. Our aim was to retrospectively assess long-term outcome of 34 patients with inoperable AE who participated in a previous study to determine feasibility of benzimidazole treatment cessation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical charts was undertaken in all 34 AE patients who participated in our previous study. Of particular interest were AE recurrence or other reasons for re-treatment in patients who stopped benzimidazole therapy and whether baseline clinical and laboratory parameters help identify of patients that might qualifiy for treatment cessation. Additionally, volumetric measurement of AE lesions on contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging was performed at baseline and last follow-up in order to quantify treatment response. RESULTS: 12 of 34 patients stopped benzimidazole therapy for a median of 131 months. 11 of these patients showed stable or regressive AE lesions as determined by volumetric measurement. One patient developed progressive lesions with persistently negative anti-Em18 antibody ELISA but slight FDG-uptake in repeated PET imaging. At baseline, patients who met criteria for treatment cessation demonstrated higher lymphocyte count and lower total IgE. CONCLUSION: Treatment cessation is feasible in inoperable AE patients, who demonstrate negative anti-Em18 antibody ELISA and PET on follow-up. Close monitoring including sectional imaging is strongly advised.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Suspensão de Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(13-14): 1167-1192, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757089

RESUMO

In the past 50 years, enormous progress has been made in the diagnosis, treatment and control of taeniid cestode infections/diseases and in the scientific understanding thereof. Most interest in this group of parasites stems from the serious diseases that they cause in humans. It is through this lens that we summarize here the most important breakthroughs that have made a difference to the treatment of human diseases caused by these parasites, reduction in transmission of the taeniid species associated with human disease, or understanding of the parasites' biology likely to impact diagnosis or treatment in the foreseeable future. Key topics discussed are the introduction of anti-cestode drugs, including benzimidazoles and praziquantel, and the development of new imaging modalities that have transformed the diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of human echinococcoses and neurocysticercosis. The availability of new anti-cestode drugs for use in dogs and a detailed understanding of the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato have underpinned successful programs that have eliminated cystic echinococcosis in some areas of the world and greatly reduced the incidence of infection in others. Despite these successes, cystic and alveolar echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis continue to be prevalent in many parts of the world, requiring new or renewed efforts to prevent the associated taeniid infections. Major advances made in the development of practical vaccines against E. granulosus and Taenia solium will hopefully assist in this endeavour, as might the understanding of the parasites' biology that have come from an elucidation of the nuclear genomes of each of the most important taeniid species causing human diseases.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Neurocisticercose , Parasitos , Animais , Infecções por Cestoides/diagnóstico , Infecções por Cestoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia
6.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(5): 440-446, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524197

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Infection with the larval (metacestode) stage of Echinococcus multilocularis causes alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a serious hepatic disorder. The parasite has increased its infection extensity in wildlife and domestic dogs, mainly due to urbanization and spatial extension of wildlife hosts in Europe, Asia as well as North America, resulting in emerging infection risk for humans. RECENT FINDINGS: In hyperendemic areas such as Kyrgyzstan and China, ecological and socioeconomic changes have been associated with the unpredictable increase of AE cases. In North America, the appearance of the European-like genotype is of concern. In Europe, the annual increase of human case numbers reached a plateau even in hyperendemic situations. Therefore, we conclude that most of the exposed individuals are resistant to parasite invasion and/or to disease development. Thus, AE develops in a few healthy individuals, but preferentially in immunosuppressed patients. SUMMARY: In the future, improved diagnostic strategies will allow more precise estimations of transmission routes including the role of food, water and direct dog contact, which should yield improved public health recommendations. Finally, understanding protective innate and acquired immune mechanisms as well as parasite-driven immune-evasion processes will be essential to develop curative therapies in nonoperable patients and, futuristically, appropriate vaccines.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática , Equinococose , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , China , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose Hepática/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos
7.
Parasitol Res ; 120(10): 3451-3459, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462804

RESUMO

The diagnosis of human taeniosis can be achieved through coproscopy, ELISA or PCR. An important limitation of these methods is the high turnaround time for stool sample collection and preparation, indicating the need for a straightforward sampling strategy. Due to the high metabolic activity and reproductive potential of Taenia spp., we hypothesise that parasite DNA (cells and eggs) present in the peri-anal region of the host can be exploited as a target for molecular diagnosis. We evaluated the feasibility of recovering parasite DNA from the peri-anal area of foxes naturally infected with Taenia spp. Before necropsy, cotton swabs were rubbed at the peri-anal region of foxes. DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis coupled with a commercial DNA isolation kit (method A) or alkaline lysis alone (method B). DNA was used in the multiplex-PCR assay (previously described and called here swab-PCR) and a novel LAMP assay detecting Taenia spp. commonly found in foxes (swab-LAMP). The results of these assays from 105 foxes were compared with the presence of intestinal helminths determined at necropsy and by the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT). The sensitivity of swab-PCR for detecting Taenia (n = 68) was 89.8% (95% CI, 77.7-96.6) and 89.5% (66.9-98.7) using methods A and B, respectively. The sensitivity of the swab-LAMP assay was 83.7% (70.3-92.7) using method A and 89.5% (66.9-98.7) with method B. We postulate that peri-anal swab sampling followed by simplified DNA extraction and LAMP might be a suitable strategy for surveillance of human taeniosis in resource-limited settings in the future.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Raposas , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Pathogens ; 10(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357996

RESUMO

The detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in infected canids and the environment is pivotal for a better understanding of the epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis in endemic areas. Necropsy/sedimentation and counting technique remain the gold standard for the detection of canid infection. PCR-based detection methods have shown high sensitivity and specificity, but they have been hardly used in large scale prevalence studies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a fast and simple method to detect DNA with a high sensitivity and specificity, having the potential for field-application. A specific LAMP assay for the detection of E. multilocularis was developed targeting the mitochondrial nad1 gene. A crucial step for amplification-based detection methods is DNA extraction, usually achieved utilising silica-gel membrane spin columns from commercial kits which are expensive. We propose two cost-effective and straightforward methods for DNA extraction, using NaOH (method 1A) and InstaGeneTM Matrix (method 1B), from isolated eggs circumventing the need for commercial kits. The sensitivity of both assays with fox samples was similar (72.7%) with multiplex-PCR using protocol 1A and LAMP using protocol 1B. Sensitivity increased up to 100% when testing faeces from 12 foxes infected with more than 100 intestinal stages of E. multilocularis. For dogs, sensitivity was similar (95.4%) for LAMP and multiplex-PCR using protocol 1B and for both methods when DNA was extracted using protocol 1A (90.9%). The DNA extraction methods used here are fast, cheap, and do not require a DNA purification step, making them suitable for field studies in low-income countries for the prevalence study of E. multilocularis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343829

RESUMO

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has thus far only rarely been reported for intestinal helminths of dogs and cats, in contrast to parasites of livestock and horses. We highlight possible reasons for this striking and important discrepancy, including ecological, biological and genetic factors and/or intervention regimens of key intestinal helminths concerning both host groups. In view of the current knowledge related to the genetics, mechanisms and principles of AR development, we point at issues which in our view contribute to a comparatively lower risk of AR development in intestinal helminths of dogs and cats. Finally, we specify research needs and provide recommendations by which, based on the available information about AR in ruminant and equine helminths, the development of AR in dog and cat helminths may best be documented, prevented or at least postponed.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Helmintos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Helmintos/genética , Cavalos , Ruminantes
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009426, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138855

