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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365959


BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is a significant public health problem, contributing to the global health burden. Due to its immense socio-economic burden, various psychosocial, psychological, and pharmacological approaches have attempted to alter the behaviour of the patient misusing or abusing alcohol, but their efficacy is modest at best. Therefore, there is a search for newer treatment approaches, including noninvasive brain stimulation in the management of alcohol dependence. We plan to study the efficacy of Prefrontal Cortex Transcranial direct current stimulation Treatment in Alcohol dependence syndrome (PreCoTTA). METHODS: Two hundred twenty-five male patients with alcohol dependence syndrome will be randomized into the three study arms (2 active, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left orbitofrontal cortex, and 1 sham) to receive a total of 14 tDCS sessions (10 continuous and 4 booster sessions). Data will be collected from them at five different time points on clinical, neuropsychological and biochemical parameters. In addition, 225 healthy age and education matched controls will be administered the neuropsychological test battery at baseline for comparison with the patient group. DISCUSSION: The proposed study aims to explore the use of non-invasive brain stimulation; tDCS as a treatment alternative. We also aim to overcome the methodological gaps of limited sample sizes, fewer tDCS intervention sessions, lack of long term follow ups to measure the sustainability of gains and lack comprehensive measures to track changes in functioning and abstinence after tDCS intervention. The main outcomes include clinical (reduction in cue-induced craving, time to first drink and QFI); neuropsychological (risk-taking, impulsivity, and other neuropsychological domains) and biochemical markers (BDNF, leptin and adiponectin). The findings of the study will have translational value as it may help to improve the clinician's ability to effectively manage craving in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. Furthermore, we will have a better understanding of the neuropsychological and biochemical effects of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques which are of interest in the comprehensive treatment of addiction disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been registered with the Clinical Trials Registry-India (CTRI/2020/09/027582) on September 03rd 2020.

Top Stroke Rehabil ; : 1-11, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180370


Background: Adherence to prescribed exercises is essential for home-based programs to be effective, but evidence for strategies to enhance exercise adherence in people with stroke is lacking.Objectives: To determine the effect of adherence strategies on the proportion of people with stroke who adhere to prescribed home-based exercises and their level of adherence at 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. Our secondary objective was to determine the effect of the combined intervention on mobility and quality of life post-stroke.Methods: We conducted an RCT among people with stroke (Exp = 27, Con = 25) living in semi-urban India. Both groups received standard hospital care and a home exercise program. The experimental group also received adherence strategies delivered over five sessions. Adherence was measured using the Stroke-Specific Measure of Adherence to Home-based Exercises (SS-MAHE) , mobility using Mobility Disability Scale, and quality of life using the Stroke Impact Scale.Results: The experimental group had better exercise adherence compared to the control group both at six (mean difference [MD] 45, 95% CI 40, 64, p < .001) and 12 weeks (MD 51, 95% CI 39, 63, p < .001). The experimental group also had better mobility at 12 weeks (median (IQR), experimental 42 (57), median (IQR), control 95 (50), p = .002). There was no difference in the quality of life scores between groups at six or 12 weeks.Conclusion: The adherence strategies were effective in improving exercise adherence and mobility post-stroke but did not improve quality of life.Trial registration: CTRI/2018/08/015212.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 619176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912132


Background: Vitamins B12 and folate participate in the one-carbon metabolism cycle and hence regulate fetal growth. Though vitamin B12 deficiency is widely prevalent, the current public health policy in India is to supplement only iron and folic acid for the prevention of anaemia. Prompted by our research findings of the importance of maternal vitamin B12 status for a healthy pregnancy, birth and offspring health outcomes, we evaluated available literature evidence using a systematic review approach, to inform policy. Methods: A systematic search was performed for relevant Indian studies in the MEDLINE/PubMed and IndMed databases. We selected studies reporting maternal vitamin B12 status (dietary intake or blood concentrations), and/or metabolic markers of vitamin B12 deficiency (homocysteine, methylmalonic acid) or haematological indices during pregnancy and their associations with outcomes of pregnancy, infancy or in later life. Intervention trials of vitamin B12 during pregnancy were also included. Quality of evidence was assessed on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Results: Of the 635 articles identified, 46 studies met the inclusion criteria (cohort studies-26, case-control studies-13, RCT's -7). There is a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in Indian women during pregnancy (40-70%) (3 studies). Observational studies support associations (adjusted for potential sociodemographic confounders, maternal body size, postnatal factors) of lower maternal B12, higher homocysteine or an imbalance between vitamin B12-folate status with a higher risk of NTDs (6 studies), pregnancy complications (recurrent pregnancy losses, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia) (9 studies), lower birth weight (10 studies) and adverse longer-term health outcomes in the offspring (cognitive functions, adiposity, insulin resistance) (11 studies). Vitamin B12 supplementation (7 RCT's) in pregnancy showed a beneficial effect on offspring neurocognitive development and an effect on birth weight was inconclusive. There is a high quality evidence to support the role of low maternal vitamin B12 in higher risk for NTD and low birth weight and moderate-quality evidence for higher risk of gestational diabetes and later life adverse health outcomes (cognitive functions, risk for diabetes) in offspring. Conclusion: In the Indian population low maternal vitaminB12 status, is associated with adverse maternal and child health outcomes. The level of evidence supports adding vitamin B12 to existing nutritional programs in India for extended benefits on outcomes in pregnancy and offspring health besides control of anaemia. Systematic Review Registration: [website], identifier [registration number].

J Gen Intern Med ; 21(7): C7-10, 2006 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16808763


Bilateral facial paralysis is a rare condition and therefore represents a diagnostic challenge. We report the case of a 34-year-old healthy woman with sequential bilateral facial paralysis as a sole manifestation of sarcoidosis. She initially presented with an isolated left sided Bell's palsy without any symptoms to suggest alternative diagnoses. Within a month there was progression to peripheral facial paresis on the contra lateral side, prompting a diagnosis of Lyme disease. Her physical examination and chest x-ray did not reveal any clinical evidence of sarcoidosis. After failing to respond to an empiric trial of intravenous ceftriaxone for a presumptive diagnosis of Lyme disease, computed tomography scan of the chest was ordered which demonstrated bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopic biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The patient then made a complete recovery on steroid therapy. We discuss the differential diagnosis of facial diplegia and focus on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of neurosarcoidosis.

Paralisia Facial/etiologia , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Paralisia de Bell , Biópsia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Radiografia Torácica , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento