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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125458, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505416

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of feeding flaxseed meal (FSM) and turmeric rhizome powder (TRP) supplementation on tissue lipid profile, lipid metabolism, health indices, oxidative stability, and physical properties of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation significantly increased the ω-3 PUFA, particularly ALA, EPA, DPA, and DHA of broiler chicken meat due to the corresponding increase ∆9 and Δ5 + Δ6 desaturase activities. The increased activities of the desaturases resulted in significantly better health indices of the broiler chicken meat. The feeding of 100 g FSM along with 10.0 g TRP supplementation reduced the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices of broiler chicken meat. The 100 g FSM feeding reduced the oxidative stability, water holding capacity, extract release volume of broiler chicken meat and increased drip loss, whereas, 10.0 g TRP supplementation reversed these negative effects of FSM.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17517, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754162

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

3.
J Biophotonics ; : e201960127, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682313

RESUMO

Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) can be classified as optical resolution (OR)-PAM and acoustic resolution (AR)-PAM depending on the type of resolution achieved. Using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner, high-speed OR-PAM system was developed earlier. Depth of imaging limits the use of OR-PAM technology for many preclinical and clinical imaging applications. Here, we demonstrate the use of a high-speed MEMS scanner for AR-PAM imaging. Lateral resolution of 84 µm and an axial resolution of 27 µm with ~2.7 mm imaging depth was achieved using a 50 MHz transducer-based AR-PAM system. Use of a higher frequency transducer at 75 MHz has further improved the resolution characteristics of the system with a reduction in imaging depth and a lateral resolution of 53 µm and an axial resolution of 18 µm with ~1.8 mm imaging depth was achieved. Using the two-axis MEMS scanner a 2 × 2 .5 mm2 area was imaged in 3 seconds. The capability of achieving acoustic resolution images using the MEMS scanner makes it beneficial for the development of high-speed miniaturized systems for deeper tissue imaging.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701396

RESUMO

A feeding trial of 10 weeks duration was undertaken on laying hens (n = 240) to evaluate feeding value of rice distiller's dried grains with soluble (rDDGS) with or without enzyme supplementation (α-amylase, ß-glucanase, xylanase, carboxymethylcellulase, pectinase, proteinase, α-galactosidase, ß-galactosidase, lipase, and phytase), following 4 × 2 factorial design, on egg production, nutrient utilization, and cost economics of egg production. The birds were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments with 30 birds/treatment. The birds were housed individually in layer cages and each bird was taken as an experimental unit. Eight experimental diets were prepared by incorporating four levels (0, 50, 75, and 100 g/kg) of rDDGS with and without enzyme supplementation. The results revealed a significant (P < 0.01) increase of egg mass, feed intake, egg production, and body weight gain in dietary treatments with up to 75 g rDDGS though the values were statistically similar to the hens fed 100 g rDDGS. Enzyme supplementation resulted in significant (P < 0.01) improvement of egg mass, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR) per dozen eggs, FCR per kilogramme egg mass, and net FCR. The significantly (P < 0.01) higher yolk index was observed at 100 g rDDGS level, while shell thickness improved significantly (P < 0.01) up to 75 g rDDGS level. No significant effect of rDDGS inclusion was observed on shape index, albumin index, and Haugh unit. Enzyme supplementation significantly improved the shell thickness and yolk colour of eggs. Nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus retention and dry matter metabolizability did not show any significant treatment effects. There was significant (P < 0.01) reduction in feed-cost per kilogramme egg mass or per dozen eggs with the increased DDGS levels and dietary enzyme supplementation. It was concluded that rDDGS can be used up to 100 g/kg diet of laying hens along with enzyme supplementation for better productivity of layer hens.

