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2.
Am J Cardiol ; 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336533

RESUMO

Recent positive results of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) in clinical trials have sparked debate on whether TAVI should be first line for all patients with aortic stenosis. However, limited evidence exists on the clinical impact of TAVI on a national level. Using the national inpatient sample (NIS) of hospital discharges in the United States from 2001 to 2016, we evaluated the rate of AVR and associated in-hospital outcomes in pre-TAVI and TAVI era. Hierarchical mixed effect modeling was used to assess for trend and calculate risk adjusted estimates. Annual volume of AVR increased from 49,357 in 2001 to 100,050 in 2016 (103% increase). Compared with the pre-TAVI era, mean annual change in volume of AVR was higher in the TAVI era (+2.9% vs +9.4%, respectively, p <0.001). In contrast, rate of in-hospital mortality decreased from 5.4% in 2001 to 2.7% in 2016 (50% decrease). Compared with the pre-TAVI era, magnitude of mean annual change in mortality was higher in TAVI era (-4.0% vs -6.7%, respectively, p = 0.04). Unlike SAVR for which risk-adjusted rate for most outcomes seems to have plateaued, TAVI demonstrated significant improvement from 2012 to 2016 for mortality (4.6% to 1.8%), acute kidney injury (15.1% to 2.6%) and nonroutine home discharge (63.6% to 44.6%). However, no significant change in the rate of stroke (2.4% to 2.1%) and pacemaker implantation remained high (8.1% to 9.4%). Lastly, median length of stay was shorter for TAVI compared with isolated SAVR (3 vs 8 days, respectively). In conclusion, the adoption of TAVI has led to increase in volume of AVR for severe aortic stenosis in the United States with favorable short-term outcome.

3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(9): e015060, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340520

RESUMO

Background Acute type A aortic dissection presents with abrupt onset of pain that requires emergency surgery. However, minimal research exists on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. We aimed to quantify the prevalence and describe characteristics of PTSD in patients following dissection. Methods and Results A total of 295 adult survivors of surgical dissection with an email on file were administered a cross-sectional online survey about their dissection experience; 137 returned questionnaires, and 129 (94%) responded to the 4-item Primary Care PTSD portion of the survey that was part of a larger lifestyle survey designed to study survivors of aortic dissection and surgery. In addition to the PTSD screening, it inquired about current sexual activity, exercise habits, and employment within the preceding 30 days. At a median of 6.8 years (quartile 1=2.6, quartile 3=8.9 years) after dissection, 23% of patients (30/129) screened positive for PTSD, with 44% (57/129) stating that within the past month they felt constantly on guard or watchful or were easily startled. Of those who screened positive and matched to their electronic medical record (n=27), only 2 (7.4%) had been tested and clinically diagnosed with PTSD. Patients who screened positive for PTSD were more likely to report limited current sexual activity than those who did not (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.9-15 [P=0.0006]). Conclusions PTSD is an important mental health consideration in aortic dissection survivors. Physicians should screen these patients for PTSD at follow-up visits to identify those who test positive and refer them for further testing and treatment, such as trauma-focused psychotherapy or medication.

4.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206317

RESUMO

Objectives: Tricuspid valve disease is increasingly encountered, but surgery is rarely performed in isolation, in part because of a reported higher operative risk than other single-valve operations. Although guidelines recommend valve repair, there is sparse literature for the optimal surgical approach in isolated tricuspid valve disease. We performed a meta-analysis examining outcomes of isolated tricuspid valve repair versus replacement. Methods: We searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane from January 1980 to June 2019 for studies reporting outcomes of both isolated tricuspid valve repair and replacement, excluding congenital tricuspid aetiologies. Data were extracted and pooled using random-effects models and Review Manager 5.3 software. Results: There were 811 article abstracts screened, from which 52 full-text articles reviewed and 16 studies included, totalling 6808 repairs and 8261 replacements. Mean age ranged from 36 to 68 years and females made up 24%-92% of these studies. Pooled operative mortality rates and odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for isolated tricuspid repair and replacement surgery were 8.4% vs 9.9%, 0.80 (0.64 to 1.00). Tricuspid repair was also associated with lower in-hospital acute renal failure 12.4% vs 15.6%, 0.82 (0.72 to 0.93) and pacemaker implantation 9.4% vs 21.0%, 0.37 (0.24 to 0.58), but higher stroke rate 1.5% vs 0.9%, 1.63 (1.10 to 2.41). There were no differences in rates of prolonged ventilation, mediastinitis, return to operating room or late mortality. Conclusion: Isolated tricuspid valve repair was associated with significantly reduced in-hospital mortality, renal failure and pacemaker implantation compared with replacement and is therefore recommended where feasible for isolated tricuspid valve disease, although its higher stroke rate warrants further research.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014591, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204665

