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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 is associated with an extensive pneumonitis and frequent coagulopathy. We sought the true prevalence of thrombotic complications in critically ill patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 on the ICU, with or without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: We undertook a single-center, retrospective analysis of 72 critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome admitted to ICU. CT angiography of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were performed at admission as per routine institution protocols, with further imaging as clinically indicated. The prevalence of thrombotic complications and the relationship with coagulation parameters, other biomarkers, and survival were evaluated. SETTING: Coronavirus disease 2019 ICUs at a specialist cardiorespiratory center. PATIENTS: Seventy-two consecutive patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to ICU during the study period (March 19, 2020, to June 23, 2020). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: All but one patient received thromboprophylaxis or therapeutic anticoagulation. Among 72 patients (male:female = 74%; mean age: 52 ± 10; 35 on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), there were 54 thrombotic complications in 42 patients (58%), comprising 34 pulmonary arterial (47%), 15 peripheral venous (21%), and five (7%) systemic arterial thromboses/end-organ embolic complications. In those with pulmonary arterial thromboses, 93% were identified incidentally on first screening CT with only 7% suspected clinically. Biomarkers of coagulation (e.g., D-dimer, fibrinogen level, and activated partial thromboplastin time) or inflammation (WBC count, C-reactive protein) did not discriminate between patients with or without thrombotic complications. Fifty-one patients (76%) survived to discharge; 17 (24%) patients died. Mortality was significantly greater in patients with detectable thrombus (33% vs 10%; p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of thrombotic complications, mainly pulmonary, among coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to ICU, despite anticoagulation. Detection of thrombus was usually incidental, not predicted by coagulation or inflammatory biomarkers, and associated with increased risk of death. Systematic CT imaging at admission should be considered in all coronavirus disease 2019 patients requiring ICU.

4.
Thorax ; 75(11): 1009-1016, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839287

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented surge in hospitalised patients with viral pneumonia. The most severely affected patients are older men, individuals of black and Asian minority ethnicity and those with comorbidities. COVID-19 is also associated with an increased risk of hypercoagulability and venous thromboembolism. The overwhelming majority of patients admitted to hospital have respiratory failure and while most are managed on general wards, a sizeable proportion require intensive care support. The long-term complications of COVID-19 pneumonia are starting to emerge but data from previous coronavirus outbreaks such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) suggest that some patients will experience long-term respiratory complications of the infection. With the pattern of thoracic imaging abnormalities and growing clinical experience, it is envisaged that interstitial lung disease and pulmonary vascular disease are likely to be the most important respiratory complications. There is a need for a unified pathway for the respiratory follow-up of patients with COVID-19 balancing the delivery of high-quality clinical care with stretched National Health Service (NHS) resources. In this guidance document, we provide a suggested structure for the respiratory follow-up of patients with clinicoradiological confirmation of COVID-19 pneumonia. We define two separate algorithms integrating disease severity, likelihood of long-term respiratory complications and functional capacity on discharge. To mitigate NHS pressures, virtual solutions have been embedded within the pathway as has safety netting of patients whose clinical trajectory deviates from the pathway. For all patients, we suggest a holistic package of care to address breathlessness, anxiety, oxygen requirement, palliative care and rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Transtornos Respiratórios/terapia , Algoritmos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/virologia
5.
Lung Cancer ; 148: 12-19, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The West London lung screening pilot aimed to identify early-stage lung cancer by targeting low-dose CT (LDCT) to high risk participants. Successful implementation of screening requires maximising participant uptake and identifying those at highest risk. As well as reporting pre-specified baseline screening metrics, additional objectives were to 1) compare participant uptake between a mobile and hospital-based CT scanner and 2) evaluate the impact on cancer detection using two lung cancer risk models. METHODS: From primary care records, ever-smokers aged 60-75 were invited to a lung health check at a hospital or mobile site. Participants with PLCOM2012 6-yr risk ≥1.51 % and/or LLPv2 5-yr risk ≥2.0 % were offered a LDCT. Lung cancer detection rate, stage, and recall rates are reported. Participant uptake was compared at both sites (chi-squared test). LDCT eligibility and cancer detection rate were compared between those recruited under each risk model. RESULTS: Of 8366 potential participants invited, 1047/5135 (20.4 %) invitees responded to an invitation to the hospital site, and 702/3231 (21.7 %) to the mobile site (p = 0.14). The median distance travelled to the hospital site was less than to the mobile site (3.3 km vs 6.4 km, p < 0.01). Of 1159 participants eligible for a scan, 451/1159 (38.9 %) had a LLPv2 ≥2.0 % only, 71/1159 (6.1 %) had a PLCOM2012 ≥1.5 % only; 637/1159 (55.0 %) met both risk thresholds. Recall rate was 15.9 %. Lung cancer was detected in 29/1145 (2.5 %) participants scanned (stage 1, 58.6 %); 5/29 participants with lung cancer did not meet a PLCOM2012 threshold of ≥1.51 %; all had a LLPv2 ≥2.0 %. CONCLUSION: Targeted screening is effective in detecting early-stage lung cancer. Similar levels of participant uptake at a mobile and fixed site scanner were demonstrated, indicating that uptake was driven by factors in addition to scanner location. The LLPv2 model was more permissive; recruitment with PLCOM2012 alone would have missed several cancers.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(5): 690-699, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667207

RESUMO

Rationale: Clinical and epidemiologic data in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have accrued rapidly since the outbreak, but few address the underlying pathophysiology.Objectives: To ascertain the physiologic, hematologic, and imaging basis of lung injury in severe COVID-19 pneumonia.Methods: Clinical, physiologic, and laboratory data were collated. Radiologic (computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography [n = 39] and dual-energy CT [DECT, n = 20]) studies were evaluated: observers quantified CT patterns (including the extent of abnormal lung and the presence and extent of dilated peripheral vessels) and perfusion defects on DECT. Coagulation status was assessed using thromboelastography.Measurements and Results: In 39 consecutive patients (male:female, 32:7; mean age, 53 ± 10 yr [range, 29-79 yr]; Black and minority ethnic, n = 25 [64%]), there was a significant vascular perfusion abnormality and increased physiologic dead space (dynamic compliance, 33.7 ± 14.7 ml/cm H2O; Murray lung injury score, 3.14 ± 0.53; mean ventilatory ratios, 2.6 ± 0.8) with evidence of hypercoagulability and fibrinolytic "shutdown". The mean CT extent (±SD) of normally aerated lung, ground-glass opacification, and dense parenchymal opacification were 23.5 ± 16.7%, 36.3 ± 24.7%, and 42.7 ± 27.1%, respectively. Dilated peripheral vessels were present in 21/33 (63.6%) patients with at least two assessable lobes (including 10/21 [47.6%] with no evidence of acute pulmonary emboli). Perfusion defects on DECT (assessable in 18/20 [90%]) were present in all patients (wedge-shaped, n = 3; mottled, n = 9; mixed pattern, n = 6).Conclusions: Physiologic, hematologic, and imaging data show not only the presence of a hypercoagulable phenotype in severe COVID-19 pneumonia but also markedly impaired pulmonary perfusion likely caused by pulmonary angiopathy and thrombosis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Circulação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
8.
Chest ; 158(1): 106-116, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275978

RESUMO

With more than 900,000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50,000 deaths during the first 3 months of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented health care crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. For these regions, health care delivery has been disrupted and compromised by critical resource constraints in diagnostic testing, hospital beds, ventilators, and health care workers who have fallen ill to the virus exacerbated by shortages of personal protective equipment. Although mild cases mimic common upper respiratory viral infections, respiratory dysfunction becomes the principal source of morbidity and mortality as the disease advances. Thoracic imaging with chest radiography and CT are key tools for pulmonary disease diagnosis and management, but their role in the management of COVID-19 has not been considered within the multivariable context of the severity of respiratory disease, pretest probability, risk factors for disease progression, and critical resource constraints. To address this deficit, a multidisciplinary panel comprised principally of radiologists and pulmonologists from 10 countries with experience managing patients with COVID-19 across a spectrum of health care environments evaluated the utility of imaging within three scenarios representing varying risk factors, community conditions, and resource constraints. Fourteen key questions, corresponding to 11 decision points within the three scenarios and three additional clinical situations, were rated by the panel based on the anticipated value of the information that thoracic imaging would be expected to provide. The results were aggregated, resulting in five main and three additional recommendations intended to guide medical practitioners in the use of chest radiography and CT in the management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Doenças Respiratórias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia
9.
Radiology ; 296(1): 172-180, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255413

RESUMO

With more than 900 000 confirmed cases worldwide and nearly 50 000 deaths during the first 3 months of 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has emerged as an unprecedented health care crisis. The spread of COVID-19 has been heterogeneous, resulting in some regions having sporadic transmission and relatively few hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and others having community transmission that has led to overwhelming numbers of severe cases. For these regions, health care delivery has been disrupted and compromised by critical resource constraints in diagnostic testing, hospital beds, ventilators, and health care workers who have fallen ill to the virus exacerbated by shortages of personal protective equipment. Although mild cases mimic common upper respiratory viral infections, respiratory dysfunction becomes the principal source of morbidity and mortality as the disease advances. Thoracic imaging with chest radiography and CT are key tools for pulmonary disease diagnosis and management, but their role in the management of COVID-19 has not been considered within the multivariable context of the severity of respiratory disease, pretest probability, risk factors for disease progression, and critical resource constraints. To address this deficit, a multidisciplinary panel comprised principally of radiologists and pulmonologists from 10 countries with experience managing patients with COVID-19 across a spectrum of health care environments evaluated the utility of imaging within three scenarios representing varying risk factors, community conditions, and resource constraints. Fourteen key questions, corresponding to 11 decision points within the three scenarios and three additional clinical situations, were rated by the panel based on the anticipated value of the information that thoracic imaging would be expected to provide. The results were aggregated, resulting in five main and three additional recommendations intended to guide medical practitioners in the use of chest radiography and CT in the management of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Consenso , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Saúde Global , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Radiografia Torácica/instrumentação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sociedades Médicas , Triagem , Gravação em Vídeo
10.
Thorax ; 75(8): 648-654, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345689

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) receiving antifibrotic medication and patients with non-IPF fibrosing lung disease often demonstrate rates of annualised forced vital capacity (FVC) decline within the range of measurement variation (5.0%-9.9%). We examined whether change in visual CT variables could help confirm whether marginal FVC declines represented genuine clinical deterioration rather than measurement noise. METHODS: In two IPF cohorts (cohort 1: n=103, cohort 2: n=108), separate pairs of radiologists scored paired volumetric CTs (acquired between 6 and 24 months from baseline). Change in interstitial lung disease, honeycombing, reticulation, ground-glass opacity extents and traction bronchiectasis severity was evaluated using a 5-point scale, with mortality prediction analysed using univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses. Both IPF populations were then combined to determine whether change in CT variables could predict mortality in patients with marginal FVC declines. RESULTS: On univariate analysis, change in all CT variables except ground-glass opacity predicted mortality in both cohorts. On multivariate analysis adjusted for patient age, gender, antifibrotic use and baseline disease severity (diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide), change in traction bronchiectasis severity predicted mortality independent of FVC decline. Change in traction bronchiectasis severity demonstrated good interobserver agreement among both scorer pairs. Across all study patients with marginal FVC declines, change in traction bronchiectasis severity independently predicted mortality and identified more patients with deterioration than change in honeycombing extent. CONCLUSIONS: Change in traction bronchiectasis severity is a measure of disease progression that could be used to help resolve the clinical importance of marginal FVC declines.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(6): 1367-1376, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) remain important causes of morbidity and mortality. The consensus definitions of the Infectious Diseases Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group have been of immense value to researchers who conduct clinical trials of antifungals, assess diagnostic tests, and undertake epidemiologic studies. However, their utility has not extended beyond patients with cancer or recipients of stem cell or solid organ transplants. With newer diagnostic techniques available, it was clear that an update of these definitions was essential. METHODS: To achieve this, 10 working groups looked closely at imaging, laboratory diagnosis, and special populations at risk of IFD. A final version of the manuscript was agreed upon after the groups' findings were presented at a scientific symposium and after a 3-month period for public comment. There were several rounds of discussion before a final version of the manuscript was approved. RESULTS: There is no change in the classifications of "proven," "probable," and "possible" IFD, although the definition of "probable" has been expanded and the scope of the category "possible" has been diminished. The category of proven IFD can apply to any patient, regardless of whether the patient is immunocompromised. The probable and possible categories are proposed for immunocompromised patients only, except for endemic mycoses. CONCLUSIONS: These updated definitions of IFDs should prove applicable in clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic research of a broader range of patients at high-risk.

14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(6): 650-660, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841044

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex, multiorgan, autoimmune disease. Lung fibrosis occurs in ∼80% of patients with SSc; 25% to 30% develop progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD). The pathogenesis of fibrosis in SSc-associated ILD (SSc-ILD) involves cellular injury, activation/differentiation of mesenchymal cells, and morphological/biological changes in epithelial/endothelial cells. Risk factors for progressive SSc-ILD include older age, male sex, degree of lung involvement on baseline high-resolution computed tomography imaging, reduced DlCO, and reduced FVC. SSc-ILD does not share the genetic risk architecture observed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), with key risk factors yet to be identified. Presence of anti-Scl-70 antibodies and absence of anti-centromere antibodies indicate increased likelihood of progressive ILD. Elevated levels of serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and C-reactive protein are both associated with SSc-ILD severity and predict SSc-ILD progression. A promising prognostic indicator is serum chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18. SSc-ILD shares similarities with IPF, although clear differences exist. Histologically, a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern is commonly observed in SSc-ILD, whereas IPF is defined by usual interstitial pneumonia. The course of SSc-ILD is variable, ranging from minor, stable disease to a progressive course, whereas all patients with IPF experience progression of disease. Although appropriately treated patients with SSc-ILD have better chances of stabilization and survival, a relentlessly progressive course, akin to IPF, is seen in a minority. Better understanding of cellular and molecular pathogenesis, genetic risk, and distinctive features of SSc-ILD and identification of robust prognostic biomarkers are needed for optimal disease management.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Currículo , Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/etiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia
15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(11): 1351-1359, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425665

RESUMO

Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is an unusual pulmonary disease with unique clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics. Designated a rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in 2013, its name refers to a combination of fibrosis involving the visceral pleura and fibroelastotic changes predominating in the subpleural lung parenchyma. Although a number of disease associations have been described, no single cause of PPFE has been unequivocally identified. A diagnosis of PPFE is most commonly achieved by identifying characteristic abnormalities on computed tomographic scans. The earliest changes are consistently located in the upper lobes close to the lung apices, the same locations where subsequent disease progression is also most conspicuous. When sufficiently severe, the disease leads to progressive volume loss of the upper lobes, which, in combination with decreased body mass, produces platythorax. Once regarded as a slowly progressing entity, it is now acknowledged that some patients with PPFE follow an inexorably progressive course that culminates in irreversible respiratory failure and early death. In the absence of effective medical drug treatment, lung transplant remains the only therapeutic option for this disorder. This review focuses on improving early disease recognition and evaluating its pathophysiological impact and discusses working approaches for its management.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Pulmão/patologia , Pleura/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Fibrose/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Pulmão , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosaic attenuation on computed tomography (CT) has been identified in international guidelines as an important diagnostic feature of fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (FHP) as opposed to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, mosaic attenuation comprises several different radiological signs (low-density lobules, preserved lobules, air trapping and the so-called "headcheese sign") which may have differing diagnostic utility. Furthermore, the extent of mosaic attenuation required to distinguish these two diagnoses is uncertain and thresholds of mosaic attenuation from international guidelines have not been validated. METHODS: Inspiratory and expiratory CT scans were evaluated by two readers in 102 patients (IPF n=57; FHP n=45) using a semiquantitative scoring system for mosaic attenuation. Findings were validated in an external cohort from a secondary referral institution (IPF n=34; FHP n=28). RESULTS: Low-density lobules and air trapping were a frequent finding in IPF, present in up to 51% of patients. A requirement for increasing extent of low-density lobules and air trapping based on guidelines (American Thoracic Society and Fleischner Society) was associated with increased specificity for the diagnosis of FHP (0.96 and 0.98, respectively) but reduced sensitivity (0.16 and 0.20, respectively). The headcheese sign was found to be highly specific (0.93) and moderately sensitive (0.49) for a high-confidence diagnosis of FHP. The high specificity of the headcheese sign was maintained in the validation cohort and when patients with other CT features of FHP were excluded. CONCLUSION: Mosaic attenuation is a frequent finding in IPF. However, the headcheese sign can be confidently considered as being inconsistent with a diagnosis of IPF and specific for FHP.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Eur Respir J ; 52(6)2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409817