6.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(6): 1800-1809, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483533

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) shell powder (SSP), a cheap source of saponins, on growth performance, immunity, serum biochemistry and gut health of broiler chickens. The experimental design was 4×2, employing four saponin levels (0, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg diet), each provided for two time durations (0-42 day and 21-42 day) resulting into eight dietary treatments. Results revealed no significant effect of dietary saponins on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of birds. The abdominal fat percentage, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, faecal total plate count, coliform count and E. coli count decreased (p < .05) progressively with increasing saponin levels and lower values were observed at 150 mg and 200 mg saponin levels. Significant improvement of cell-mediated and humoral immune response was observed in birds fed 150 mg and 200 mg saponin compared to control. The serum glucose concentration was significantly (p < .05) higher in control group compared to other groups. No significant effects of dietary saponin were observed on carcass characteristics, faecal Lactobacillus count, intestinal histomorphometry and cost economics of broiler chicken production. Thus, dietary saponins at 150 mg/kg diet as SSP for three weeks (21-42 days) was optimum for better immunity and welfare of birds without adverse effects on the growth performance.

7.
Life Sci ; 233: 116671, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336122

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a clan of proteins involved in identification and triggering a suitable response against pathogenic attacks. As lung is steadily exposed to multiple infectious agents, antigens and host-derived danger signals, the inhabiting stromal and myeloid cells of the lung express an aggregate of TLRs which perceive the endogenously derived damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) along with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger the TLR-associated signalling events involved in host defence. Thus, they form an imperative component of host defence activation in case of microbial infections as well as non-infectious pulmonary disorders such as interstitial lung disease, acute lung injury and airways disease, such as COPD and asthma. They also play an equally important role in lung cancer. Targeting the TLR signalling network would pave ways to the design of more reliable and effective vaccines against infectious agents and control deadly infections, desensitize allergens and reduce inflammation. Moreover, TLR agonists may act as adjuvants by increasing the efficiency of cancer vaccines, thereby contributing their role in treatment of lung cancer too. Overall, TLRs present a compelling and expeditiously bolstered area of research and addressing their signalling events would be of significant use in pulmonary diseases.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Pneumopatias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Luminescence ; 34(8): 804-811, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273930

RESUMO

Dy3+ -doped CaAl12 O19 phosphors were synthesized utilizing a combustion method. Crystal structure and morphological examinations were performed respectively using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques to identify the phase and morphology of the synthesized samples. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) estimations were carried out using the KBr method. Photoluminescence properties (excitation and emission) were recorded at room temperature. CaAl12 O19 :Dy3+ phosphor showed two emission peaks respectively under a 350-nm excitation wavelength, centered at 477 nm and 573 nm. Dipole-dipole interaction via nonradiative energy shifting has been considered as the major cause of concentration quenching when Dy3+ concentration was more than 3 mol%. The CIE chromaticity coordinates positioned at (0.3185, 0.3580) for the CaAl12 O19 :0.03Dy3+ phosphor had a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 6057 K, which is situated in the cool white area. Existing results point out that the CaAl12 O19 :0.03Dy3+ phosphor could be a favorable candidate for use in white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs).

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9314, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249316

RESUMO

The present study describes an efficient method for isolation and purification of protein extracts from four types of human teeth i.e. molar, premolar, canine, and incisor. Detailed structural characterization of these protein extracts was done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) which showed that a major fraction of the proteins present are unstructured in nature including primarily random coils in addition to the other structures like extended beta (ß) structure, poly-l-proline-type II (PPII) helix, turns, with only a small fraction constituting of ordered structures like alpha (α) helix and ß sheets. These resultant labile structures give the proteins the necessary flexibility that they require to interact with a variety of substrates including different ions like calcium and phosphates and for other protein-protein interactions. We also did initial studies on the mineralization of calcium phosphate with the protein extracts. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) show an increase in the size of calcium phosphate accumulation in the presence of protein extracts. We propose that protein extracts elevate the crystallization process of calcium phosphate. Our current biophysical study provides novel insights into the structural characterization of proteins from human teeth and their implications in understanding the tooth biomineralization. As per our knowledge, this is the first report which focuses on the whole protein extraction from different types of human teeth as these extracts imitate the in vivo tooth mineralization.

