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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882010

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glucocorticoid-induced myopathy is a characteristic symptom of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. Its long-term outcome is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate long-term muscle function following remission of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Observational longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary care hospitals and specialized outpatient clinic. PATIENTS: As part of the prospective multicenter German Cushing's Registry we assessed muscle strength in patients with overt endogenous Cushing's syndrome. We studied the patients at the time of diagnosis (n=88), after 6 months (n=69) and thereafter annually following surgical remission over a period of up to four years (1 year: n=55; 2 years: n=34; 3 years: n=29; 4 years: n=22). Muscle function was evaluated by hand grip strength and by chair rising test. RESULTS: Grip strength was decreased to 83 % of normal controls (100 %) at time of diagnosis. It further decreased to 71 % after 6 months in remission (p≤0.001) and showed no improvement during further follow-up compared to baseline. Chair rising test performance improved initially (8 seconds at baseline vs 7 seconds after 6 months, p=0.004) but remained at this reduced level thereafter (7 seconds after 3 years vs 5 seconds in controls, p=0.038). In multivariate analysis we identified as predictors for long-term muscle dysfunction age, waist-to-hip-ratio and HbA1c at baseline. Furthermore, muscle strength during follow-up was strongly correlated with quality of life. CONCLUSION: This study shows that Cushing's syndrome associated myopathy does not spontaneously resolve during remission. This calls for action to identify effective interventions to improve muscle dysfunction in this setting.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750708

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are characterized by distinct genotype-phenotype relationships according to studies largely restricted to Caucasian populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess for possible differences in genetic landscapes and genotype-phenotype relationships of PPGLs in Chinese versus European populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 2 tertiary-care centers in China and 9 in Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of PPGL, including 719 Chinese and 919 Europeans. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Next-generation sequencing performed in tumor specimens with mutations confirmed by Sanger sequencing and tested in peripheral blood if available. Frequencies of mutations were examined according to tumor location and catecholamine biochemical phenotypes. RESULTS: Among all patients, higher frequencies of HRAS, FGFR1, and EPAS1 mutations were observed in Chinese than Europeans, whereas the reverse was observed for NF1, VHL, RET, and SDHx. Among patients with apparently sporadic PPGLs, the most frequently mutated genes in Chinese were HRAS (16.5% [13.6-19.3] vs 9.8% [7.6-12.1]) and FGFR1 (9.8% [7.6-12.1] vs 2.2% [1.1-3.3]), whereas among Europeans the most frequently mutated genes were NF1 (15.9% [13.2-18.6] vs 6.6% [4.7-8.5]) and SDHx (10.7% [8.4-13.0] vs 4.2% [2.6-5.7]). Among Europeans, almost all paragangliomas lacked appreciable production of epinephrine and identified gene mutations were largely restricted to those leading to stabilization of hypoxia inducible factors. In contrast, among Chinese there was a larger proportion of epinephrine-producing paragangliomas, mostly due to HRAS and FGFR1 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes Sino-European differences in the genetic landscape and presentation of PPGLs, including ethnic differences in genotype-phenotype relationships indicating a paradigm shift in our understanding of the biology of these tumors.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Hypertens ; 38(8): 1443-1456, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412940

RESUMO

: Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are chromaffin cell tumours that require timely diagnosis because of their potentially serious cardiovascular and sometimes life- threatening sequelae. Tremendous progress in biochemical testing, imaging, genetics and pathophysiological understanding of the tumours has far-reaching implications for physicians dealing with hypertension and more importantly affected patients. Because hypertension is a classical clinical clue for PPGL, physicians involved in hypertension care are those who are often the first to consider this diagnosis. However, there have been profound changes in how PPGLs are discovered; this is often now based on incidental findings of adrenal or other masses during imaging and increasingly during surveillance based on rapidly emerging new hereditary causes of PPGL. We therefore address the relevant genetic causes of PPGLs and outline how genetic testing can be incorporated within clinical care. In addition to conventional imaging (computed tomography, MRI), new functional imaging approaches are evaluated. The novel knowledge of genotype-phenotype relationships, linking distinct genetic causes of disease to clinical behaviour and biochemical phenotype, provides the rationale for patient-tailored strategies for diagnosis, follow-up and surveillance. Most appropriate preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are reviewed, as is minimally invasive surgery. Finally, we discuss risk factors for developing metastatic disease and how they may facilitate personalised follow-up. Experts from the European Society of Hypertension have prepared this position document that summarizes the current knowledge in epidemiology, genetics, diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of PPGL.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746334

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Despite growing evidence that temozolomide (TMZ) therapy is effective for the treatment of aggressive pituitary tumors (APTs) or carcinomas (PCs), individual therapy decisions remain challenging. OBJECTIVE: We therefore aimed to report on clinical characteristics leading to initiation of TMZ therapy and to add evidence on TMZ long-term effectiveness. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Retrospective survey on TMZ treatment in patients with APTs or PCs. TMZ therapy was initiated in 47 patients (22 females) with APTs (n = 34) or PCs (n = 13). Mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. The immunohistochemical subtypes were corticotroph (n = 20), lactotroph (n = 18), and nonfunctioning (n = 9) tumors. TMZ therapy started 8 years after initial diagnosis using a standard regimen (median 6 cycles) for the majority of patients. RESULTS: Long-term radiological response to TMZ after a median follow-up of 32 months with 4 patients still on TMZ therapy was tumor regression for 9 (20%), stable disease for 8 (17%), and tumor progression for 29 patients (63%) (outcome data available for 46 patients). Progression occurred 16 months after initiation of TMZ. Median estimated progression-free survival was 23 months. Disease stabilization and median progression-free survival did not differ between patients with APTs or PCs. Predictors of tumor response were not identified. Overall, TMZ was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: We performed a nationwide survey on TMZ therapy in patients with APTs and PCs. While early response rates to TMZ are promising, long-term outcome is less favorable. Prolonged TMZ administration should be considered. We were not able to confirm previously reported predictors of tumor response to TMZ.

7.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613324

RESUMO

CONTEXT: An important clinical feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS) is proximal muscle myopathy caused by glucocorticoid induced protein metabolism. However, interindividual differences cannot be explained solely by the pure extent of hypercortisolemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms (BclI, N363S, ER22/23EK and A3669G), which influence peripheral glucocorticoid sensitivity on muscular function in endogenous CS. METHODS: 205 patients with proven endogenous CS (128 central, 77 adrenal) from 3 centers of the German Cushing's Registry and 125 subjects, in whom CS was ruled out, were included. All subjects were assessed for grip strength (via hand grip dynamometer) and performed a chair-rising test (CRT). DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood leukocytes for GR genotyping. RESULTS: In patients with active CS, normalized handgrip strength of the dominant and nondominant hand was higher in A3669G minor allele than in wildtype carriers (P = .006 and P = .021, respectively). CS patients in remission and ruled-out CS showed no differences in handgrip strength regarding A3669G minor allele and wildtype carriers. Male CS patients harboring the ER22/23EK wildtype presented lower hand grip strength than minor allele carriers (P = .049 dominant hand; P = .027 nondominant hand). The other polymorphisms did not influence handgrip strength. CRT showed no differences regarding GR polymorphisms carrier status. CONCLUSION: Handgrip strength seems to be more susceptible to hypercortisolism in A3669G wildtype than in A3669G minor allele carriers. This might partially explain the inter-individual differences of glucocorticoid-induced myopathy in patients with endogenous CS. ER22/23EK polymorphism seems to exert sex-specific differences.