RESUMO

Viable eggs of the canine intestinal tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) infect various intermediate hosts causing cystic echinococcosis (CE). Furthermore, CE represents a serious zoonosis causing a significant global burden of disease. CE is highly endemic in South America, including Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, and Peru. For Bolivia, no official data concerning the incidence in humans or the number of livestock and dogs infected are available. However, it is well known that CE occurs in Bolivia. We aim here to fill the gap in the current knowledge of the epidemiological situation of CE in Bolivia, providing a historical overview of documents published within the country, which have never been comprehensively reviewed. The very first documentation of E. granulosus infection in animals dates in 1910, while the first human case was reported in 1913. In total, 876 human CE cases have been reported in the scientific literature, with an apparent increase since the 1970s. In the absence of other epidemiological studies, the highest prevalence in human comes from Tupiza, Potosí Department, where 4.1% (51/1,268) of the population showed signs of CE at mass ultrasound screening in 2011. In the same report, 24% of dog faecal samples were positive for coproantigens of E. granulosus s.l. in ELISA. The highest prevalence in intermediate hosts reported at abattoir reached 37.5% in cattle from Potosí, followed by 26.9% in llamas from Oruro, 2.4% in pigs and 1.4% in sheep from La Paz. Finally, Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus ortleppi (G5), and Echinococcus intermedius (G7) have been identified in Bolivia. Data reviewed here confirm that E. granulosus s.l. is circulating in Bolivia and that a proper prospective nationwide epidemiological study of CE is urgently needed to define transmission patterns as a basis for the planning and implementation of future control measurements.


Assuntos
Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Animais , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009498, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (CE and AE) are neglected tropical diseases caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and E. multilocularis, and are emerging zoonoses in Kyrgyzstan. In this country, the spatial distribution of CE and AE surgical incidence in 2014-2016 showed marked heterogeneity across communities, suggesting the presence of ecological determinants underlying CE and AE distributions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For this reason, in this study we assessed potential associations between community-level confirmed primary CE (no.=2359) or AE (no.=546) cases in 2014-2016 in Kyrgyzstan and environmental and climatic variables derived from satellite-remote sensing datasets using conditional autoregressive models. We also mapped CE and AE relative risk. The number of AE cases was negatively associated with 10-year lag mean annual temperature. Although this time lag should not be considered as an exact measurement but with associated uncertainty, it is consistent with the estimated 10-15-year latency following AE infection. No associations were detected for CE. We also identified several communities at risk for CE or AE where no disease cases were reported in the study period. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the hypothesis that CE is linked to an anthropogenic cycle and is less affected by environmental risk factors compared to AE, which is believed to result from spillover from a wild life cycle. As CE was not affected by factors we investigated, hence control should not have a geographical focus. In contrast, AE risk areas identified in this study without reported AE cases should be targeted for active disease surveillance in humans. This active surveillance would confirm or exclude AE transmission which might not be reported with the present passive surveillance system. These areas should also be targeted for ecological investigations in the animal hosts.


Assuntos
Clima , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Animais , Echinococcus granulosus , Echinococcus multilocularis , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Incidência , Quirguistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799817

RESUMO

The present research shows the results of a national study documenting the occurrence and genetic diversity of Echinococcus and Taenia species across Bhutan. Environmental dog faecal samples (n = 953) were collected from 2016 to 2018 in all 20 Bhutanese districts, mainly in urbanised areas. Cystic echinococcosis cysts were isolated from 13 humans and one mithun (Bos frontalis). Isolation of taeniid eggs from faeces was performed by sieving/flotation technique, followed by DNA isolation, PCR and sequence analyses for species identification (gene target: small subunit of ribosomal RNA). Genetic diversity of E. granulosuss.s. was based on the sequence (1609 bp) of the cox1 gene. A total of 67 out of 953 (7%) dog faecal samples were positive for at least one taeniid species. From the 670 free-roaming dog faecal samples, 40 (5.9%) were positive for taeniid DNA, 22 (3.2%) of them were identified as E. granulosuss.s. and four (0.5%) as E. ortleppi (G5). From the 283 faecal samples originating from yak-grazing areas, 27 (9.5%) were taeniid positive, including eight (2.8%) infected with E. granulosuss.s. and four (1.4%) with E. ortleppi. E. granulosuss.s. was identified in all isolates from human and the cyst from mithun. A haplotype network (cox1 gene) from E. granulosuss.s, including isolates from 12 dogs, two human and one mithun, revealed eight different haplotypes. The most common cox1 haplotype was the globally distributed Eg01, followed by Eg40 and Eg37 (previously described in China). Five new cox1 haplotypes (EgBhu1-5) originated from human, dogs, and a mithun were identified. The study indicated the contamination of urban areas and pastures with Echinococcus eggs in seven districts in Bhutan. The molecular characterisation of E. granulosuss.l. revealed different E. granulosuss.s. haplotypes as well as E. ortleppi. The transmission of T. multiceps was documented only in the western part of the country. Considering the zoonotic feature of E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi and the economic impact of coenurosis caused by T. multiceps (also known as gid) in Bhutan, the findings of this study represent a significant contribution towards an epidemiological baseline for the establishment of a national control programme.

