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1.
Circulation ; 141(12): 1001-1026, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202936

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a major public health problem that is rising in prevalence, is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is considered to be the greatest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine today because of a general lack of effective treatments. To address this challenging syndrome, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group made up of experts in HFpEF and novel research methodologies to discuss research gaps and to prioritize research directions over the next decade. Here, we summarize the discussion of the working group, followed by key recommendations for future research priorities. There was uniform recognition that HFpEF is a highly integrated, multiorgan, systemic disorder requiring a multipronged investigative approach in both humans and animal models to improve understanding of mechanisms and treatment of HFpEF. It was recognized that advances in the understanding of basic mechanisms and the roles of inflammation, macrovascular and microvascular dysfunction, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling are needed and ideally would be obtained from (1) improved animal models, including large animal models, which incorporate the effects of aging and associated comorbid conditions; (2) repositories of deeply phenotyped physiological data and human tissue, made accessible to researchers to enhance collaboration and research advances; and (3) novel research methods that take advantage of computational advances and multiscale modeling for the analysis of complex, high-density data across multiple domains. The working group emphasized the need for interactions among basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiological scientists and across organ systems and cell types, leveraging different areas or research focus, and between research centers. A network of collaborative centers to accelerate basic, translational, and clinical research of pathobiological mechanisms and treatment strategies in HFpEF was discussed as an example of a strategy to advance research progress. This resource would facilitate comprehensive, deep phenotyping of a multicenter HFpEF patient cohort with standardized protocols and a robust biorepository. The research priorities outlined in this document are meant to stimulate scientific advances in HFpEF by providing a road map for future collaborative investigations among a diverse group of scientists across multiple domains.

2.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 21(1): 11-23, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160827

RESUMO

Background: The Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) is a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, designed to test whether a statin medication can prevent cardiovascular disease in people with HIV. REPRIEVE recently completed enrollment of 7557 participants at over 100 clinical sites globally. Participant groups of focus were women, and racial and ethnic minorities.Objective: To describe recruitment methods and strategies developed by the REPRIEVE Clinical Coordinating Center (CCC) and share best practices learned from the recruitment process.Methods: Enrollment targets were agreed upon with the primary funder, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and were milestone driven. Milestones included number of sites activated, number of participants enrolled within specific time frames, and proportion of women and minorities enrolled. Strategies to achieve these milestones included structured interviews with site-designated REPRIEVE Recruitment Champions to develop best practices, development of a multimedia campaign, and site level recruitment support.Results: Recruitment initiated March, 2015 and completed March, 2019. The final accrual target was 7500 participants over 48 months. The trial met this target within the time specified. Overall, 10,613 screens were completed, 48% of participants enrolled from sites outside of North America, 32% were female, 44% were Black or African American, and 25% were Hispanic or Latino.Conclusions: REPRIEVE met its overall projected recruitment goal by using multiple, simultaneous strategies to specifically target a diverse population including minority subgroups. REPRIEVE benefited from the development of recruitment strategies with clear targets and communication of accrual targets to study teams.

3.
Circulation ; 141(6): 482-492, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744331

RESUMO

Catheter ablation has brought major advances in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). As evidenced by multiple randomized trials, AF catheter ablation can reduce the risk of recurrent AF and improve quality of life. In some studies, AF ablation significantly reduced cardiovascular hospitalizations. Despite the existing data on AF catheter ablation, numerous knowledge gaps remain concerning this intervention. This report is based on a recent virtual workshop convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to identify key research opportunities in AF ablation. We outline knowledge gaps related to emerging technologies, the relationship between cardiac structure and function and the success of AF ablation in patient subgroups in whom clinical benefit from ablation varies, and potential platforms to advance clinical research in this area. This report also considers the potential value and challenges of a sham ablation randomized trial. Prioritized research opportunities are identified and highlighted to empower relevant stakeholders to collaborate in designing and conducting effective, cost-efficient, and transformative research to optimize the use and outcomes of AF ablation.