8.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589293

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Craniopharyngioma is a rare neoplastic entity of the central nervous system. Childhood-onset craniopharyngioma is the subject of frequent research whereas the information on adult-onset craniopharyngioma is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the level of daily impairment in adult patients suffering from craniopharyngioma. DESIGN: Noninterventional patient registry indexed as PV4842 with the local ethics committee. SETTING: The study is set in a hospitalized and ambulatory setting. PATIENTS: 148 patients with adult-onset craniopharyngioma were recruited from 8 centers, 22 prospectively and 126 retrospectively. Mean follow-up was 31 months. INTERVENTIONS: No interventions performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Complications, symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and quality of life (QoL; EORTC QLQ C30 and BN20) were recorded preoperatively and at follow-up. The hypotheses tested were generated after data collection. RESULTS: Complications were more frequent after transcranial than transsphenoidal approaches (31 % vs. 11%; P < 0.01). Preoperative obesity was present in 0% papillary and in 38% of all adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (P = 0.05), and diabetes insipidus was more frequent for papillary craniopharyngioma (36.8% vs. 16,7%; P < 0.05). Hormone deficits at follow-up were reduced in 16.9%, equal in 31.4%, and increased in 63.6% (P < 0.001). BMI increased from 28.7 ± 7.4 kg/m2 before surgery to 30.2 ± 7.4 kg/m2 at follow-up (P < 0.001). In QoL, a decrease of future uncertainty (62.5 vs. 36.8; P = 0.02) and visual disorders (38.9 vs. 12.0; P = 0.01) were observed in the prospective collective after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Adult craniopharyngioma is associated with a complex sociological and psychological burden and hypothalamic dysfunction, warranting further investigation and emphasizing the need for a wider treatment approach.

9.
Immun Ageing ; 16: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827568

RESUMO

Background: Cytokines are signaling molecules operating within complex cascade patterns and having exceptional modulatory functions. They impact various physiological processes such as neuroendocrine and metabolic interactions, neurotrophins' metabolism, neuroplasticity, and may affect behavior and cognition. In our previous study, we found that sex and Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-serostatus may modulate levels of circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic factors, immune cells, and cognitive performance, as well as associations between them. Results: In the present study, we used a graph-theoretical approach to investigate the network topology dynamics of 22 circulating biomarkers and 11 measures of cognitive performance in 161 older participants recruited to undergo a six-months training intervention. For network construction, we applied coefficient of determination (R 2 ) that was calculated for all possible pairs of variables (N = 33) in four groups (CMV- men and women; CMV+ men and women). Network topology has been evaluated by clustering coefficient (CC) and characteristic path length (CPL) as well as local (E local ) and global (E global ) efficiency, showing the degree of network segregation (CC and E local ) and integration (CPL and E global ). We found that networks under consideration showed small-world networks properties with more random characteristics. Mean CC, as well as local and global efficiency were highest and CPL shortest in CMV- males (having lowest inflammatory status and highest cognitive performance). CMV- and CMV+ females did not show any significant differences. Modularity analyses showed that the networks exhibit in all cases highly differentiated modular organization (with Q-value ranged between 0.397 and 0.453). Conclusions: In this work, we found that segregation and integration properties of the network were notably stronger in the group with balanced inflammatory status. We were also able to confirm our previous findings that CMV-infection and sex modulate multiple circulating biomarkers and cognitive performance and that balanced inflammatory and metabolic status in elderly contributes to better cognitive functioning. Thus, network analyses provide a useful strategy for visualization and quantitative description of multiple interactions between various circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, hormones, neurotrophic and metabolic factors, immune cells, and measures of cognitive performance and can be in general applied for analyzing interactions between different physiological systems.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717455

RESUMO

Cushing's disease (CD) is a rare condition caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, which lead to hypercortisolism that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment options in case of persistent or recurrent disease are limited, but new insights into the pathogenesis of CD are raising hope for new therapeutic avenues. Here, we have performed a meta-analysis of the available sequencing data in CD to create a comprehensive picture of CD's genetics. Our analyses clearly indicate that somatic mutations in the deubiquitinases are the key drivers in CD, namely USP8 (36.5%) and USP48 (13.3%). While in USP48 only Met415 is affected by mutations, in USP8 there are 26 different mutations described. However, these different mutations are clustering in the same hotspot region (affecting in 94.5% of cases Ser718 and Pro720). In contrast, pathogenic variants classically associated with tumorigenesis in genes like TP53 and BRAF are also present in CD but with low incidence (12.5% and 7%). Importantly, several of these mutations might have therapeutic potential as there are drugs already investigated in preclinical and clinical setting for other diseases. Furthermore, network and pathway analyses of all somatic mutations in CD suggest a rather unified picture hinting towards converging oncogenic pathways.

11.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(6): 647-657, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614337

RESUMO

Objective: Excess catecholamine release by pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) leads to characteristic clinical features and increased morbidity and mortality. The influence of PPGLs on metabolism is ill described but may impact diagnosis and management. The objective of this study was to systematically and quantitatively study PPGL-induced metabolic changes at a systems level. Design: Targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of plasma specimens in a clinically well-characterized prospective cohort study. Methods: Analyses of metabolic profiles of plasma specimens from 56 prospectively enrolled and clinically well-characterized patients (23 males, 33 females) with catecholamine-producing PPGL before and after surgery, as well as measurement of 24-h urinary catecholamine using LC-MS/MS. Results: From 127 analyzed metabolites, 15 were identified with significant changes before and after surgery: five amino acids/biogenic amines (creatinine, histidine, ornithine, sarcosine, tyrosine) and one glycerophospholipid (PCaeC34:2) with increased concentrations and six glycerophospholipids (PCaaC38:1, PCaaC42:0, PCaeC40:2, PCaeC42:5, PCaeC44:5, PCaeC44:6), two sphingomyelins (SMC24:1, SMC26:1) and hexose with decreased levels after surgery. Patients with a noradrenergic tumor phenotype had more pronounced alterations compared to those with an adrenergic tumor phenotype. Weak, but significant correlations for 8 of these 15 metabolites with total urine catecholamine levels were identified. Conclusions: This first large prospective metabolomics analysis of PPGL patients demonstrates broad metabolic consequences of catecholamine excess. Robust impact on lipid and amino acid metabolism may contribute to increased morbidity of PPGL patients.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Paraganglioma/metabolismo , Paraganglioma/cirurgia , Feocromocitoma/metabolismo , Feocromocitoma/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Catecolaminas/urina , Cromatografia Líquida , Creatinina/urina , Feminino , Histidina/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ornitina/urina , Paraganglioma/urina , Feocromocitoma/urina , Estudos Prospectivos , Sarcosina/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tirosina/urina , Adulto Jovem
12.
Pituitary ; 22(5): 542-551, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440946

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Clinical trials have demonstrated the favorable efficacy/safety profile of pasireotide in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). We report interim long-term results of an ongoing real-world evidence study of subcutaneous pasireotide in patients with CD. METHODS: Adults with CD receiving pasireotide, initiated before (prior-use) or at study entry (new-use), were monitored for ≤ 3 years during a multicenter observational study ( http://clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02310269). Primary objective was to assess long-term safety of pasireotide alone or with other CD therapies. RESULTS: At the time of this interim analysis, 127 patients had received pasireotide (new-use, n = 31; prior-use, n = 96). Eight patients had completed the 3-year observation period, 53 were ongoing, and 66 had discontinued. Among 31 new-use and 92 prior-use patients with ≥ 1 safety assessment, respectively: 24 (77%) and 37 (40%) had drug-related adverse events (AEs); 7 (23%) and 10 (11%) had serious drug-related AEs. Most common drug-related AEs were nausea (14%), hyperglycemia (11%) and diarrhea (11%); these were more frequently reported in new users and mostly of mild-to-moderate severity. 14 (45%) new-use and 15 (16%) prior-use patients experienced hyperglycemia-related AEs. Mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) was within normal range at baseline and months 1, 12 and 24, respectively, in: 1/16 (6%), 9/18 (50%), 1/3 (33%) and 0/0 new users; 28/43 (65%), 15/27 (56%), 27/33 (82%) and 12/19 (63%) prior users. CONCLUSIONS: Pasireotide is well tolerated and provides sustained reductions in mUFC during real-world treatment of CD. The lower rate of hyperglycemia-related AEs in prior users suggests that hyperglycemia tends not to deteriorate if effectively managed soon after onset. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02310269.


Assuntos
Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/tratamento farmacológico , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/fisiopatologia , Somatostatina/efeitos adversos , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(4): 409-420, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370000

RESUMO

Objective: Hypertension and symptoms of catecholamine excess are features of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). This prospective observational cohort study assessed whether differences in presenting features in patients tested for PPGLs might assist establishing likelihood of disease. Design and methods: Patients were tested for PPGLs because of signs and symptoms, an incidental mass on imaging or routine surveillance due to previous history or hereditary risk. Patients with (n = 245) compared to without (n = 1820) PPGLs were identified on follow-up. Differences in presenting features were then examined to assess the probability of disease and relationships to catecholamine excess. Results: Hyperhidrosis, palpitations, pallor, tremor and nausea were 30-90% more prevalent (P < 0.001) among patients with than without PPGLs, whereas headache, flushing and other symptoms showed little or no differences. Although heart rates were higher (P < 0.0001) in patients with than without PPGLs, blood pressures were not higher and were positively correlated to BMI, which was lower (P < 0.0001) in patients with than without PPGLs. From these differences in clinical features, a score system was established that indicated a 5.8-fold higher probability of PPGLs in patients with high than low scores. Higher scores among patients with PPGLs were associated, independently of tumor size, with higher biochemical indices of catecholamine excess. Conclusions: This study identifies a complex of five signs and symptoms combined with lower BMI and elevated heart rate as key features in patients with PPGLs. Prevalences of these features, which reflect variable tumoral catecholamine production, may be used to triage patients according to likelihood of disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Catecolaminas/sangue , Paraganglioma/sangue , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Feocromocitoma/sangue , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/epidemiologia , Feocromocitoma/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(3): 301-309, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370003

RESUMO

Objective: Determine rate of high plasma normetanephrine or metanephrine (PNM-PMN) in a large sample of patients according to PNM-PMN posture and age-adjusted references. Design: Retrospective re-analysis of PNM-PMN from a Canadian reference laboratory (n = 5452), 2011-2015; most were in seated position (n = 5112) rather than supine (n = 340). An international PPGL database demonstrated expected distribution of supine PNM-PMN in PPGL patients. Methods: All PNM-PMN from a tertiary referral laboratory were reviewed. Any PNM-PMN result greater than 2× upper reference limit (URL) was considered likely true PPGL. Results 1-2× URL were uncertain, requiring additional testing/follow-up despite most being false positive given the rarity of PPGL. The rate of results in the 1-2× URL category were calculated for each group according to collection posture and differing published URL: seated, supine or supine age adjusted. Results: When collected and interpreted by seated URL, 19.6% of PNM required additional testing; only 4.6% being >2× URL. For patients over age 50 years, the abnormal rate was 24.9%. When collected supine, interpreted by supine age-adjusted URL, only 5.3% of PNM were mildly elevated. Possible false positives may be even lower when considering PMN or plasma methoxytyramine which were commonly high in true PPGL despite mild PNM elevations. Conclusions: In a general medical population, seated PNM has a high rate of abnormal results, far exceeding expected prevalence. Supine measurement with supine, age-adjusted interpretation is strongly preferred prior to costly or invasive PPGL investigations. Summary: Review of 5452 plasma normetanephrine measurements showed 20% to be high, likely false positives for most. Supine, age-adjusted measures were half as likely to be elevated.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Normetanefrina/sangue , Paraganglioma/sangue , Feocromocitoma/sangue , Vigilância da População , Postura Sentada , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraganglioma/diagnóstico , Paraganglioma/epidemiologia , Feocromocitoma/diagnóstico , Feocromocitoma/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências
15.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(10): 1273-1283, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical treatment in Cushing's disease (CD) is limited due to poor understanding of its pathogenesis. Pathogenic variants of ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 (USP8) have been confirmed as causative in around half of corticotroph tumors. We aimed to further characterize the molecular landscape of those CD tumors lacking USP8 mutations in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on 18 paired tumor-blood samples with wild-type USP8 status. Candidate gene variants were screened by Sanger sequencing in 175 additional samples. The most frequent variant was characterized by further functional in vitro assays. RESULTS: Recurrent somatic hotspot mutations in another deubiquitinase, USP48, were found in 10.3% of analyzed samples. Several possibly damaging variants were found in TP53 in 6 of 18 samples. USP48 variants were associated with smaller tumors and trended toward higher frequency in female patients. They also changed the structural conformation of USP48 and increased its catalytic activity toward its physiological substrates histone 2A and zinc finger protein Gli1, as well as enhanced the stimulatory effect of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) on pro-opiomelanocortin production and adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. CONCLUSIONS: USP48 pathogenic variants are relatively frequent in USP8 wild-type tumors and enhance CRH-induced hormone production in a manner coherent with sonic hedgehog activation. In addition, TP53 pathogenic variants may be more frequent in larger CD tumors than previously reported.

16.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 127(10): 685-690, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease characterized by clinical features that show morphological similarity with the metabolic syndrome. Distinguishing these diseases in clinical practice is challenging. We have previously shown that computer vision technology can be a potentially useful diagnostic tool in Cushing's syndrome. In this follow-up study, we addressed the described problem by increasing the sample size and including controls matched by body mass index. METHODS: We enrolled 82 patients (22 male, 60 female) and 98 control subjects (32 male, 66 female) matched by age, gender and body-mass-index. The control group consisted of patients with initially suspected, but biochemically excluded Cushing's syndrome. Standardized frontal and profile facial digital photographs were acquired. The images were analyzed using specialized computer vision and classification software. A grid of nodes was semi-automatically placed on disease-relevant facial structures for analysis of texture and geometry. Classification accuracy was calculated using a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure with a maximum likelihood classifier. RESULTS: The overall correct classification rates were 10/22 (45.5%) for male patients and 26/32 (81.3%) for male controls, and 34/60 (56.7%) for female patients and 43/66 (65.2%) for female controls. In subgroup analyses, correct classification rates were higher for iatrogenic than for endogenous Cushing's syndrome. CONCLUSION: Regarding the advanced problem of detecting Cushing's syndrome within a study sample matched by body mass index, we found moderate classification accuracy by facial image analysis. Classification accuracy is most likely higher in a larger sample with healthy control subjects. Further studies might pursue a more advanced analysis and classification algorithm.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Síndrome de Cushing/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Fotografação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome de Cushing/classificação , Síndrome de Cushing/patologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822354

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cross sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as a first-choice modality for tumor localization in patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). 123I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) is widely used for functional imaging but the added diagnostic value is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To establish the virtual impact of adding 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to CT or MRI on diagnosis and treatment of PPGL. DESIGN: International multicenter retrospective study. INTERVENTION: None. PATIENTS: 236 unilateral adrenal, 18 bilateral adrenal, 48 unifocal extra-adrenal, 12 multifocal and 26 metastatic PPGL. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients underwent both anatomical imaging (CT and/or MRI) and 123I-MIBG scintigraphy. Local imaging reports were analyzed centrally by two independent observers who were blinded to the diagnosis. Imaging-based diagnoses determined by CT/MRI only, 123I-MIBG only, and CT/MRI combined with 123I-MIBG scintigraphy were compared with the correct diagnoses. RESULTS: The rates of correct imaging-based diagnoses determined by CT/MRI only versus CT/MRI plus 123I-MIBG scintigraphy were similar: 89.4 versus 88.8%, respectively, (P=0.50). Adding 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to CT/MRI resulted in a correct change in the imaging-based diagnosis and ensuing virtual treatment in four cases (1.2%: two metastatic instead of non-metastatic, one multifocal instead of single, one unilateral instead of bilateral adrenal) at the cost of an incorrect change in seven cases (2.1%: four metastatic instead of non-metastatic, two multifocal instead of unifocal and one bilateral instead of unilateral adrenal). CONCLUSIONS: For the initial localization of PPGL, the addition of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy to CT/MRI rarely improves the diagnostic accuracy at the cost of incorrect interpretation in others, even when 123I-MIBG scintigraphy is restricted to patients who are at risk for metastatic disease. In this setting, the impact of 123I-MIBG scintigraphy on clinical decision-making appears very limited.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2535-2546, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844069

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cushing disease (CD) is a rare disorder with severe sequels and incompletely understood pathogenesis. The underlying corticotroph adenomas harbor frequently somatic mutations in the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8) gene. These mutations render USP8 hyperactive and prevent client proteins from degradation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of USP8 mutations on proteins deregulated in CD. DESIGN: One hundred eight pituitary adenomas (75 corticotroph [58 USP8 wild type (WT) and 17 USP8 mutated], 14 somatotroph, and 19 nonfunctioning) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. All evaluated proteins [USP8, arginine vasopressin receptor 1b and 2, corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), p27/kip1, cyclin E, heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), orphan nuclear receptor 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, histone deacetylase 2, glucocorticoid receptor, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 enzyme substrate 1] were known to be deregulated in CD. Furthermore, AtT20 cells were transfected with USP8 to investigate the expression of possible downstream proteins by immunoblot. RESULTS: Whereas most of the investigated proteins were not differentially expressed, the cell-cycle inhibitor p27 was significantly reduced in USP8 mutated corticotroph adenoma (H-score 2.0 ± 1.0 vs 1.1 ± 1.1 in WT adenomas; P = 0.004). In contrast, the chaperone HSP90 was expressed higher (0.5 ± 0.4 vs 0.2 ± 0.4; P = 0.29), and the phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB was increased in USP8 mutated adenomas (1.30.5 ± 0.40.9 vs 0.70.5 ± 0.40.7; P = 0.014). Accordingly, AtT20 cells transfected with the USP8 P720R mutant had higher phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) levels than WT transfected cells (1.3 ± 0.14 vs 1 ± 0.23; P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: We could demonstrate that USP8 mutations are associated with deregulation of p27/kip1, HSP90, and pCREB. These findings suggest that these proteins are direct or indirect clients of USP8 and could therefore be potential targets for therapeutic approaches in patients with CD.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 2985-2993, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844071

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Unilateral adrenalectomy has been proposed in selected patients with primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia (PBMAH), but its long-term outcome is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze long-term clinical and biochemical outcomes of unilateral adrenalectomy vs bilateral adrenalectomy in patients with PBMAH in comparison with the outcome of cortisol-producing adenoma (CPA) treated with unilateral adrenalectomy. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study in three German and one Italian academic tertiary care center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with PBMAH after unilateral adrenalectomy (unilat-ADX-PBMAH), nine patients with PBMAH and bilateral adrenalectomy (bilat-ADX-PBMAH), and 39 patients with CPA and unilateral adrenalectomy (unilat-ADX-CPA) were included. RESULTS: Baseline clinical and biochemical parameters were comparable in patients with unilat-ADX-PBMAH, bilat-ADX-PBMAH, and unilat-ADX-CPA. Directly after surgery, 84% of the patients with unilat-ADX-PBMAH experienced initial remission of Cushing syndrome (CS). In contrast, at last follow-up (median, 50 months), 32% of the patients with unilat-ADX-PBMAH were biochemically controlled compared with nearly all patients in the other two groups (P = 0.000). Adrenalectomy of the contralateral side had to be performed in 12% of the initial patients with unilat-ADX-PBMAH. Three of 20 patients with unilat-ADX-PBMAH (15%) died during follow-up, presumably of CS-related causes; no deaths occurred in the other two groups (P = 0.008). Deaths occurred exclusively in patients who were not biochemically controlled after unilateral ADX. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that unilateral adrenalectomy of patients with PBMAH leads to clinical remission and a lower incidence of adrenal crisis but in less sufficient biochemical control of hypercortisolism, potentially leading to higher mortality.

20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2367-2374, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (MPP) are characterized by prognostic heterogeneity. Our objective was to look for prognostic parameters of overall survival (OS) in MPP patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study of MPP characterized by a neck-thoraco-abdomino-pelvic CT or MRI at the time of malignancy diagnosis in European centers between 1998 and 2010. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-nine patients from 18 European centers were included. Main characteristics of patients with MPP were: primary pheochromocytoma in 53% of patients; tumor- or hormone-related symptoms in 57% or 58% of cases; positive plasma or urine hormones in 81% of patients; identification of a mutation in SDHB in 42% of cases. Metastatic sites included bone (64%), lymph node (40%), lung (29%), and liver (26%); mean time between initial and malignancy diagnosis was 43 months (range, 0 to 614). Median follow-up was 68 months and median survival 6.7 years. Using univariate analysis, better survival was associated with head and neck paraganglioma, age <40 years, metanephrines less than fivefold the upper limits of the normal range, and low proliferative index. In multivariate analysis, hypersecretion [hazard ratio 3.02 (1.65 to 5.55); P = 0.0004] was identified as an independent significant prognostic factor of worst OS. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not confirm SDHB mutations as a major prognostic parameter in MPP and suggest additional key molecular events involved in MPP tumor progression. Aside from SDHB mutation, the biology of aggressive MPP remains to be understood.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/mortalidade , Paraganglioma/mortalidade , Feocromocitoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Paraganglioma/genética , Feocromocitoma/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Succinato Desidrogenase/genética
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