RESUMO

Background Concurrent presence of aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation is termed mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD). Although multiple articles have addressed patients with "isolated" aortic stenosis or aortic regurgitation, the natural history, impact, and outcomes of MAVD are not well defined. Here, we evaluate long-term outcomes in patients with MAVD and cardiovascular adaptations to chronic MAVD. Methods and Results This observational cohort study evaluated 862 adult patients (56.8% male) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and at least moderate aortic regurgitation and moderate aortic stenosis. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Subgroup analysis was based on treatment modality (aortic valve replacement [AVR] versus medical management). A regression analysis of longitudinal echocardiographic parameters was performed to assess the natural history of MAVD. Mean age was 68±15 years, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 58±5%. At 4.6 years (25th-75th percentile range, 1.0-8.7), 58.6% of patients underwent an AVR and 48.8% patients died. In both unadjusted and adjusted Cox survival analysis, AVR was associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.34-0.51, P<0.001). Impact of AVR persisted when stratifying the cohort by symptom status and baseline aortic valve area (log rank, P<0.001 for both) and after propensity-score matching (hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.32-0.50; P<0.001). In the longitudinal analysis, there were statistically significant changes over time in aortic valve peak gradient (P<0.001) and aortic valve area (P<0.001) and only mild increases in left ventricular end-diastolic (P<0.007) and -systolic (P<0.001) volumes. Conclusions MAVD confers a high risk of all-cause mortality. However, AVR significantly reduces this risk independent of aortic valve area, symptom status, and after controlling for confounding variables.

6.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(8): 938-950, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to address a knowledge gap by examining the incidence, timing, and predictors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Medicare beneficiaries. BACKGROUND: Evidence about incidence and outcomes of ACS after TAVR is scarce. METHODS: We identified Medicare patients who underwent TAVR from 2012 to 2017 and were admitted with ACS during follow-up. We compared outcomes based on the type of ACS: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and unstable angina. In patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS, we compared outcomes based on the treatment strategy (invasive vs. conservative) using inverse probability weighting analysis. RESULTS: Out of 142,845 patients with TAVR, 6,741 patients (4.7%) were admitted with ACS after a median time of 297 days (interquartile range: 85 to 662 days), with 48% of admissions occurring within 6 months. The most common presentation was NSTEMI. Predictors of ACS were history of coronary artery disease, prior revascularization, diabetes, valve-in-TAVR, and acute kidney injury. STEMI was associated with higher 30-day and 1-year mortality compared with NSTEMI (31.4% vs. 15.5% and 51.2% vs. 41.3%, respectively; p < 0.01). Overall, 30.3% of patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS were treated with invasive approach. On inverse probability weighting analysis, invasive approach was associated with lower adjusted long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 0.73; p < 0.01) and higher risk of repeat revascularization (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.16 to 1.43; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: After TAVR, ACS is infrequent (<5%), and the most common presentation is NSTEMI. Occurrence of STEMI after TAVR is associated with a high mortality with nearly one-third of patients dying within 30 days. Optimization of care is needed for post-TAVR ACS patients and if feasible, invasive approach should be considered in these high-risk patients.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(2): e009026, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063056

RESUMO

In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, multimodality imaging is crucial to confirm diagnosis, assess for presence and mechanism of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and risk stratification for sudden cardiac death. This review will focus on the application of imaging to assess established and emerging factors to be considered in sudden cardiac death risk stratification.

9.
Heart ; 106(11): 793-801, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949025

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited cardiac condition, which typically manifests as left ventricular hypertrophy. A small subset of patients with HCM have an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) from ventricular arrhythmias. Risk of SCD can be effectively reduced following implantation of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICD), although this treatment carries a risk of complications such as inappropriate shocks. With this in mind, we turn to advances in cardiac imaging to guide risk stratification for SCD and to select the appropriate individual who may benefit from ICD implantation. In this review, we have taken the opportunity to briefly summarise the role of imaging in the diagnosis of HCM before focusing on how specific imaging features influence risk of SCD in patients with HCM.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(1 Pt 1): 12-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether baseline left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a subgroup of subjects at post-operative follow-up added prognostic value in patients undergoing aortic valve (AV) surgery. BACKGROUND: In patients with chronic severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and preserved LVEF, sensitive markers are needed to decide timing of AV surgery. METHODS: This was an observational study in 865 patients (asymptomatic/mildly symptomatic, 52 ± 15 years of age, 79% men) with ≥3+ chronic AR and preserved LVEF of ≥50% who underwent AV surgery between 2003 and 2015. All patients had baseline echocardiography (and LV-GLS imaging), whereas 285 patients underwent post-operative echocardiography (including LV-GLS). Primary outcome was mortality. RESULTS: Only 478 patients (56%) patients had preoperative LV-GLS values better than -19%, despite a mean LVEF of 57 ± 4%. At a median 38 days, 632 patients underwent AV replacement, whereas 233 patients had AV repair. At a median follow-up of 6.95 (interquartile range [IQR]: 5.2 to 9.1) years, 105 patients (12%) died (2% in-hospital deaths). A higher proportion of patients with baseline LV-GLS grades worse than -19% died versus those whose LV-GLS score was better (15% vs. 10%; p < 0.01), and worse LV-GLS value was independently associated with higher longer-term mortality (hazard ratio: 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 to 1.86]; p < 0.001). In the 285 patients who underwent echo at 3 to 12 months post-operatively, LVEF normalized in 91% patients; however, only 88 patients (31%) had LV-GLS values better than -19%. Patients whose follow-up LV-GLS value was better than -19% had significantly better longer-term survival than those whose LV-GLS was not (5% vs. 15%, respectively; p < 0.01). An absolute worsening of 5% of LV-GLS from baseline was associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ≥3+ chronic AR and preserved LVEF undergoing AV surgery, a baseline LV-GLS value worse than -19% was associated with reduced survival. In a subgroup of patients who returned for 3- and 12-month follow-up examinations, persistently impaired LV-GLS was associated with increased mortality.

13.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(11): e373-e407, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676023

RESUMO

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an arrhythmogenic disorder of the myocardium not secondary to ischemic, hypertensive, or valvular heart disease. ACM incorporates a broad spectrum of genetic, systemic, infectious, and inflammatory disorders. This designation includes, but is not limited to, arrhythmogenic right/left ventricular cardiomyopathy, cardiac amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, Chagas disease, and left ventricular noncompaction. The ACM phenotype overlaps with other cardiomyopathies, particularly dilated cardiomyopathy with arrhythmia presentation that may be associated with ventricular dilatation and/or impaired systolic function. This expert consensus statement provides the clinician with guidance on evaluation and management of ACM and includes clinically relevant information on genetics and disease mechanisms. PICO questions were utilized to evaluate contemporary evidence and provide clinical guidance related to exercise in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Recommendations were developed and approved by an expert writing group, after a systematic literature search with evidence tables, and discussion of their own clinical experience, to present the current knowledge in the field. Each recommendation is presented using the Class of Recommendation and Level of Evidence system formulated by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association and is accompanied by references and explanatory text to provide essential context. The ongoing recognition of the genetic basis of ACM provides the opportunity to examine the diverse triggers and potential common pathway for the development of disease and arrhythmia.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(21): e013685, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668118

