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1.
Blood ; 134(21): 1859-1872, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481482

RESUMO

Clinical observations implicate a role of eosinophils in cardiovascular diseases because markers of eosinophil activation are elevated in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. However, their contribution to atherosclerotic plaque formation and arterial thrombosis remains unclear. In these settings, we investigated how eosinophils are recruited and activated through an interplay with platelets. Here, we provide evidence for a central importance of eosinophil-platelet interactions in atherosclerosis and thrombosis. We show that eosinophils support atherosclerotic plaque formation involving enhanced von Willebrand factor exposure on endothelial cells and augmented platelet adhesion. During arterial thrombosis, eosinophils are quickly recruited in an integrin-dependent manner and engage in interactions with platelets leading to eosinophil activation as we show by intravital calcium imaging. These direct interactions induce the formation of eosinophil extracellular traps (EETs), which are present in human thrombi and constitute a substantial part of extracellular traps in murine thrombi. EETs are decorated with the granule protein major basic protein, which causes platelet activation by eosinophils. Consequently, targeting of EETs diminished thrombus formation in vivo, which identifies this approach as a novel antithrombotic concept. Finally, in our clinical analysis of coronary artery thrombi, we identified female patients with stent thrombosis as the population that might derive the greatest benefit from an eosinophil-inhibiting strategy. In summary, eosinophils contribute to atherosclerotic plaque formation and thrombosis through an interplay with platelets, resulting in mutual activation. Therefore, eosinophils are a promising new target in the prevention and therapy of atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

2.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-10, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507297

RESUMO

AIMS: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the preferred treatment modality for patients with severe aortic stenosis at high or prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). We aimed to evaluate real-world outcomes after treatment according to the decisions of the multidisciplinary heart team in a Belgian health-economic context. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four hundred and five high-risk patients referred to a tertiary centre between 1 March 2008 and 31 December 2015 were screened and planned to undergo SAVR, TAVI or medical treatment (MT). Patients undergoing SAVR had lower Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores and Euroscore-II when compared to TAVI or MT (median [IQR]: 6[4-8]; 7[5-10]; 8[6-13]; p < .001 and 6[4-10]; 8[5-15]; 8[4-16]; p = .006). At 1 year all-cause mortality was 14, 17 and 51% with SAVR, TAVI and MT, respectively (p < .001). Cardiovascular death and disabling stroke occurred in 9, 7 and 35% (p < .001) and 2, 2.7 and 1.7% (p = .91). According to Valve-Academic-Research-Consortium-II criteria, device success was 95 and 92% for TAVI and SAVR. The combined safety endpoint at 30 days favoured TAVI (22% vs. 47%) (p < .001). The combined efficacy endpoint at 1 year was comparable between groups (38 and 40%; p = .703). Finally, hospital stay was shorter with TAVI vs. SAVR (9[6-14] and 16[12-22] days; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Limited resources for transcatheter valve therapies in Belgium push a significant number of patients to SAVR, while TAVI in even higher risk patients translates into similar outcomes and shorter hospital stay. These findings underscore the need for broadening indications for TAVI, as well as readjustment of the budgetary allocations for hospitals in Belgium.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 277: 369-376, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant lipoprotein disorder characterized by significant elevation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and markedly increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because of the very high coronary artery disease risk associated with this condition, the prevalence of FH among patients admitted for CVD outmatches many times the prevalence in the general population. Awareness of this disease is crucial for recognizing FH in the aftermath of a hospitalization of a patient with CVD, and also represents a unique opportunity to identify relatives of the index patient, who are unaware they have FH. This article aims to describe a feasible strategy to facilitate the detection and management of FH among patients hospitalized for CVD. METHODS: A multidisciplinary national panel of lipidologists, cardiologists, endocrinologists and cardio-geneticists developed a three-step diagnostic algorithm, each step including three key aspects of diagnosis, treatment and family care. RESULTS: A sequence of tasks was generated, starting with the process of suspecting FH amongst affected patients admitted for CVD, treating them to LDL-C target, finally culminating in extensive cascade-screening for FH in their family. Conceptually, the pathway is broken down into 3 phases to provide the treating physicians with a time-efficient chain of priorities. CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize the need for optimal collaboration between the various actors, starting with a "vigilant doctor" who actively develops the capability or framework to recognize potential FH patients, continuing with an "FH specialist", and finally involving the patient himself as "FH ambassador" to approach his/her family and facilitate cascade screening and subsequent treatment of relatives.

5.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 11(14): 1340-1350, 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess neoatherosclerosis in a registry of prospectively enrolled patients presenting with stent thrombosis using optical coherence tomography. BACKGROUND: In-stent neoatherosclerosis was recently identified as a novel disease manifestation of atherosclerosis after coronary stent implantation. METHODS: Angiography and intravascular optical coherence tomography were used to investigate etiologic factors of neoatherosclerosis in patients presenting with stent thrombosis >1 year after implantation (very late stent thrombosis [VLST]). Clinical data were collected according to a standardized protocol. Optical coherence tomographic acquisitions were analyzed in a core laboratory. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the formation of neoatherosclerosis and plaque rupture as a function of time. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography was performed in 134 patients presenting with VLST. A total of 58 lesions in 58 patients with neoatherosclerosis were compared with 76 lesions in 76 patients without neoatherosclerosis. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. In-stent plaque rupture was the most frequent cause (31%) in all patients presenting with VLST. In patients with neoatherosclerosis, in-stent plaque rupture was identified as the cause of VLST in 40 cases (69%), whereas uncovered stent struts (n = 22 [29%]) was the most frequent cause in patients without neoatherosclerosis. Macrophage infiltration was significantly more frequent in optical coherence tomographic frames with plaque rupture compared with those without (50.2% vs. 22.2%; p < 0.0001), whereas calcification was more often observed in frames without plaque rupture (17.2% vs. 4%; p < 0.0001). Implantation of a drug-eluting stent was significantly associated with the formation of neoatherosclerosis (p = 0.02), whereas previous myocardial infarction on index percutaneous coronary intervention was identified as a significant risk factor for plaque rupture in patients with neoatherosclerosis (p = 0.003). No significant difference was observed in thrombus composition between patients with or without neoatherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: Neoatherosclerosis was frequently observed in patients with VLST. Implantation of a drug-eluting stent was significantly associated with neoatherosclerosis formation. In-stent plaque rupture was the prevailing pathological mechanism and often occurred in patients with neoatherosclerosis and previous myocardial infarction at index percutaneous coronary intervention. Increased macrophage infiltration heralded plaque vulnerability in our study and might serve as an important indicator.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 39(22): 2047-2062, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850820

RESUMO

The clinical expert consensus statement on takotsubo syndrome (TTS) part II focuses on the diagnostic workup, outcome, and management. The recommendations are based on interpretation of the limited clinical trial data currently available and experience of international TTS experts. It summarizes the diagnostic approach, which may facilitate correct and timely diagnosis. Furthermore, the document covers areas where controversies still exist in risk stratification and management of TTS. Based on available data the document provides recommendations on optimal care of such patients for practising physicians.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 39(22): 2032-2046, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850871

RESUMO

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a poorly recognized heart disease that was initially regarded as a benign condition. Recently, it has been shown that TTS may be associated with severe clinical complications including death and that its prevalence is probably underestimated. Since current guidelines on TTS are lacking, it appears timely and important to provide an expert consensus statement on TTS. The clinical expert consensus document part I summarizes the current state of knowledge on clinical presentation and characteristics of TTS and agrees on controversies surrounding TTS such as nomenclature, different TTS types, role of coronary artery disease, and etiology. This consensus also proposes new diagnostic criteria based on current knowledge to improve diagnostic accuracy.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 39(29): 2717-2725, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800130