4.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common and occurs at an earlier age among human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV+) individuals, but the mechanisms and consequences of DD among HIV+ individuals are unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Characterization of Heart Function on Antiretroviral Therapy (CHART) study was a multicenter cross-sectional case-control study of treated and virally suppressed HIV+ individuals with (DD+) and without DD (DD-). All patients had normal ejection fraction (>50%), no significant valvular disease, and no history of coronary revascularization or persistent atrial fibrillation. Overall, 94 DD+ and 101 DD- patients were included. DD+ patients were older with higher body mass index (BMI) and more likely to have hypertension, renal dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. Groups were similar with respect to sex, race, CD4 count, and HIV RNA copies. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels (median 36 [23, 85] vs 26 [12, 49] pg/mL, P < .01) and high-sensitivity troponin I (3.6 [2.6, 5.1] vs 2.5 [1.8, 3.5] pg/mL, P < .01) were higher among DD+ patients. The latter had similar left atrial size, but increased stiffness (conduit strain: 23.5 [17.5, 36.9] vs 30.0 [22.9, 37.0], P < .01) and impaired relaxation (reservoir strain: 39.7 [32.0, 58.0] vs 45.9 [37.0, 60.6], P = .04). On cardiac magnetic resonance, the prevalence of focal fibrosis was higher among DD+ patients (19.0% vs 5.3%, P < .01). DD+ patients demonstrated higher levels of carboxyl-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (P = .04), and trends toward higher interleukin-6 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels (P ≤ .08). Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire physical limitation (87.1±21.4 vs 93.1±18.1, P = .01) and symptom frequency scores were lower among DD+ patients (86.0±21.5 vs 92.5±16.8, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: In this contemporary HIV+ population receiving antiretroviral therapy, DD was associated with multiple alterations in cardiac structure and function, including myocardial fibrosis and left atrial abnormalities, and worse quality of life. Further studies are needed to assess longitudinal changes in these parameters and their potential as therapeutic targets to prevent progressive cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in HIV.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(19): 2333-2345, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HCMR (Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry) is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, prospective registry of 2,755 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) recruited from 44 sites in 6 countries. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to improve risk prediction in HCM by incorporating cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), genetic, and biomarker data. METHODS: Demographic and echocardiographic data were collected. Patients underwent CMR including cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement imaging (LGE) (replacement fibrosis), and T1 mapping for measurement of extracellular volume as a measure of interstitial fibrosis. Blood was drawn for the biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and genetic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 2,755 patients were studied. Mean age was 49 ± 11 years, 71% were male, and 17% non-white. Mean ESC (European Society of Cardiology) risk score was 2.48 ± 0.56. Eighteen percent had a resting left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradient ≥30 mm Hg. Thirty-six percent had a sarcomere mutation identified, and 50% had any LGE. Sarcomere mutation-positive patients were more likely to have reverse septal curvature morphology, LGE, and no significant resting LVOT obstruction. Those that were sarcomere mutation negative were more likely to have isolated basal septal hypertrophy, less LGE, and more LVOT obstruction. Interstitial fibrosis was present in segments both with and without LGE. Serum NT-proBNP and cTnT levels correlated with increasing LGE and extracellular volume in a graded fashion. CONCLUSIONS: The HCMR population has characteristics of low-risk HCM. Ninety-three percent had no or only mild functional limitation. Baseline data separated patients broadly into 2 categories. One group was sarcomere mutation positive and more likely had reverse septal curvature morphology, more fibrosis, but less resting obstruction, whereas the other was sarcomere mutation negative and more likely had isolated basal septal hypertrophy with obstruction, but less fibrosis. Further follow-up will allow better understanding of these subgroups and development of an improved risk prediction model incorporating all these markers.

6.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(10): 878-887, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521682

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the impact of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on first and recurrent hospitalization in this population. BACKGROUND: In the STICH (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) trial, CABG reduced all-cause death and hospitalization in patients with and ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular ejection fraction <35%. METHODS: A total of 1,212 patients were randomized (610 to CABG + optimal medical therapy [CABG] and 602 to optimal medical therapy alone [MED] alone) and followed for a median of 9.8 years. All-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations were analyzed as time-to-first-event and as recurrent event analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1,212 patients, 757 died (62.4%) and 732 (60.4%) were hospitalized at least once, for a total of 2,549 total all-cause hospitalizations. Most hospitalizations (66.2%) were for cardiovascular causes, of which approximately one-half (907 or 52.9%) were for heart failure. More than 70% of all hospitalizations (1,817 or 71.3%) were recurrent events. The CABG group experienced fewer all-cause hospitalizations in the time-to-first-event (349 CABG vs. 383 MED, adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.74 to 0.98; p = 0.03) and in recurrent event analyses (1,199 CABG vs. 1,350 MED, HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94; p < 0.001). This was driven by fewer total cardiovascular (CV) hospitalizations (744 vs. 968; p < 0.001, adjusted HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.81; p = 0.001), the majority of which were due to HF (395 vs. 512; p < 0.001, adjusted HR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89; p = 0.005). We did not observe a difference in non-CV events. CONCLUSIONS: CABG reduces all-cause, CV, and HF hospitalizations in time-to-first-event and recurrent event analyses. (Comparison of Surgical and Medical Treatment for Congestive Heart Failure and Coronary Artery Disease [STICH]; NCT00023595).

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(9): 1205-1217, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The GUIDE-IT (GUIDing Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment in Heart Failure) trial demonstrated that a strategy to "guide" application of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) by reducing amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was not superior to GDMT alone. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the prognostic meaning of NT-proBNP changes following heart failure (HF) therapy intensification relative to the goal NT-proBNP value of 1,000 pg/ml explored in the GUIDE-IT trial. METHODS: A total of 638 study participants were included who were alive and had available NT-proBNP results 90 days after randomization. Rates of subsequent cardiovascular (CV) death/HF hospitalization or all-cause mortality during follow-up and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) overall scores were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 198 (31.0%) subjects had an NT-proBNP ≤1,000 pg/ml at 90 days with no difference in achievement of NT-proBNP goal between the biomarker-guided and usual care arms. NT-proBNP ≤1,000 pg/ml by 90 days was associated with longer freedom from CV/HF hospitalization or all-cause mortality (p < 0.001 for both) and lower adjusted hazard of subsequent HF hospitalization/CV death (hazard ratio: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.15 to 0.46; p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.15 to 0.77; p = 0.009). Regardless of elevated baseline concentration, an NT-proBNP ≤1,000 pg/ml at 90 days was associated with better outcomes and significantly better KCCQ overall scores (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction whose NT-proBNP levels decreased to ≤1,000 pg/ml during GDMT had better outcomes. These findings may help to understand the results of the GUIDE-IT trial. (Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment [GUIDE-IT]; NCT01685840).

8.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 24(6): 534-541, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (LpPLA2) is an inflammatory marker that has been associated with the presence of vulnerable plaque and increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of extended-release niacin (ERN) on Lp-PLA2 activity and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We performed a post hoc analysis in 3196 AIM-HIGH patients with established CV disease and low baseline levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) who were randomized to ERN versus placebo on a background of simvastatin therapy (with or without ezetimibe) to assess the association between baseline Lp-PLA2 activity and the rate of the composite primary end point (CV death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, and symptom-driven revascularization). RESULTS: Participants randomized to ERN, but not those randomized to placebo, experienced a significant 8.9% decrease in LpPLA2. In univariate analysis, the highest quartile of LpPLA2 activity (>208 nmol/min/mL, Q4) was associated with higher event rates compared to the lower quartiles in the placebo group (log rank P = .032), but not in the ERN treated participants (log rank P = .718). However, in multivariate analysis, adjusting for sex, diabetes, baseline LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides, there was no significant difference in outcomes between the highest Lp-PLA2 activity quartile versus the lower quartiles in both the placebo and the ERN groups. CONCLUSION: Among participants with stable CV disease on optimal medical therapy, elevated Lp-PLA2 was associated with higher CV events; however, addition of ERN mitigates this effect. This association in the placebo group was attenuated after multivariable adjustment, which suggests that Lp-PLA2 does not improve risk assessment beyond traditional risk factors.