RESUMO

Background Contemporary outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in nonagenarians are unknown. Methods and Results We identified 13 544 nonagenarians (aged 90-100 years) who underwent TAVR between 2012 and 2016 using Medicare claims. Generalized estimating equations were used to study the change in short-term outcomes among nonagenarians over time. We compared outcomes between nonagenarians and non-nonagenarians undergoing TAVR in 2016. A mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of 30-day mortality in nonagenarians in 2016. A center was defined as a high-volume center if it performed ≥100 TAVR procedures per year. After adjusting for changes in patients' characteristics, risk-adjusted 30-day mortality declined in nonagenarians from 9.8% in 2012 to 4.4% in 2016 (P<0.001), whereas mortality for patients <90 years decreased from 6.4% to 3.5%. In 2016, 35 712 TAVR procedures were performed, of which 12.7% were in nonagenarians. Overall, in-hospital mortality in 2016 was higher in nonagenarians compared with younger patients (2.4% versus 1.7%, P<0.05) but did not differ in analysis limited to high-volume centers (2.2% versus 1.7%; odds ratio: 1.33; 95% CI, 0.97-1.81; P=0.07). Important predictors of 30-day mortality in nonagenarians included in-hospital stroke (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 8.67; 95% CI, 5.03-15.00), acute kidney injury (aOR: 4.11; 95% CI, 2.90-5.83), blood transfusion (aOR: 2.66; 95% CI, 1.81-3.90), respiratory complications (aOR: 2.96; 95% CI, 1.52-5.76), heart failure (aOR: 1.86; 95% CI, 1.04-3.34), coagulopathy (aOR: 1.59; 95% CI, 1.12-2.26; P<0.05 for all). Conclusions Short-term outcomes after TAVR have improved in nonagenarians. Several procedural complications were associated with increased 30-day mortality among nonagenarians.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(19): 2333-2345, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HCMR (Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry) is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, prospective registry of 2,755 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) recruited from 44 sites in 6 countries. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to improve risk prediction in HCM by incorporating cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), genetic, and biomarker data. METHODS: Demographic and echocardiographic data were collected. Patients underwent CMR including cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE) (replacement fibrosis), and T1 mapping for measurement of extracellular volume as a measure of interstitial fibrosis. Blood was drawn for the biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and genetic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,755 patients were studied. Mean age was 49 ± 11 years, 71% were male, and 17% non-white. Mean ESC (European Society of Cardiology) risk score was 2.48 ± 0.56. Eighteen percent had a resting left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient ≥30 mm Hg. Thirty-six percent had a sarcomere mutation identified, and 50% had any LGE. Sarcomere mutation-positive patients were more likely to have reverse septal curvature morphology, LGE, and no significant resting LVOT obstruction. Those that were sarcomere mutation negative were more likely to have isolated basal septal hypertrophy, less LGE, and more LVOT obstruction. Interstitial fibrosis was present in segments both with and without LGE. Serum NT-proBNP and cTnT levels correlated with increasing LGE and extracellular volume in a graded fashion. CONCLUSIONS: The HCMR population has characteristics of low-risk HCM. Ninety-three percent had no or only mild functional limitation. Baseline data separated patients broadly into 2 categories. One group was sarcomere mutation positive and more likely had reverse septal curvature morphology, more fibrosis, but less resting obstruction, whereas the other was sarcomere mutation negative and more likely had isolated basal septal hypertrophy with obstruction, but less fibrosis. Further follow-up will allow better understanding of these subgroups and development of an improved risk prediction model incorporating all these markers.

19.
EuroIntervention ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659984

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the performance of risk stratification models (RSMs) in predicting short-term mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE and Scopus were queried to identify studies which validated RSMs designed to assess 30-day or in-hospital mortality after TAVR. Discrimination and calibration were assessed using C-statistics and observed/expected ratios (OERs), respectively. C-statistics were pooled using a random-effects inverse-variance method, while OERs were pooled using the Peto odds ratio. A good RSM is defined as one with c-statistic >0.7 and OER close to 1.0. Twenty-four studies (n=68,215 patients) testing 11 different RSMs were identified. Discrimination of all RSMs was poor (C-statistic<0.7); however, certain TAVR-specific RSMs such as the in-hospital STS/ACC TVT (C-statistic=0.65) and STT (C-statistic=0.66) predicted individual mortality more reliably than surgical models (C-statistic range=0.59-0.61). A good calibration was demonstrated by the in-hospital STS/ACC TVT (OER=0.99), 30-day STS/ACC TVT (OER=1.08) and STS (OER=1.01) models. Baseline dialysis (OER: 2.64 [1.88, 3.70]; p<0.001) was the strongest predictor of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the STS/ACC TVT model (in-hospital and 30-day) and the STS model have accurate calibration, making them useful for comparison of center-level risk-adjusted mortality. In contrast, the discriminative ability of currently available models is limited.

20.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 9(4): 379-385, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555543

RESUMO

Endurance athletes, particularly competitive runners, are using wrist worn devices with the heart rate (HR) feature to guide their training. However, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of these at high levels of exertion. The purpose of this study was to measure the accuracy of the HR monitor feature in four watches at six different treadmill speeds. This prospective study recruited 50 healthy, athletic adults (68% male, mean age of 29, and mean BMI of 23 kg/m2). All subjects wore a three lead ECG and Polar H7 chest strap monitor and two different randomly assigned wrist worn HR monitors. These included the Apple Watch III, Fitbit Iconic, Garmin Vivosmart HR, and Tom Tom Spark 3. Once all devices were on, they were asked to run at the following speeds on a treadmill (in mph): 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 for two min. HR was assessed on all devices and agreement among measurements determined with Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) (rc). The Polar H7 chest strap had the greatest agreement with the ECG (rc=98). This was followed by the Apple Watch III (rc=96). The Fitbit Iconic, Garmin Vivosmart HR, and Tom Tom Spark 3 all had the same level of agreement (rc=89). The Polar H7 chest strap was the most accurate, and the Apple Watch was superior among watches. For endurance athletes and their coaches, a chest strap device or Apple Watch may be the best choice for guiding workouts and performance.

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