10.
J Biophotonics ; 12(9): e201800442, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012286

RESUMO

Raster Scanning Optoacoustic Mesoscopy (RSOM) is a novel optoacoustic imaging modality that offers non-invasive, label-free, high resolution (~7 µm axial, ~30 µm lateral) imaging up to 1 to 2 mm below the skin, providing novel quantitative insights into skin pathophysiology. As the RSOM image contrast mechanism is based on light absorption, it is expected that the amount of melanin present in the skin will affect RSOM images. However, the effect of skin tone in the performance of RSOM has not been addressed so far. Herein, we present the efficiency of RSOM for in vivo skin imaging of human subjects with Fitzpatrick (FP) skin types between II to V. RSOM images acquired from the volar forearms of the subjects were used to derive metrics used in RSOM studies, such as total blood volume, vessel diameter and melanin signal intensity. Our study shows that the melanin signal intensity derived from the RSOM images exhibited an excellent correlation with that obtained from a clinical colorimeter for the subjects of varying FP skin types. We could successfully estimate the vessel diameter at different depths of the dermis. Furthermore, our study shows that there is a need to compensate for total blood volume calculated for subjects with higher FP skin types due to the lower signal-to-noise ratio in dermis, owing to strong absorption of light by melanin. This study sheds light into how RSOM can be used for studying various skin conditions in populations with different skin phenotypes.

11.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-4, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259760

RESUMO

Spinacia oleracea L. (Spinach) is a leafy vegetable which is considered to have a high nutritional value. Flavonoids in spinach were reported to act as antimutagenic property. Rapid detection of these flavonoids in Spinach was achieved by using HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. Thirty six compounds were tentatively identified based on their retention times, accurate mass and MS/MS spectra. The fragmentation patterns of known compounds were applied to elucidate the structure of their corresponding derivatives having the same basic skeleton. Out of thirty six peaks, three peaks were assigned as patuletin and six peaks were assigned as spinacetin derivatives. Twelve compounds were first time identified following the fragmentation pattern of known compounds. Five of the identified compounds i.e., spinacetin, 5,3',4'-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid and coumaric acid were simultaneously quantified in spinach leaves by a validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method under MRM mode.

12.
J Biophotonics ; 11(12): e201800135, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978566

RESUMO

White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) biologically function in an opposite way in energy metabolism. BAT induces energy consumption by heat production while WAT mainly stores energy in the form of triglycerides. Recent progress in the conversion of WAT cells to "beige" or "brown-like" adipocytes in animals, having functional similarity to BAT, spurred a great interest in developing the next-generation therapeutics in the field of metabolic disorders. Though magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography could detect classical BAT and WAT in animals and humans, it is of a great challenge in detecting the "browning" process in vivo. Here, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we present a simple, cost-effective, label-free fiber optic-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurement in the near infrared II window (~1050-1400 nm) for the quantitative detection of browning in a mouse model in vivo. We could successfully quantify the browning of WAT in a mouse model by estimating the lipid fraction, which serves as an endogenous marker. Lipid fraction exhibited a gradual decrease from WAT to BAT with beige exhibiting an intermediate value. in vivo browning process was also confirmed with standard molecular and biochemical assays.

13.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 9(2): 150-156, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887692

RESUMO

The lateral pelvic lymph node recurrence after curative resection in rectal cancer has been reported in more than 20% of cases and the lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN) metastasis is an independent risk factor for local recurrence. A prospective cohort study with diagnosis of lower rectal cancer stages II and III performed to identify the factors with significant correlation with LPLN metastasis was categorised based on the number of positive factors and proposed a risk stratification model to uncover a possible benefit of LPLD in specific patient subgroups. Forty-three patients with lower rectal cancer underwent curative surgery, total mesorectal excision with bilateral lateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Pre-operative, female gender, raised serum CEA (> 5 ng/mL), cT4, enlarged mesorectal lymph nodes, borderline enlarged LPLN on MRI, lower location (< 5 cm from anal verge), large size (> 5 cm) and non-circumferential lesion were significant predictors for LPLN metastasis. Histopathological, higher tumour grade, higher pT and pN stage, and the presence of LVI were significant factors. On cox-proportional hazard model analysis, female gender, large tumour, cT4, enlarged mesorectal lymph nodes, borderline enlarged LPLN, pN1 and positive LVI were associated with significant hazard. In conclusion, a specific group of patients with lower rectal cancer of stages II and III might be have treated with LPND in spite of concurrent chemo-radiation to achieve satisfactory oncological outcome. The proposed stratification grouping is strongly guiding the patient for lateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Further study to prove the oncological advantage of LPND is warranted at large scale.

14.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-6, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488392

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of Cissus quadrangularis stems led to the isolation of one new phenolic glycoside (1) and two new lignan glycosides (7 & 8) along with twelve known compounds (2-6 & 9-15). Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis using 1D, 2D NMR, and mass spectrometric analysis. Among the known compounds, 4-6, 9 and 12 were isolated for the first time from the genus Cissus whereas compounds 10, 11 and 13 for the first time from this plant.

15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 18(1): 69, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinacia oleracea is an important dietary vegetable in India and throughout the world and has many beneficial effects. It is cultivated globally. However, its effect on osteoarthritis that mainly targets the cartilage cells remains unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the anti-osteoarthritic and chondro-protective effects of SOE on chemically induced osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was induced by intra-patellar injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) at the knee joint in rats. SOE was then given orally at 250 and 500 mg.kg- 1 day- 1 doses for 28 days to these rats. Anti-osteoarthritic potential of SOE was evaluated by micro-CT, mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory and chondrogenic genes, clinically relevant biomarker's and behavioural experiments. RESULTS: In vitro cell free and cell based assays indicated that SOE acts as a strong anti-oxidant and an anti-inflammatory agent. Histological analysis of knee joints at the end of the experiment by safranin-o and toluidine blue staining established its protective effect. Radiological data corroborated the findings with improvement in the joint space and irregularity of the articular and atrophied femoral condyles and tibial plateau. Micro-CT analysis of sub-chondral bone indicated that SOE had the ability to mitigate OA effects by increasing bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV) which resulted in decrease of trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf) by more than 200%. SOE stimulated chondrogenic marker gene expression with reduction in pro-inflammatory markers. Purified compounds isolated from SOE exhibited increased Sox-9 and Col-II protein expression in articular chondrocytes. Serum and urine analysis indicated that SOE had the potential to down-regulate glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, clinical markers of osteoarthritis like cartilage oligometric matrix protein (COMP) and CTX-II. Overall, this led to a significant improvement in locomotion and balancing activity in rats as assessed by Open-field and Rota rod test. CONCLUSION: On the basis of in vitro and in vivo experiments performed with Spinacea oleracea extract we can deduce that SOE has the ability to alleviate the MIA induced deleterious effects.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Spinacia oleracea/química , Animais , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Iodoacetatos/efeitos adversos , Articulação do Joelho/efeitos dos fármacos , Articulação do Joelho/metabolismo , Articulação do Joelho/patologia , Osteoartrite/induzido quimicamente , Osteoartrite/genética , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/metabolismo , Tíbia/patologia
16.
Immunobiology ; 223(4-5): 383-396, 2018 Apr - May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146235

RESUMO

Macrophages, circulating in the blood or concatenated into different organs and tissues constitute the first barrier against any disease. They are foremost controllers of both innate and acquired immunity, healthy tissue homeostasis, vasculogenesis and congenital metabolism. Two hallmarks of macrophages are diversity and plasticity due to which they acquire a wobbling array of phenotypes. These phenotypes are appropriately synchronized responses to a variety of different stimuli from either the tissue microenvironment or - microbes or their products. Based on the phenotype, macrophages are classified into classically activated/(M1) and alternatively activated/(M2) which are further sub-categorized into M2a, M2b, M2c and M2d based upon gene expression profiles. Macrophage phenotype metamorphosis is the regulating factor in initiation, progression, and termination of numerous inflammatory diseases. Several transcriptional factors and other factors controlling gene expression such as miRNAs contribute to the transformation of macrophages at different points in different diseases. Understanding the mechanisms of macrophage polarization and modulation of their phenotypes to adjust to the micro environmental conditions might provide us a great prospective for designing novel therapeutic strategy. In view of the above, this review summarises the activation of macrophages, the factors intricated in activation along with benefaction of macrophage polarization in response to microbial infections, pulmonary toxicity, lung injury and other inflammatory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary dysplasia (COPD), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), asthma and sepsis, along with the existing efforts to develop therapies targeting this facet of macrophage biology.