RESUMO

Aims: Inhalation of nitric oxide (iNO) during myocardial ischaemia and after reperfusion confers cardioprotection in preclinical studies via enhanced cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling. We tested whether iNO reduces reperfusion injury in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; NCT01398384). Methods and results: We randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study 250 STEMI patients to inhale oxygen with (iNO) or without (CON) 80 parts-per-million NO for 4 h following percutaneous revascularization. Primary efficacy endpoint was infarct size as a fraction of left ventricular (LV) size (IS/LVmass), assessed by delayed enhancement contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pre-specified subgroup analysis included thrombolysis-in-myocardial-infarction flow in the infarct-related artery, troponin T levels on admission, duration of symptoms, location of culprit lesion, and intra-arterial nitroglycerine (NTG) use. Secondary efficacy endpoints included IS relative to risk area (IS/AAR), myocardial salvage index, LV functional recovery, and clinical events at 4 and 12 months. In the overall population, IS/LVmass at 48-72 h was 18.0 ± 13.4% in iNO (n = 109) and 19.4 ± 15.4% in CON [n = 116, effect size -1.524%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -5.28, 2.24; P = 0.427]. Subgroup analysis indicated consistency across clinical confounders of IS but significant treatment interaction with NTG (P = 0.0093) resulting in smaller IS/LVmass after iNO in NTG-naïve patients (n = 140, P < 0.05). The secondary endpoint IS/AAR was 53 ± 26% with iNO vs. 60 ± 26% in CON (effect size -6.8%, 95% CI -14.8, 1.3, P = 0.09) corresponding to a myocardial salvage index of 47 ± 26% vs. 40 ± 26%, respectively, P = 0.09. Cine-MRI showed similar LV volumes at 48-72 h, with a tendency towards smaller increases in end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes at 4 months in iNO (P = 0.048 and P = 0.06, respectively, n = 197). Inhalation of nitric oxide was safe and significantly increased cGMP plasma levels during 4 h reperfusion. The Kaplan-Meier analysis for the composite of death, recurrent ischaemia, stroke, or rehospitalizations showed a tendency toward lower event rates with iNO at 4 months and 1 year (log-rank test P = 0.10 and P = 0.06, respectively). Conclusions: Inhalation of NO at 80 ppm for 4 h in STEMI was safe but did not reduce infarct size relative to absolute LVmass at 48-72h. The observed functional recovery and clinical event rates at follow-up and possible interaction with nitroglycerine warrant further studies of iNO in STEMI.

9.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-5, 2018 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal therapeutic strategy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients found to have multi-vessel disease (MVD) is controversial but recent data support complete revascularisation (CR). Whether CR should be completed during the index admission or during a second staged admission remains unclear. Our main objective was to measure rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) during the waiting period in STEMI patients selected for staged revascularisation (SR), in order to determine the safety of delaying CR. For completeness, we also describe 30-day and long-term outcomes in STEMI patients with MVD who underwent in-hospital CR. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective analysis of 931 STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) identified 397 patients with MVD who were haemodynamically stable and presented within 12 hours of chest pain onset. Of these, 191 underwent multi-vessel PCI: 49 during the index admission and 142 patients undergoing a strategy of SR. RESULTS: Our main finding was that waiting period MACE were 2% (three of 142) in patients allocated to SR (at a median of 31 days). In patients allocated to in-hospital CR, 30-day MACE rates were 10% (five of 49). During a median follow up of 39 months, all-cause mortality was 7.0% vs. 28.6%, and cardiac mortality was 2% vs. 8%, in patients allocated to SR or CR, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with STEMI and MVD who, based on clinical judgement, were allocated to a second admission SR strategy had very few adverse events during the waiting period and excellent long-term outcomes.

11.
Acta Cardiol ; 73(4): 388-391, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent increase in the number of interventional cathlabs that followed a moratorium of several years has resulted in an abrupt increase in the number of PCI and a dilution of the experience per centre and per operator. METHODS: Based on data extracted from the national "Quality Oriented Electronic Registration of Medical Implant Devices" (QERMID) database, we compared the characteristics and outcome of patients treated in 2015 in the 21 newly (<3 years) approved PCI centres with those of patients treated in the 28 historical PCI centres. RESULTS: The proportion of acute coronary syndromes was slightly higher in new than in historical centres (48% vs. 44%; p < 0.01) but few differences in co-morbidities were observed. Considering separately the patients treated for an acute coronary syndrome or for stable ischaemia, no significant difference in the overall in-hospital or 30-days mortality and in the proportion of same week bypass surgery was observed between newly approved and historical centres. In a substantial proportion (39%) of patients treated for stable angina or silent ischaemia, no test confirming the presence of ischaemia before PCI is reported, without significant difference between new and historical centres. CONCLUSIONS: Pending the limitations of the QERMID database, including a limited dataset and the absence of systematic on-site monitoring, no significant difference in the rate of major complications was identified between new and historical Belgian PCI centres.

12.
EuroIntervention ; 13(17): 2036-2046, 2018 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741575

RESUMO

AIMS: This acute in vivo study sought to provide insights regarding the feasibility of performing complex bifurcation stenting with Magmaris magnesium alloy bioresorbable scaffolds (Biotronik, Bulach, Switzerland). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-five New Zealand White rabbits underwent stenting of non-diseased aorto-iliac bifurcations with the Magmaris using provisional (PS; n=5), culotte (n=6), modified T (n=6), or T and protrusion (TAP, n=8) stenting techniques. Angiography, optical coherence tomography and micro-computed tomography were performed. Angiographic results were good without evidence of side branch (SB) compromise. In 9/25 procedures, strut fractures were identified with minimal luminal compromise in two cases. PS opened the SB optimally without evidence of scaffold compromise. Culotte resulted in complete bifurcation coverage and good scaffold expansion; single strut fractures were present in three out of six and double fractures in one out of six procedures. Modified T and TAP resulted in complete bifurcation coverage, minimal neocarina double-strut layers and good expansion. In two out of six modified T procedures, strut fractures were present with SB scaffold deformity present in an additional two out of six procedures. In three out of eight TAP procedures, strut fractures were present without compromising overall scaffold integrity. CONCLUSIONS: Bifurcation stenting using Magmaris appears feasible. PS with additional TAP whenever needed seems a reasonable approach. Whenever a two-stent technique is planned, TAP appears most favourable whilst modified T and culotte stenting should probably be avoided.

13.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 11(6): 813-825, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether early post-infarction cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters provide additional long-term prognostic value beyond traditional outcome predictors in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. BACKGROUND: Long-term prognostic significance of CMR in STEMI patients has not been assessed yet. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study from a multicenter registry that prospectively included STEMI patients undergoing CMR after infarction. Between May 2003 and August 2015, 810 revascularized STEMI patients were included. CMR was performed at a median of 4 days after STEMI. Infarct size, microvascular obstruction (MVO), and left ventricular (LV) volumes and function were measured. Primary endpoint was a composite of all death and decompensated heart failure (HF). RESULTS: During median follow-up of 5.5 years (range 1.0 to 13.1 years), primary endpoint occurred in 99 patients (39 deaths and 60 HF hospitalization). MVO was a strong predictor of the composite endpoint after correction for important clinical, CMR, and angiographic parameters, including age, LV systolic function, and infarct size. The independent prognostic value of MVO was confirmed in all multivariate models irrespective of whether it was included as a dichotomous (presence of MVO, hazard ratio [HR]: 1.985 to 1.995), continuous (MVO extent as % LV, HR: 1.095 to 1.097), or optimal cutoff value (MVO extent ≥2.6% of LV; HR: 3.185 to 3.199; p < 0.05 for all). MVO extent ≥2.6% of LV was a strong independent predictor of all death (HR: 2.055; 95% confidence interval: 1.076 to 3.925; p = 0.029) and HF hospitalization (HR: 5.999; 95% confidence interval: 3.251 to 11.069; p < 0.001). Finally, MVO extent ≥2.6% of LV provided incremental prognostic value over traditional outcome predictors (net reclassification improvement index: 0.16 to 0.30; p < 0.05 for all models). CONCLUSIONS: Early post-infarction CMR-based MVO is a strong independent prognosticator in revascularized STEMI patients. Remarkably, MVO extent ≥2.6% of LV improved long-term risk stratification over traditional outcome predictors.