9.
Circ Res ; 124(4): 491-497, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031412

RESUMO

As we commemorate the 70th Anniversary of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and celebrate important milestones that have been achieved by the Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS), it is imperative that DCVS and the Extramural Research community at-large continue to address critical public health challenges that persist within the area of Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). The NHLBI's Strategic Vision, developed with extensive input from the extramural research community and published in 2016, included overarching goals and strategic objectives that serve to provide a general blueprint for sustaining the legacy of the Institute by leveraging opportunities in emerging scientific areas (e.g., regenerative medicine, omics technology, data science, precision medicine, and mobile health), finding new ways to address enduring challenges (e.g., social determinants of health, health inequities, prevention, and health promotion), and training the next generation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep researchers. DCVS has developed a strategic vision implementation plan to provide a cardiovascular framing for the pursuit of the Institute's overarching goals and strategic objectives garnered from the input of the broader NHLBI community. This plan highlights six scientific focus areas that demonstrate a cross-cutting and multifaceted approach to addressing cardiovascular sciences, including 1) addressing social determinants of cardiovascular health (CVH) and health inequities, 2) enhancing resilience, 3) promoting CVH and preventing CVD Across the lifespan, 4) eliminating hypertension-related CVD, 5) reducing the burden of heart failure, and 6) preventing vascular dementia. These priorities will guide our efforts in Institute-driven activities in the coming years but will not exclude development of other novel ideas or the support of investigator-initiated grant awards. The DCVS Strategic Vision implementation plan is a living document that will evolve with iterative dialogue with the NHLBI community and adapt as the dynamic scientific landscape changes to seize emerging opportunities.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Cardiologia/economia , Cardiologia/tendências , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
10.
Am Heart J ; 212: 1-12, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with HIV (PWH) have increased cardiovascular events, inflammation, and high-risk coronary atherosclerosis. Statin therapy has been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but whether this results from reductions in coronary atherosclerosis and is mediated by decreased inflammation remains unknown. METHODS: REPRIEVE is a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of pitavastatin calcium (4 mg/day) vs. placebo enrolling at least 7500 PWH between 40-75 years, on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with low to moderate traditional CVD risk. The Mechanistic Substudy of REPRIEVE (A5333s) is co-enrolling 800 participants from 31 US sites. These participants undergo serial contrast enhanced coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and measurements of biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. The primary objectives are to determine the effects of pitavastatin on noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque (NCP) volume, low attenuation plaque, and positive remodeling and on changes in immune activation and inflammation and to assess relationships between the two. Changes in CAD will be assessed in a standardized fashion by a core lab with expert readers blinded to time points and participant information; immune activation and inflammation assessment is also performed centrally. RESULTS: To date the Mechanistic Substudy has completed planned enrollment, with 805 participants. CONCLUSION: This study represents the first large, randomized, CCTA-based assessment of the effects of a primary prevention strategy for CVD on high-risk CAD, immune activation and inflammation among PWH. The study will assess pitavastatin's effects on coronary plaque, and the interrelationship of these changes with biomarkers of immune activation and inflammation in PWH to determine mechanisms of CVD prevention and improved outcomes in this population.