18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 49(8): 1689-1695, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28815376

RESUMO

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is the most contagious disease of mammals and a major threat to animal husbandry sector. In India, vaccination with the inactivated trivalent (O, A and Asia1) vaccine is one proven way for protecting the livestock from FMD. However, many outbreaks have been reported in different parts of the country. Therefore, present study was aimed at elucidating the effects of genetic and non-genetic factors on FMD viral vaccine-elicited immune response in Hardhenu cattle. The effect of season of vaccination was not consistent. The effect of status of animal was significant for all the pre and post AB titres except for pre AB titre of serotype O and post AB titre of Asia1.The estimates of heritability for response to vaccination were low to high ranging from 0.11 to 0.45. The highest heritability estimate was obtained for serotype O and the lowest for Asia1. The heritability estimates for pre and post AB titres ranged from 0.15 to 0.33. All the pre and post AB titres and responses to vaccination had genetic correlations ranged from high negative to high positive among them. Results of this study highlight the variation in vaccine response which needs to be further exploited on large-scale animal data for better immunization and protection against highly contagious viral vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/genética , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Imunidade Ativa , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária
19.
Br J Nutr ; 117(11): 1511-1522, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28689509

RESUMO

The bone regeneration and healing effect of formononetin was evaluated in a cortical bone defect model that predominantly heals by intramembranous ossification. For this study, female Balb/c mice were ovariectomised (OVx) and a drill-hole injury was generated in the midfemoral bones of all animals. Treatment with formononetin commenced the day after and continued for 21 d. Parathyroid hormone (PTH1-34) was used as a reference standard. Animals were killed at days 10 and 21. Femur bones were collected at the injury site for histomorphometry studies using microcomputed tomography (µCT) and confocal microscopy. RNA and protein were harvested from the region surrounding the drill-hole injury. For immunohistochemistry, 5 µm sections of decalcified femur bone adjoining the drill-hole site were cut. µCT analysis showed that formononetin promoted bone healing at days 10 and 21 and the healing effect observed was significantly better than in Ovx mice and equal to PTH treatment in many aspects. Formononetin also significantly enhanced bone regeneration as assessed by calcein-labelling studies. In addition, formononetin enhanced the expression of osteogenic markers at the injury site in a manner similar to PTH. Formononetin treatment also led to predominant runt-related transcription factor 2 and osteocalcin localisation at the injury site. These results support the potential of formononetin to be a bone-healing agent and are suggestive of its promising role in the fracture-repair process.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Cortical/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/química , Fraturas Ósseas/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Osso Cortical/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fêmur/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Isoflavonas/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/farmacologia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/uso terapêutico , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Br J Nutr ; 117(5): 645-661, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28367764

RESUMO

Balance between adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation is the key link of disease progression in obesity and osteoporosis. We have previously reported that formononetin (FNT), an isoflavone extracted from Butea monosperma, stimulates osteoblast formation and protects against postmenopausal bone loss. The inverse relationship between osteoblasts and adipocytes prompted us to analyse the effect of FNT on adipogenesis and in vivo bone loss, triggered by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. The anti-obesity effect and mechanism of action of FNT was determined in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese male mice. Our findings show that FNT suppresses the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, through down-regulation of key adipogenic markers such as PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and inhibits intracellular TAG accumulation. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation accompanied by stabilisation of ß-catenin were attributed to the anti-adipogenic action of FNT. In vivo, 12 weeks of FNT treatment inhibited the development of obesity in mice by attenuating HFD-induced body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation. The anti-obesity effect of FNT results from increased energy expenditure. FNT also protects against HFD-induced dyslipidaemia and rescues deterioration of trabecular bone volume by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorbtion caused by HFD. FNT's rescuing action against obesity-induced osteoporosis commenced at the level of progenitors, as bone marrow progenitor cells, obtained from the HFD mice group supplemented with FNT, showed increased osteogenic and decreased adipogenic potentials. Our findings suggest that FNT inhibits adipogenesis through AMPK/ß-catenin signal transduction pathways and protects against HFD-induced obesity and bone loss.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/tratamento farmacológico , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/etiologia , Osteoporose/etiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
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