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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 97, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a chromosomal instability disorder that leads to aneuploidies of different chromosomes in various tissues. Type 1 MVA (MVA1) is caused by mutations in the budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 homolog beta (BUB1B) gene. The main clinical features of MVA1 syndrome are growth and mental retardation, central nervous system anomalies, microcephaly, and predisposition to cancers. There have been no reports of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in MVA patients. RESULTS: We report an 11-year old boy diagnosed with MVA1 syndrome. The BUB1B gene mutations c.498_505delAAACTTTA and c.1288 + 5G > A were detected using the next generation sequencing (NGS) method. The patient presented with cytopenia soon after birth, but remained stable until 9 years of age, when he developed myelodysplastic syndrome associated with monosomy of chromosome 7. Due to severe dependence on blood transfusions, a TCRαß+/CD19+ depleted HSCT was performed from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) using a treosulfan-based reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen. The engraftment occurred, and no severe toxicity was observed soon after the HSCT, but on day + 47, graft rejection was detected. It was followed by prolonged pancytopenia and sepsis with multi-organ Enterococcus faecium infection, which led to the patient's death on day + 156 after HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we demonstrate that RIC HSCT with TCRαß+/CD19+ depletion was well tolerated and resulted in complete hematologic recovery in our MVA1 patient, but, unfortunately, it was followed by rapid graft rejection. This fact needs to be taken into consideration for HSCT in other MVA patients.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 112-117, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nitazoxanide was recently reported as having in vitro effectiveness against the rubella virus. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella occurs in some patients who have an inherited immunodeficiency and who received the MMR vaccine. This study investigated the in vivo effectiveness of nitazoxanide therapy. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of seven patients treated with nitazoxanide as salvage therapy for immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella infection. The patients were recruited from an ongoing rubella detection surveillance project. RESULTS: Seven patients with persistent rubella were treated with nitazoxanide and one demonstrated significant clinical improvement. Two additional patients exhibited diminished viral capsid production with one patient having transient slowing of progression. The cohort overall generally had low T cell counts and had a high burden of comorbidities. There were three deaths. Two deaths were from PML and one was related to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Nitazoxanide has limited in vivo anti-viral effects for immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella. Most patients did not exhibit clinical improvement.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

5.
Front Immunol ; 8: 807, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a combined primary immunodeficiency with DNA repair defect, microcephaly, and other phenotypical features. It predominantly occurs in Slavic populations that have a high frequency of carriers with the causative NBN gene c.657_661del5 mutation. Due to the rarity of the disease in the rest of the world, studies of NBS patients are few. Here, we report a prospective study of a cohort of Russian NBS patients. METHODS: 35 Russian NBS patients of ages 1-19 years, referred to our Center between years 2012 and 2016, were prospectively studied. RESULTS: Despite the fact that in 80% of the patients microcephaly was diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter, the average delay of NBS diagnosis was 6.5 years. Though 80% of the patients had laboratory signs of immunodeficiency, only 51% of the patients experienced significant infections. Autoimmune complications including interstitial lymphocytic lung disease and skin granulomas were noted in 34%, malignancies-in 57% of the patients. T-cell excision circle (TREC)/kappa-deleting recombination excision circle (KREC) levels were low in the majority of patients studied. Lower KREC levels correlated with autoimmune and oncological complications. Fifteen patients underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 10 of them were alive and well, with good graft function. Three patients in the HSCT group and five non-transplanted patients died; tumor progression being the main cause of death. The probability of the overall survival since NBS diagnosis was 0.76 in the HSCT group and 0.3 in the non-transplanted group. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings of low TRECs in most NBS patients, independent of their age, TREC detection can be potentially useful for detection of NBS patients during neonatal screening. KREC concentration can be used as a prognostic marker of disease severity. HSCT is a viable treatment option in NBS and should be especially considered in patients with low KREC numbers early on, before development of life-threatening complications.

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