14.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 664-669, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890522

RESUMO

In North America, the only endemic focus for Angiostrongylus vasorum (French heartworm) was historically thought to occur in the southeastern part of the island of Newfoundland. However, reports of A. vasorum infection in wild canids in West Virginia, USA, and Nova Scotia, Canada, suggest the introduction of the parasite to mainland North America. We screened for A. vasorum in coyotes from across southern Ontario. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of ELISAs for detection of circulating A. vasorum antigen (Ag-ELISA) and antibodies against A. vasorum (Ab-ELISA) designed for use in sera or blood of foxes for use with coyotes in this region. Autopsies were performed on 397 coyotes, and lung tissue extract prepared from each carcass was tested via both ELISAs. The sensitivity and specificity for both tests were estimated in the absence of a gold standard using a 2-test single population Bayesian model; sensitivity and specificity priors were based on the performance of the assays in foxes in Switzerland. Eight coyotes tested positive for A. vasorum antigen; no animal was antibody positive. The estimated sensitivity and specificity of the Ag-ELISA were 90.8% (95% credible interval [CrI]: 83.8-95.6%) and 95.5% (95% CrI: 93.4-97.2%), respectively. For the Ab-ELISA, the estimated sensitivity and specificity were 41.9% (95% CrI: 32.1-51.9%) and 98.0% (95% CrI: 96.3-99.0%), respectively. Based on these findings and negative postmortem data for the same animals, there is insufficient evidence to suggest the presence of A. vasorum in southern Ontario coyotes.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Coiotes , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia
15.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 14: 150-156, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33665082

RESUMO

The endangered Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a keystone species playing an essential role in ecology as well as in the social and spiritual lives of the Himalayan people. The latest estimate of the Bengal tiger population in Bhutan accounts for 103 individuals. Infectious organisms, including zoonotic parasites causing high burden in human health, have received little attention as a cause of mortality in tigers. Taeniosis/cysticercosis, caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases in Southeast Asia. We present here a case of neurocysticercosis in a Bengal tiger showing advanced neurological disease outside Thimphu, the capital city of Bhutan. After palliative care, the animal died, and necropsy revealed multiple small cysts in the brain. Here we show the presence of two genetic variants of T. solium in the parasite material collected based on PCR and sequencing of the complete cox1 and cytB genes. The sequences form a discrete branch within the Asia plus Madagascar cluster of the parasite. On other hand, tests for feline morbillivirus, feline calicivirus, canine distemper virus, Nipah, rabies, Japanese encephalitis, feline leukaemia and feline immunodeficiency virus were negative. In contrast, PCR for feline herpesvirus was positive and a latex agglutination test revealed an elevated antibody titer against Toxoplasma gondii (titer 1:256). The molecular examination of taeniid eggs isolated from the tiger faeces produced sequences for which the highest homology in GenBank is between 92% and 94% with T. regis and T. hydatigena. This fatal case of T. solium neurocysticercosis, a disease previously unrecorded in tigers or other non-domestic felids, demonstrates an anthropogenically driven transmission of a deadly pathogen which could become a serious threat to the tiger population.

16.
Vet Dermatol ; 32(3): 239-e63, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cells are involved in homeostasis of immune regulation and suppression of inflammation and T-cell polarisation. Current knowledge regarding the role of Treg cells in the initiation of allergic disease is limited for both people and dogs. OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of circulating Treg cells and their possible influencing factors, on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study followed part of a birth cohort of West Highland white terrier dogs and classified them according to eventual clinical signs of AD (i.e. allergic versus healthy). The Treg phenotypes were assessed longitudinally by flow cytometry at 3, 3-12 and 12-36 months of age, and associated with development of AD. Different early life antigenic factors [endotoxins and allergens in house dust, Toxocara canis-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E/IgG, allergen-specific and total IgE, skin microbiota] were measured at three months of age, and a possible association with Treg cell levels was assessed. RESULTS: The percentages of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells in healthy dogs were significantly higher at in 3-month-old (mean 4.5% healthy versus 3.3% allergic; P = 0.021) and <1-year-old (4.0% healthy versus 2.9% allergic; P = 0.028) dogs when compared to percentages of Treg cells in dogs that developed AD. There was a significantly positive correlation between the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae on the skin and CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells in puppies that became allergic (r = 0.568, P = 0.017). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Further large-scale studies are needed to identify the practical value of these findings in AD diagnosis, treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Doenças do Cão , Alérgenos , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Cães , Imunoglobulina E , Linfócitos T Reguladores
17.
Parasitology ; 148(1): 53-62, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087186

RESUMO

Susceptibility to Echinococcus multilocularis infection considerably varies among intermediate (mostly rodents) and dead-end host species (e.g. humans and pig), in particular regarding intestinal oncosphere invasion and subsequent hepatic metacestode development. Wistar rats are highly resistant to infection and subsequent diseases upon oral inoculation with E. multilocularis eggs, however, after immunosuppressive treatment with dexamethasone, rats become susceptible. To address the role of the cellular innate immunity, Wistar rats were individually or combined depleted of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages (MΦ) and granulocytes (polymorphonuclear cells, PMN) prior to E. multilocularis egg inoculation. Although NK cell and MΦ depletion did not alter the resistance status of rats, the majority of PMN-depleted animals developed liver metacestodes within 10 weeks, indicating that PMN are key players in preventing oncosphere migration and/or development in Wistar rats. In vitro studies indicated that resistance is not caused by neutrophil reactive oxygen species or NETosis. Also, light microscopical examinations of the small intestine showed that oral inoculation of E. multilocularis eggs does not elicit a mucosal neutrophil response, suggesting that the interaction of oncospheres and neutrophils may occur after the former have entered the peripheral blood. We suggest to consider granulocytes as mediators of resistance in more resistant species, such as humans.


Assuntos
Agranulocitose/complicações , Equinococose Hepática/imunologia , Echinococcus multilocularis , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência à Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/induzido quimicamente , Equinococose/imunologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Echinococcus multilocularis/imunologia , Granulócitos/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar/parasitologia
18.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(4): 291-299, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359204

RESUMO

Domestic cats are the most important definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of an important global zoonosis. Serial sera from cats orally inoculated either withT. gondii tissue cysts (n = 3) or sporulated oocysts (n = 3) and from 65 client-owned cats, plus sera from 1,757 client-owned cats presented to veterinarians in Switzerland were analysed for an antibody response to T. gondii by ELISA. Risk factors for seropositivity and prevalence were estimated with a generalised linear and beta regression model. The first model examined the association of an OD405 value as the dependent variable, with gender, age, and outside access as possible independent variables. In the second model, we first analysed the data assuming a bimodal distribution representing two overlapping distributions of OD405 values from positive and negative cats, enabling the assignment of a probability of true infection status to each cat. Mean probabilities of true infection status across groups represent an estimate of true prevalence. These probabilities were then regressed against age, gender and outside access. Antibody kinetics in cats orally inoculated with tissue cysts, shedding oocysts, did not differ significantly from those of cats inoculated with sporulated oocysts without detectable oocyst excretion, suggesting extraintestinal parasite invasion and exposure to tachyzoites in both situations at an early stage of infection. Analysis of serial serum samples suggested a persisting long-term humoral immune response. Of the client-owned cats, 42.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 40.1-44.6) had a positive true infection status. This was higher (56.3% (95% CI: 53.2-59.6)) in cats with outside access than in those without (22.1% (95% CI: 18.9-25.4)). In the first model, the factors age (P < 0.0001), gender (male: P = 0.046), and outside access (P < 0.0001) were independently associated with significantly higher OD405 values. In the second model, the probability of having a positive true infection status increased with age (P < 0.0001), was higher with outside access (P < 0.0001) and in outdoor male cats (P = 0.0006).