14.
Cardiol J ; 25(4): 470-478, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate long-term clinical outcomes after treatment of complex bifurcation lesions with the AXXESS dedicated self-expanding biolimus A9-eluting bifurcation stent. METHODS: Between 2004 and 2013, 123 patients with complex bifurcation lesions were treated in a single-center with the AXXESS stent in the proximal main vessel (MV) and additional drug-eluting stents in branches when required. Median follow-up was 5 years. Primary endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Secondary endpoints included MACE components (cardiac death, non-periprocedural clinical myocardial infarction [MI], target lesion revascularization [TLR] and definite/probable stent thrombosis [ST]) as well as all-cause death, target vessel revascularization (TVR) and non-TVR. RESULTS: During follow-up, 11 (8.9%) patients experienced a MACE, of whom 2 (1.6%) suffered cardiac death, 2 (1.6%) had a non-periprocedural clinical MI requiring TLR, and 7 (5.7%) underwent elective TLR. No definite/probable ST was observed. All-cause death occurred in 9 (7.3%) patients, TVR in 11 (8.9%) and non-TVR in 11 (8.9%). Patients treated for left main (LM) bifurcation lesions were more likely to experience MACE than non-LM bifurcation lesions (25% vs. 6.5%, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous revascularization of complex bifurcation lesions with the AXXESS stent is safe and provides excellent long-term results, especially in non-LM lesions.

15.
Acta Cardiol ; : 1-7, 2017 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228859

RESUMO

During the ESC congress in September 2017 in Barcelona, the new ESC guidelines were presented and are now available on the ESC website. The new guidelines cover management recommendations on following cardiovascular items: valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease, ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and on dual antiplatelet therapy. The present document gives a summary of these guidelines and highlights the most important recommendations and changes in the management of these diseases. It will help to increase awareness about the new guidelines and may stimulate to consult the full document for specific items. Ultimately, the authors hope that this document will enhance implementation of new ESC guidelines in daily clinical practice.

16.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 10(24): 2548-2556, 2017 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: High platelet reactivity (HPR) was studied in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) due to stent thrombosis (ST) undergoing immediate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: HPR on P2Y12 inhibitors (HPR-ADP) is frequently observed in stable patients who have experienced ST. The HPR rates in patients presenting with ST for immediate PCI are unknown. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with definite ST were included in a multicenter ST registry. Platelet reactivity was measured before immediate PCI with the VerifyNow P2Y12 or Aspirin assay. RESULTS: Platelet reactivity was measured in 129 ST patients presenting with STEMI undergoing immediate PCI. HPR-ADP was observed in 76% of the patients, and HPR on aspirin (HPR-AA) was observed in 13% of the patients. HPR rates were similar in patients who were on maintenance P2Y12 inhibitor or aspirin since stent placement versus those without these medications. In addition, HPR-ADP was similar in patients loaded with a P2Y12 inhibitor shortly before immediate PCI versus those who were not. In contrast, HPR-AA trended to be lower in patients loaded with aspirin as compared with those not loaded. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 3 out of 4 ST patients with STEMI undergoing immediate PCI had HPR-ADP, and 13% had HPR-AA. Whether patients were on maintenance antiplatelet therapy while developing ST or loaded with P2Y12 inhibitors shortly before undergoing immediate PCI had no influence on the HPR rates. This raises concerns that the majority of patients with ST have suboptimal platelet inhibition undergoing immediate PCI.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(12)2017 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pericardial effusions can be caused by a variety of disorders. The frequency of the underlying diseases varies with patient population; therefore, previously reported series are not necessarily representative of other populations. Our purpose was to examine the etiology of pericardial effusions and the survival of patients requiring pericardiocentesis at a tertiary center. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective observational study of 269 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous pericardiocentesis at our university hospital between 2006 and 2016 and had prospective follow-up for up to 10 years. The most frequent etiologies were idiopathic (26%), malignancy (25%), and iatrogenicity (20%), whereas bacterial causes were very rare. The most frequent malignancies originated from the lung (53%) or breast (18%). A new cancer was diagnosed with malignant pericardial effusion as the presenting complaint for 9% of patients, whereas the pericardium was the first metastatic site of a known malignancy in 4% of patients. Survival was significantly poorer in malignancy-related versus non-malignancy-related effusions (P<0.001) and in cytology-positive versus cytology-negative effusions in the overall cohort (P<0.001). Among cancer-only patients, however, there was no significant difference in long-term survival between cytology-positive and -negative effusions. CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary tertiary-center cohort, pericardial effusions often represent the primary instance of a new malignancy, underscoring the importance of cytological analyses of noniatrogenic effusions in patients without known cancer, as survival is significantly worse. In cancer patients, however, the presence of pericardial malignant cytology does not appear to affect outcome significantly.