RESUMO

Radiological evaluation of incidentally detected lung nodules on computed tomography (CT) influences management. We assessed international radiological variation in 1) pulmonary nodule characterisation; 2) hypothetical guideline-derived management; and 3) radiologists' management recommendations.107 radiologists from 25 countries evaluated 69 CT-detected nodules, recording: 1) first-choice composition (solid, part-solid or ground-glass, with percentage confidence); 2) morphological features; 3) dimensions; 4) recommended management; and 5) decision-influencing factors. We modelled hypothetical management decisions on the 2005 and updated 2017 Fleischner Society, and both liberal and parsimonious interpretations of the British Thoracic Society 2015 guidelines.Overall agreement for first-choice nodule composition was good (Fleiss' κ=0.65), but poorest for part-solid nodules (weighted κ 0.62, interquartile range 0.50-0.71). Morphological variables, including spiculation (κ=0.35), showed poor-to-moderate agreement (κ=0.23-0.53). Variation in diameter was greatest at key thresholds (5 mm and 6 mm). Agreement for radiologists' recommendations was poor (κ=0.30); 21% disagreed with the majority. Although agreement within the four guideline-modelled management strategies was good (κ=0.63-0.73), 5-10% of radiologists would disagree with majority decisions if they applied guidelines strictly.Agreement was lowest for part-solid nodules, while significant measurement variation exists at important size thresholds. These variations resulted in generally good agreement for guideline-modelled management, but poor agreement for radiologists' actual recommendations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulo Pulmonar Solitário/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Radiologistas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Radiology ; 288(3): 867-875, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969076

RESUMO

Purpose To study interreader variability for classifying pulmonary opacities at CT as perifissural nodules (PFNs) and determine how reliably radiologists differentiate PFNs from malignancies. Materials and Methods CT studies were obtained retrospectively from the National Lung Screening Trial (2002-2009). Nodules were eligible for the study if they were noncalcified, solid, within the size range of 5 to 10 mm, and scanned with a section thickness of 2 mm or less. Six radiologists classified 359 nodules in a cancer-enriched data set as PFN, non-PFN, or not applicable. Nodules classified as not applicable by at least three radiologists were excluded, leaving 316 nodules for post-hoc statistical analysis. Results The study group contained 22.2% cancers (70 of 316). The median proportion of nodules classified as PFNs was 45.6% (144 of 316). All six radiologists uniformly classified 17.7% (56 of 316) of the nodules as PFNs. The Fleiss κ was 0.50. Compared with non-PFNs, nodules classified as PFNs were smaller and more often located in the lower lobes and attached to a fissure (P < .001). Thirteen (18.6%) of 70 cancers were misclassified 21 times as PFNs. Individual readers' misclassification rates ranged from 0% (0 of 125) to 4.9% (eight of 163). Of 13 misclassified malignancies, 11 were in the upper lobes and two were attached to a fissure. Conclusion There was moderate interreader agreement when classifying nodules as perifissural nodules. Less than 2.5% of perifissural nodule classifications were misclassified lung cancers (21 of 865) in this cancer-enriched study. Allowing nodules classified as perifissural nodules to be omitted from additional follow-up in a screening setting could substantially reduce the number of unnecessary scans; excluding perifissural nodules in the upper lobes would greatly decrease the misclassification rate.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Thorax ; 73(10): 989-991, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880538

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem condition which may affect a number of organs and, within the cardiopulmonary system, most commonly manifests as parenchymal, airway-centred, nodal, vascular or cardiac disease. Pleural involvement is rare, but well described, and often presents as pleural effusions or pleural thickening. Here, we present the first case of active sarcoidosis manifesting as bilateral pleural calcification. We highlight the importance of a nuanced understanding of pulmonary physiology when dissecting coexistent extrathoracic and intrathoracic pulmonary restriction. We demonstrate the value of positron emission tomography scanning for identification of sites of sarcoid activity, in this case the pleura, to ensure tissue confirmation of this rare but functionally important manifestation of disease. Sarcoidosis should be considered within the differential diagnosis for patients with pleural calcification, not explained by more common causes.


Assuntos
Calcinose/etiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Sarcoidose/complicações , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pleura/patologia , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pleurais/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Parede Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
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