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Placa Aterosclerótica/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Am Heart J ; 212: 23-35, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more frequent among people with HIV (PWH) and may relate to traditional and nontraditional factors, including inflammation and immune activation. A critical need exists to develop effective strategies to prevent CVD in this population. METHODS: The Randomized Trial to Prevent Vascular Events in HIV (REPRIEVE) (A5332) is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a statin strategy for the primary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in PWH with low to moderate traditional risk. At least 7,500 PWH, 40-75 years of age, on stable antiretroviral therapy, will be randomized to pitavastatin calcium (4 mg/d) or identical placebo and followed for up to 8 years. Participants are enrolled based on the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level with a goal to identify a low- to moderate-risk population who might benefit from a pharmacologic CVD prevention strategy. Potential participants with a risk score ≤ 15% were eligible based on decreasing LDL-C thresholds for increasing risk score >7.5% (LDL-C <190 mg/dL for risk score <7.5%, LDL-C <160 mg/dL for risk score 7.6%-10%, and LDL-C<130 mg/dL for risk score 10.1%-15%). The primary objective is to determine effects on a composite end point of MACE. Formal and independent adjudication of clinical events will occur using standardized criteria. Key secondary end points include effects on MACE components, all-cause mortality, specified non-CVD events, AIDS and non-AIDS events, and safety. RESULTS: To date, REPRIEVE has enrolled >7,500 participants at approximately 120 sites across 11 countries, generating a diverse and representative population of PWH to investigate the primary objective of the trial. CONCLUSIONS: REPRIEVE is the first trial investigating a primary CVD prevention strategy in PWH. REPRIEVE will inform the field of the efficacy and safety of a statin strategy among HIV-infected participants on antiretroviral therapy and provide critical information on CVD mechanisms and non-CVD events in PWH.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária , Estudos Prospectivos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Int J Cardiol ; 291: 36-41, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STICH trial showed superiority of coronary artery bypass plus medical treatment (CABG) over medical treatment alone (MED) in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%. In previous publications, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prior to CABG was associated with worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to analyse if prior PCI influenced outcomes in STICH. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients in the STICH trial (n = 1212), followed for a median time of 9.8 years, were included in the present analyses. In the total population, 156 had a prior PCI (74 and 82, respectively, in the MED and CABG groups). In those with vs. without prior PCI, the adjusted hazard-ratios (aHRs) were 0.92 (95% CI = 0.74-1.15) for all-cause mortality, 0.85 (95% CI = 0.64-1.11) for CV mortality, and 1.43 (95% CI = 1.15-1.77) for CV hospitalization. In the group randomized to CABG without prior PCI, the aHRs were 0.82 (95% CI = 0.70-0.95) for all-cause mortality, 0.75 (95% CI = 0.62-0.90) for CV mortality and 0.67 (95% CI = 0.56-0.80) for CV hospitalization. In the group randomized to CABG with prior PCI, the aHRs were 0.76 (95% CI = 0.50-1.15) for all-cause mortality, 0.81 (95% CI = 0.49-1.36) for CV mortality and 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41-0.90) for CV hospitalization. There was no evidence of interaction between randomized treatment and prior PCI for any endpoint (all adjusted p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the STICH trial, prior PCI did not affect the outcomes of patients whether they were treated medically or surgically, and the superiority of CABG over MED remained unchanged regardless of prior PCI. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00023595.