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos , Fezes , Cinética , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008921, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans are caused by the metacestode of the tapeworms Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Immunohistochemistry with the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) Em2G11, specific for AE, and the mAb EmG3, specific for AE and CE, is an important pillar of the histological diagnosis of these two infections. Our aim was to further evaluate mAb EmG3 in a diagnostic setting and to analyze in detail the localization, distribution, and impact of small particles of Echinococcus multilocularis (spems) and small particles of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. (spegs) on lymph nodes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the mAb EmG3 in a cohort of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens of AE (n = 360) and CE (n = 178). These samples originated from 156 AE-patients and 77 CE-patients. mAb EmG3 showed a specific staining of the metacestode stadium of E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.l. and had a higher sensitivity for spems than mAb Em2G11. Furthermore, we detected spegs in the surrounding host tissue and in almost all tested lymph nodes (39/41) of infected patients. 38/47 lymph nodes of AE showed a positive reaction for spems with mAb EmG3, whereas 29/47 tested positive when stained with mAb Em2G11. Spegs were detected in the germinal centers, co-located with CD23-positive follicular dendritic cells, and were present in the sinuses. Likewise, lymph nodes with spems and spegs in AE and CE were significantly enlarged in size in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: mAb EmG3 is specific for AE and CE and is a valuable tool in the histological diagnosis of echinococcosis. Based on the observed staining patterns, we hypothesize that the interaction between parasite and host is not restricted to the main lesion since spegs are detected in lymph nodes. Moreover, in AE the number of spems-affected lymph nodes is higher than previously assumed. The enlargement of lymph nodes with spems and spegs points to an immunological interaction with the small immunogenic particles (spems and spegs) of Echinococcus spp.


Assuntos
Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/imunologia , Linfadenopatia/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Criança , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/patologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 13: 130-141, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083225

RESUMO

Red deer (Cervus elaphus) carcasses showing grey-greenish discolouration have been increasingly observed in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland. We investigated whether Sarcocystis infections were associated with this pathology, and whether wild and domestic canids were involved in their transmission. Meat from affected red deer (n = 26), faeces and intestines from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) (n = 126), and faeces from hunting dogs (n = 12) from the region, were analysed. Eosinophilic myositis and/or fasciitis were diagnosed in 69% of the deer, and sarcocysts were observed in 89% of the animals. Molecular typing targeting a ~700bp variable region of the 18S rRNA gene revealed Sarcocystis hjorti in 73%, S. venatoria/S. iberica in 54%, S. linearis/S. taeniata in 12%, S. pilosa in 8% and S. ovalis in 4% of the deer samples. No inflammatory changes were observed in red deer carcasses with normal appearance (n = 8); however, sarcocysts were observed in one sample, and S. hjorti, S. venatoria/S. iberica or S. silva DNA was detected in five samples. Sarcocystis oocysts/sporocysts were observed in 11/106 faecal and 6/20 intestinal fox samples, and in 2/12 canine samples. Sarcocystis tenella (n = 8), S. hjorti (n = 2), S. gracilis (n = 2), and S. miescheriana (n = 1) were identified in foxes, and S. gracilis (n = 2), S. capreolicanis (n = 1) and S. linearis/S. taeniata (n = 1) in dogs. This study provides first molecular evidence of S. pilosa and S. silva infection in red deer and S. linearis/S. taeniata in dogs and represents the first record of S. ovalis transmitted by corvids in Central Europe. Although Sarcocystis species infecting red deer are not regarded as zoonotic, the affected carcasses can be declared as unfit for human consumption due to the extensive pathological changes.

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