18.
Circulation ; 136(11): 1007-1021, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28720725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stent thrombosis (ST) is a serious complication following coronary stenting. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) may provide insights into mechanistic processes leading to ST. We performed a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate OCT findings in patients with ST. METHODS: Consecutive patients presenting with ST were prospectively enrolled in a registry by using a centralized telephone registration system. After angiographic confirmation of ST, OCT imaging of the culprit vessel was performed with frequency domain OCT. Clinical data were collected according to a standardized protocol. OCT acquisitions were analyzed at a core laboratory. Dominant and contributing findings were adjudicated by an imaging adjudication committee. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-one patients presenting with ST underwent OCT imaging; 14 (6.1%) had image quality precluding further analysis. Of the remaining patients, 62 (28.6%) and 155 (71.4%) presented with early and late/very late ST, respectively. The underlying stent type was a new-generation drug-eluting stent in 50.3%. Mean reference vessel diameter was 2.9±0.6 mm and mean reference vessel area was 6.8±2.6 mm2. Stent underexpansion (stent expansion index <0.8) was observed in 44.4% of patients. The predicted average probability (95% confidence interval) that any frame had uncovered (or thrombus-covered) struts was 99.3% (96.1-99.9), 96.6% (92.4-98.5), 34.3% (15.0-60.7), and 9.6% (6.2-14.5) and malapposed struts was 21.8% (8.4-45.6), 8.5% (4.6-15.3), 6.7% (2.5-16.3), and 2.0% (1.2-3.3) for acute, subacute, late, and very late ST, respectively. The most common dominant finding adjudicated for acute ST was uncovered struts (66.7% of cases); for subacute ST, the most common dominant finding was uncovered struts (61.7%) and underexpansion (25.5%); for late ST, the most common dominant finding was uncovered struts (33.3%) and severe restenosis (19.1%); and for very late ST, the most common dominant finding was neoatherosclerosis (31.3%) and uncovered struts (20.2%). In patients presenting very late ST, uncovered stent struts were a common dominant finding in drug-eluting stents, and neoatherosclerosis was a common dominant finding in bare metal stents. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ST, uncovered and malapposed struts were frequently observed with the incidence of both decreasing with longer time intervals between stent implantation and presentation. The most frequent dominant observation varied according to time intervals from index stenting: uncovered struts and underexpansion in acute/subacute ST and neoatherosclerosis and uncovered struts in late/very late ST.


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Coronária/prevenção & controle , Stents Farmacológicos/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/tendências , Relatório de Pesquisa/tendências , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/tendências , Idoso , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
20.
Acta Cardiol ; 72(1): 19-27, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28597739

RESUMO

Acute coronary syndrome patients receive DAPT up to one year after their initial event. Exceptions to the guideline-recommended one-year rule, however, are not uncommon. The reasoning behind shorter treatments, such as unacceptable bleeding risk or urgent surgery, should be well documented in the patient's charts and discharge letter. Based on recent evidence, patients at high risk for repetitive events should continue on low-dose ticagrelor without a significant interruption at one year and indefinitely in the absence of excess bleeding risk. As there is currently no reimbursement, policy makers and insurers should be made aware of the continuing risk and unmet clinical need in this patient population. Nevertheless, many unsolved questions need to be answered, both through additional analyses from recent trials such as PEGASUS-TIMI 54 or DAPT, as well as new carefully designed clinical studies.

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