13.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 21(1): 9, 2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701318

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiovascular effects from cancer treatment remains a leading cause of treatment-associated morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. The National Cancer Institute and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a Workshop in June 2018 entitled "Changing Hearts and Minds: Improving Outcomes in Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity" to highlight progress, ongoing work, and update scientific priorities since the 2013 Workshop. Here we will describe these advances and provide an overview of the research priorities identified. RECENT FINDINGS: Since 2013, the National Institutes of Health has increased its support of cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicity research through the funding of grants and coordination of internal and external working groups. Workshop participants identified knowledge gaps and recommended over 20 new promising opportunities in basic and clinical cardiotoxicity research. Significant progress on mechanisms, detection, management, and prevention of cardiotoxicity has been made over the past 5 years, yet some critical gaps remain.

14.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(2): 158-168, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the association between biomarker-guided therapy and left ventricular (LV) remodeling. BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), it is unclear if lowering natriuretic peptides reflects structural and functional changes in the heart. This study aims to assess the association between biomarker-guided therapy and left ventricular (LV) remodeling. METHODS: The GUIDE-IT (Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment in Heart Failure) Echo Substudy was a multicenter study that randomized 268 patients with HFrEF (EF ≤40%) to either pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)-guided treatment or usual care. Echocardiograms were performed at baseline and 12 months in 124 patients. Remodeling indices and clinical outcomes were compared between treatment arms and by achievement of the NT-proBNP goal of <1,000 pg/ml at 12 months. RESULTS: At 12 months, the changes in EF and LV volumes were similar between the biomarker-guided and usual care arms with no difference in clinical outcomes; however, lowering NT-proBNP to <1,000 pg/ml, regardless of treatment strategy, was associated with a significantly greater increase in EF compared with those not reaching goal (9.9 ± 8.8% vs. 2.9 ± 7.9%; p < 0.001) and lower LV volumes. The extent of reverse remodeling correlated with the change in NT-proBNP: a decrease of 1,000 pg/ml was associated with an increase in EF of 6.7% and a reduction in systolic and diastolic volumes of 17.3 ml/m2 and 15.7 ml/m2, respectively. Adverse events were significantly lower among patients achieving the NT-proBNP goal (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with HFrEF, lowering NT-proBNP to <1,000 pg/ml by 12 months was associated with significant reverse remodeling and improved outcomes. A greater reduction in NT-proBNP was associated with more extensive reverse remodeling. (Guiding Evidence Based Therapy Using Biomarker Intensified Treatment [GUIDE-IT]; NCT01685840).

15.
Circ Heart Fail ; 11(11): e005531, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STICH trial (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure) demonstrated a survival benefit of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) risk score and the EuroSCORE-2 (ES2) are used for risk assessment in cardiac surgery, with little information available about their accuracy in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. We assessed the ability of the STS score and ES2 to evaluate 30-day postoperative mortality risk in STICH and a contemporary cohort (CC) of patients with a left ventricle ejection fraction ≤35% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting outside of a trial setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: The STS and ES2 scores were calculated for 814 STICH patients and 1246 consecutive patients in a CC. There were marked variations in 30-day postoperative mortality risk from 1 patient to another. The STS scores consistently calculated lower risk scores than ES2 (1.5 versus 2.9 for the CC and 0.9 versus 2.4 for the STICH cohort), and underestimated postoperative mortality risk. The STS and ES2 scores had moderately good C statistics: CC (0.727, 95% CI: 0.650-0.803 for STS, and 0.707, 95% CI: 0.620-0.795 for ES2); STICH (0.744, 95% CI: 0.677-0.812, for STS and 0.736, 95% CI: 0.665-0.808 for ES2). Despite the CC patients having higher STS and ES2 scores than STICH patients, mortality (3.5%) was lower than that of STICH (4.8%), suggesting a possible decrease in postoperative mortality over the past decade. CONCLUSIONS: The 30-day postoperative mortality risk of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with left ventricular dysfunction varies markedly. Both the STS and ES2 score are effective in evaluating risk, although the STS score tend to underestimate risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00023595.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Período Pós-Operatório , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
16.
JAMA ; 320(17): 1764-1773, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398602

RESUMO

Importance: There are few effective treatments for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Short-term administration of inorganic nitrite or nitrate preparations has been shown to enhance nitric oxide signaling, which may improve aerobic capacity in HFpEF. Objective: To determine the effect of 4 weeks' administration of inhaled, nebulized inorganic nitrite on exercise capacity in HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-treatment, crossover trial of 105 patients with HFpEF. Participants were enrolled from July 22, 2016, to September 12, 2017, at 17 US sites, with final date of follow-up of January 2, 2018. Interventions: Inorganic nitrite or placebo administered via micronebulizer device. During each 6-week phase of the crossover study, participants received no study drug for 2 weeks (baseline/washout) followed by study drug (nitrite or placebo) at 46 mg 3 times a day for 1 week followed by 80 mg 3 times a day for 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was peak oxygen consumption (mL/kg/min). Secondary end points included daily activity levels assessed by accelerometry, health status as assessed by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (score range, 0-100, with higher scores reflecting better quality of life), functional class, cardiac filling pressures assessed by echocardiography, N-terminal fragment of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide levels, other exercise indices, adverse events, and tolerability. Outcomes were assessed after treatment for 4 weeks. Results: Among 105 patients who were randomized (median age, 68 years; 56% women), 98 (93%) completed the trial. During the nitrite phase, there was no significant difference in mean peak oxygen consumption as compared with the placebo phase (13.5 vs 13.7 mL/kg/min; difference, -0.20 [95% CI, -0.56 to 0.16]; P = .27). There were no significant between-treatment phase differences in daily activity levels (5497 vs 5503 accelerometry units; difference, -15 [95% CI, -264 to 234]; P = .91), Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Clinical Summary Score (62.6 vs 61.9; difference, 1.1 [95% CI, -1.4 to 3.5]; P = .39), functional class (2.5 vs 2.5; difference, 0.1 [95% CI, -0.1 to 0.2]; P = .43), echocardiographic E/e' ratio (16.4 vs 16.6; difference, 0.1 [95% CI, -1.2 to 1.3]; P = .93), or N-terminal fragment of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide levels (520 vs 533 pg/mL; difference, 11 [95% CI, -53 to 75]; P = .74). Worsening heart failure occurred in 3 participants (2.9%) during the nitrite phase and 8 (7.6%) during the placebo phase. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with HFpEF, administration of inhaled inorganic nitrite for 4 weeks, compared with placebo, did not result in significant improvement in exercise capacity. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02742129.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Nitritos/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Compostos Inorgânicos/farmacologia , Compostos Inorgânicos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitritos/efeitos adversos , Nitritos/farmacologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Volume Sistólico , Falha de Tratamento
17.
JACC Heart Fail ; 6(8): 619-632, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071950

RESUMO

The number of persons with heart failure has continued to rise over the last several years. Approximately one-half of those living with heart failure have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, but critical unsolved questions remain across the spectrum of basic, translational, clinical, and population research in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. In this study, the authors summarize existing knowledge, persistent controversies, and gaps in evidence with regard to the understanding of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Our analysis is based on an expert panel discussion "Think Tank" meeting that included representatives from academia, the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and industry.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Prova Pericial , Insuficiência Cardíaca/classificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos
18.
J Clin Lipidol ; 12(6): 1413-1419, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and elevated triglycerides are independent predictors of cardiovascular (CV) events, though randomized trials of HDL-C-raising therapies to reduce clinical events have been largely disappointing. The Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes (AIM-HIGH) trial failed to show that extended release niacin (ERN) reduced CV events in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia who were on statin-based therapy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether extended follow-up of AIM-HIGH participants changed these null results. METHODS: AIM-HIGH was a placebo-controlled trial of 3414 patients with established CV disease, low baseline HDL-C, and elevated triglycerides levels randomized to ERN 1500-2000 mg/d vs placebo. Participants also received simvastatin with or without ezetimibe to attain on-treatment low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of 40-80 mg/dL. The trial was halted after a mean 3-year follow-up because of futility. RESULTS: Among 3236 participants alive at the end of blinded study, 2613 (81%; ERN = 1,312, placebo = 1301) were followed a mean 1.1 additional years. Ninety-five percent of subjects remained on statin, but only 4% on ERN. At a mean total follow-up of 4.1 years, there were 343 primary CV endpoints in the ERN arm and 305 CV endpoints in placebo participants (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96, 1.30). Ischemic stroke was also not significantly different after extended follow-up in the two groups (2.2% vs 1.5%, P = .13). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CV disease and atherogenic dyslipidemia on statin-based therapy, 3 years of ERN treatment did not lower CV event rates. An additional year of follow-up off assigned treatment did not alter these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Open Heart ; 5(1): e000752, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531766

RESUMO

Background: In patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may decrease mortality, but it is not known whether CABG improves functional capacity. Objective: To determine whether CABG compared with medical therapy alone (MED) increases 6 min walk distance in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction and coronary artery disease amenable to revascularisation. Methods: The Surgical Treatment in Ischemic Heart disease trial randomised 1212 patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction to CABG or MED. A 6 min walk distance test was performed both at baseline and at least one follow-up assessment at 4, 12, 24 and/or 36 months in 409 patients randomised to CABG and 466 to MED. Change in 6 min walk distance between baseline and follow-up were compared by treatment allocation. Results: 6 min walk distance at baseline for CABG was mean 340±117 m and for MED 339±118 m. Change in walk distance from baseline was similar for CABG and MED groups at 4 months (mean +38 vs +28 m), 12 months (+47 vs +36 m), 24 months (+31 vs +34 m) and 36 months (-7 vs +7 m), P>0.10 for all. Change in walk distance between CABG and MED groups over all assessments was also similar after adjusting for covariates and imputation for missing values (+8 m, 95% CI -7 to 23 m, P=0.29). Results were consistent for subgroups defined by angina, New York Heart Association class ≥3, left ventricular ejection fraction, baseline walk distance and geographic region. Conclusion: In patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction CABG compared with MED alone is known to reduce mortality but is unlikely to result in a clinically significant improvement in functional capacity. Trial registration number: NCT00023595.

20.
Circulation ; 137(8): 771-780, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex is conventionally considered a risk factor for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and has been included as a poor prognostic factor in multiple cardiac operative risk evaluation scores. We aimed to investigate the association of sex and the long-term benefit of CABG in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction enrolled in the prospective STICH trial (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure Study). METHODS: The STICH trial randomized 1212 patients (148 [12%] women and 1064 [88%] men) with coronary artery disease and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% to CABG+medical therapy (MED) versus MED alone. Long-term (10-year) outcomes with each treatment were compared according to sex. RESULTS: At baseline, women were older (63.4 versus 59.3 years; P=0.016) with higher body mass index (27.9 versus 26.7 kg/m2; P=0.001). Women had more coronary artery disease risk factors (diabetes mellitus, 55.4% versus 37.2%; hypertension, 70.9% versus 58.6%; hyperlipidemia, 70.3% versus 58.9%) except for smoking (13.5% versus 21.8%) and had lower rates of prior CABG (0% versus 3.4%; all P<0.05) than men. Moreover, women had higher New York Heart Association class (class III/IV, 66.2% versus 57.0%), lower 6-minute walk capacity (300 versus 350 m), and lower Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary scores (51 versus 63; all P<0.05). Over 10 years of follow-up, all-cause mortality (49.0% versus 65.8%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.86; P=0.002) and cardiovascular mortality (34.3% versus 52.3%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.89; P=0.006) were significantly lower in women compared with men. With randomization to CABG+MED versus MED treatment, there was no significant interaction between sex and treatment group in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, or the composite of all-cause mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization (all P>0.05). In addition, surgical deaths were not statistically different (1.5% versus 5.1%; P=0.187) between sexes among patients randomized to CABG per protocol as initial treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Sex is not associated with the effect of CABG+MED versus MED on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, the composite of death or cardiovascular hospitalization, or surgical deaths in patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. Thus, sex should not influence treatment decisions about CABG in these patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00023595.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença das Coronárias , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Doença das Coronárias/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
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