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N Engl J Med ; 381(1): 13-24, 2019 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150574


BACKGROUND: Apalutamide is an inhibitor of the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor. Whether the addition of apalutamide to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) would prolong radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival as compared with placebo plus ADT among patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer has not been determined. METHODS: In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer to receive apalutamide (240 mg per day) or placebo, added to ADT. Previous treatment for localized disease and previous docetaxel therapy were allowed. The primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 525 patients were assigned to receive apalutamide plus ADT and 527 to receive placebo plus ADT. The median age was 68 years. A total of 16.4% of the patients had undergone prostatectomy or received radiotherapy for localized disease, and 10.7% had received previous docetaxel therapy; 62.7% had high-volume disease, and 37.3% had low-volume disease. At the first interim analysis, with a median of 22.7 months of follow-up, the percentage of patients with radiographic progression-free survival at 24 months was 68.2% in the apalutamide group and 47.5% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for radiographic progression or death, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.60; P<0.001). Overall survival at 24 months was also greater with apalutamide than with placebo (82.4% in the apalutamide group vs. 73.5% in the placebo group; hazard ratio for death, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89; P = 0.005). The frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events was 42.2% in the apalutamide group and 40.8% in the placebo group; rash was more common in the apalutamide group. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with metastatic, castration-sensitive prostate cancer, overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival were significantly longer with the addition of apalutamide to ADT than with placebo plus ADT, and the side-effect profile did not differ substantially between the two groups. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; TITAN number, NCT02489318.).

Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Tioidantoínas/uso terapêutico , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Exantema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiografia , Tioidantoínas/efeitos adversos
J Clin Oncol ; 34(11): 1197-207, 2016 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26858335


PURPOSE: An open-label, noninferiority study to evaluate the impact of epoetin alfa (EPO) on tumor outcomes when used to treat anemia in patients receiving chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. METHODS: Women with hemoglobin ≤ 11.0 g/dL, receiving first- or second-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer, were randomly assigned to EPO 40,000 IU subcutaneously once a week or best standard of care. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival, time to tumor progression, overall response rate, RBC transfusions, and thrombotic vascular events. RESULTS: In 2,098 patients randomly assigned, median PFS (based on investigator-determined disease progression [PD]) was 7.4 months in both groups (hazard ratio [HR], 1.089; 95% CI, 0.988 to 1.200); upper bound exceeded prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.15. Median PFS per independent review committee-determined PD was 7.6 months in both groups (HR, 1.028; 95% CI, 0.922 to 1.146); upper bound did not exceed prespecified noninferiority margin. Median overall survival at clinical cutoff (1,337 deaths) was 17.2 months in the EPO and 17.4 months in the best standard of care group (HR, 1.057; 95% CI, 0.949 to 1.177), median time to tumor progression was 7.5 months in both groups (HR, 1.094; 95% CI, 0.991 to 1.209), and overall response rate was 50% versus 51% (odds ratio, 0.950; 95% CI, 0.799 to 1.130). RBC transfusions were 5.8% versus 11.4% (P < .001), and thrombotic vascular events were 2.8% versus 1.4% (P = .038), respectively. CONCLUSION: The primary end point, PFS based on investigator-determined PD, did not meet noninferiority criteria. As a consistency assessment with the primary finding, PFS based on independent review committee-determined PD met noninferiority criteria. Overall, this study did not achieve noninferiority objective in ruling out a 15% increased risk in PD/death. RBC transfusion should be the preferred approach for the management of anemia in this population.

Anemia/prevenção & controle , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Epoetina alfa/uso terapêutico , Hematínicos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia/induzido quimicamente , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Qualidade de Vida , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento