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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992946

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease affecting 262 million people globally, causing half a million deaths each year. Poor asthma outcomes are frequently due to non-adherence to medication, poor engagement with asthma services, and a lack of objective diagnostic tests. In recent years, technologies have been developed to improve diagnosis, monitoring, and care. AREAS COVERED: Technology has impacted asthma care with the potential to improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and provide personalized management. We focus on current evidence on home diagnostics and monitoring, remote asthma reviews, and digital smart inhalers. PubMed, Ovid/Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched in November 2023 with no limit by year of publication. EXPERT OPINION: Advanced diagnostic technologies have enabled early asthma detection and personalized treatment plans. Mobile applications and digital therapeutics empower patients to manage their condition and improve adherence to treatments. Telemedicine platforms and remote monitoring devices have the potential to streamline asthma care. AI algorithms can analyze patient data and predict exacerbations in proof-of-concept studies. Technology can potentially provide precision medicine to a wider patient group in the future, but further development is essential for implementation into routine care which in itself will be a major challenge.

2.
Cureus ; 15(3): e35775, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37025727

RESUMO

Background The COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant disruption in clinical attachments for final-year medical students which can result in gaps in clinical knowledge and lower confidence levels. We developed a targeted near-peer-teaching (NPT) revision series to bridge this gap. Method A one-week virtual revision series was developed by the postgraduate doctors (PD and AT) and supervised by the final year written paper lead (NS) as per curriculum requirements. The series focused on eight key common clinical presentations. It was delivered via Leicester Medical School's virtual platform by PD and AT a week before the finals. Multiple-choice surveys were sent out prior to the commencement of the series to gauge participation and baseline confidence. Surveys were also sent out before and after each session evaluating teaching, confidence levels, and improvement points. Results This NPT experience was the first comprehensive revision series during the COVID-19 recovery phase. Between 30 and 120 students attended each session. From the pre-series survey (n=63), almost all students indicated that their clinical attachments had been affected by the pandemic and that they (100%) would be interested in participating in the NPT series. From the post-session surveys, 93% of students reported that the session enhanced their confidence in recognizing and managing the clinical presentation, and 100% considered the quality of teaching to be good to excellent. From the post-series survey, a significant improvement was seen in confidence based on the Likert scale (from a combined 35% to 83%, pre, and post-series, respectively). Conclusion The series evaluation demonstrates that students found it a valuable experience and benefited from the social and cognitive congruence afforded by near-peer teachers. Furthermore, the results support the continued use and development of a virtual pre-exam revision series within the medical school curriculum as an adjunct to normal teaching.

3.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 134(1): 142-146, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36476160

RESUMO

Airway resistance measurements using oscillometry provide a potential alternative to spirometry in assessing airway obstruction and dynamics due to measurements taken during tidal breathing. Oscillometry typically requires participants to form a tight seal around a mouthpiece that can prove challenging for some people. To address this challenge, we conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effect of different interfaces like mouthpiece, mouth mask, and nasal mask on respiratory impedance results from oscillometry in a cohort of healthy adults. Ten healthy adults [7 females; mean age: 38.9 yr (SD ±15.5)] underwent oscillometry using each of the three interfaces. We measured resistance at 5 Hz (Rrs5), frequency dependence of resistance at 5-20 Hz (Rrs5-20), and reactance area (Ax). Rrs5 was not different when using the mouthpiece compared with the mouth mask [mean 2.98 cmH2O/L/s (SD ±0.68) vs. mean 3.2 cmH2O/L/s (SD ±0.81); P = 0.92; 95% CI -0.82 to +0.38], respectively. Nasal mask Rrs5 measurements were significantly higher than mouthpiece measurements (mean 7.31 cmH2O/L/s; SD ±2.62; P < 0.01; 95%CI -6.91 to -1.75). With Ax5, we found a mean of 4.01 cmH2O/L (SD ±2.04) with the mouth mask compared with a mean of 4.02 cmH2O/L (SD ±1.87; P = 1.0 95% CI -1.86 to +1.87) for the mouthpiece, however, we found a significant difference between the mouthpiece and nasal mask for Ax (mean = 10.71; SD ±7.0 H2O/L; P = 0.04, 95% CI -12.96 to -0.43). Our findings show that oscillometry using a mouth mask may be just as effective as using a mouthpiece in assessing airway dynamics and resistance.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to compare the use of different interfaces: mouthpiece, mouth mask, and nasal mask, for oscillometry in an adult population. We report that using a mouth mask in oscillometry may provide a valid alternative to a mouthpiece in cohorts who may struggle to form the required tight seal that is typically required in oscillometry or spirometry.


Assuntos
Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Pulmão , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Oscilometria/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Espirometria , Boca
4.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 16(9): 973-981, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125212

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma is a chronic airways disease characterized by episodes of wheeze, chest tightness, and evidence of reversible airflow obstruction. Symptoms are frequently triggered by exercise, exposure to aeroallergens, and respiratory viruses. It is the commonest non-communicable respiratory condition in children, affecting over 5.5 million children in the European Union alone. Both over- and under- diagnosis of asthma are common for several reasons. AREAS COVERED: The diagnosis is frequently based on parental or patient reported non-specific symptoms alone. All major asthma guidelines now recommend the use of objective tests, including spirometry, bronchodilator reversibility testing, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurements and challenge testing to confirm the diagnosis. Recently, the European Respiratory Society published the first evidence-based international guidelines for diagnosing asthma in school-age children using objective measures. Major barriers to implementation in primary care and less well-resourced healthcare settings are access to relevant objective tests for children and quality assurance to obtain reliable results. EXPERT OPINION: We highlight the importance of diagnosing asthma in school-age children using objective tests and outline a practical approach for the use of widely available tests. We also review challenges and barriers to implementation of objective testing in children managed outside specialist settings.


Assuntos
Asma , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , Humanos , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Óxido Nítrico , Asma/diagnóstico , Expiração , Espirometria/métodos
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162612

RESUMO

Internal hernias due to mesenteric defects are a rare cause of bowel obstruction, but once present their complications are associated with a high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 24-year-old patient who presented to the emergency department with a 6-hour history of abdominal pain. Initial surgical review, taking into consideration the patient's clinical, biochemical and radiological findings, led to the patient being taken for immediate surgical exploration. Operative findings included a very mobile caecum and proximal ascending colon which had herniated through a defect in the small bowel mesentery, the sigmoid colon had subsequently become incarcerated by the caecum and small bowel too. Both the ascending and sigmoid colon had become ischaemic. Due to the early decision for surgical intervention, we were able to consider a number of surgical strategies, and the surgery led to a positive outcome for our patient.


Assuntos
Hérnia Abdominal , Obstrução Intestinal , Adulto , Colo Sigmoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo Sigmoide/cirurgia , Hérnia Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Abdominal/cirurgia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Isquemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia/etiologia , Isquemia/cirurgia , Mesentério/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesentério/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 262: 105-112, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of aspirin in pregnancy for the prevention of adverse outcomes in low risk, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane library, Web of Science and clinicaltrials.gov were searched from inception until February 2020. Randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion where women were nulliparous, had singleton pregnancies and no other risk factors for pre-eclampsia such as diabetes or pre-existing hypertension. Primary outcomes were pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension and eclampsia. Secondary outcomes included; pre-term birth, postpartum haemorrhage, antepartum haemorrhage, miscarriage, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal growth restriction (FGR), birthweight and further markers of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The results were combined into meta-analysis where appropriate. RESULTS: Ten studies were eligible for inclusion involving 23,162 women. Two studies (involving 214 women) used aspirin doses of 100 mg, with the remainder using smaller doses. There was no significant difference found in the risk of developing pre-eclampsia between women receiving aspirin compared to no aspirin (relative risk [RR] 0.70, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.47-1.05, p = 0.08). Women receiving aspirin had a reduced risk of having a preterm birth <34 weeks (RR 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26-0.96, p = 0.04), and reduced risk of having a SGA neonate (RR 0.94, 95 % CI 0.89-1.00, p = 0.04). An increase in birthweight was seen when aspirin was received (mean difference 105.17 g, 95 % CI 12.38 g-197.96 g, p = 0.03) and there was no increase in risk of postpartum or antepartum haemorrhage in those receiving aspirin (RR 1.24, 95 % CI 0.90-1.71, p = 0.19 and RR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.66-1.70, p = 0.81 respectively). CONCLUSION: The results did not demonstrate a significant difference amongst low risk nulliparous women in the risks of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertensive disorders with aspirin administration. Although we found significantly improved fetal growth parameters and prevention of preterm birth in women receiving aspirin, there were few eligible studies, with those included generally providing low quality evidence and many studies using aspirin doses ≤100 mg, commenced late in pregnancy. More research in the form of a high quality randomised controlled trial is needed before recommendations can be made.


Assuntos
Pré-Eclâmpsia , Nascimento Prematuro , Aspirina , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco
8.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(3): 549-559, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33268044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recurrence of symptoms following primary nerve compression surgery can occur in up to 25% of cases. Nerve wrapping can be utilised for revision surgery. An ideal barrier should minimise the chance of fibrosis, scarring and allow for adequate nerve gliding. This review evaluates the use of autologous or commercially available allograft and xenograft options as barriers against nerve scarring following revision surgery. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid Embase and Cochrane databases were searched using the All Fields Index. Nine hundred titles underwent title screening with 11 studies being included in the final analysis. The risk of bias was assessed using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies (MINORS) tool. PRISMA guidelines were followed at all stages and the review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD 42020182818). RESULTS: The 11 studies comprised of all case series. In total, 114 patients were included, with ages ranging from 28 to 90. Previously, the number of revision surgeries ranged from 0 to 5. Autologous veins were used in 6 studies, collagen in 3 studies and human amniotic membrane in 2 studies. Improvements in subjective and objective outcomes were seen with all wrap types. Pain was the most common residual symptom (46% of patients). The most common complication was pain at the donor site following vein harvest (19% of patients). CONCLUSION: This is the first systematic review to summarise the outcomes of nerve wraps for revision compression neuropathy. While improvements in outcomes were reported, further comparative studies are needed to determine the best nerve wrap.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/cirurgia , Neuropatia Hereditária Motora e Sensorial/cirurgia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Síndromes de Compressão Nervosa/cirurgia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/prevenção & controle , Reoperação , Aloenxertos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Veias/transplante
9.
MedEdPublish (2016) ; 8: 180, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38089327

RESUMO

This article was migrated. The article was marked as recommended. Virtual reality is an area with fascinating possibilities. It has already revolutionised the entertainment industry, and over the last ten years, it has advanced similarly within the medical field. We have already seen virtual reality make a difference in a variety of ways. This ranges from improving the way surgical training is delivered, having a role in the management of chronic pain and now, it is even being considered in the treatment of psychiatric diseases. Currently, the application of virtual reality towards the training of health care professionals and medical education are concepts that are being explored. Within medical education and more specifically medical student training, the benefits of virtual reality have so far been limited to studies assessing its role in teaching. Very few studies exist looking at the role of virtual reality in the assessment of medical students. Therefore, in this article, we discuss the idea of utilising virtual reality for objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and analyse the potential benefits and pitfalls of implementing this technology.

10.
PLoS Med ; 15(2): e1002507, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the influence of diet during pregnancy and infancy on a child's immune development. We assessed whether variations in maternal or infant diet can influence risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two authors selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess certainty of findings. We searched Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), Web of Science, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) between January 1946 and July 2013 for observational studies and until December 2017 for intervention studies that evaluated the relationship between diet during pregnancy, lactation, or the first year of life and future risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. We identified 260 original studies (964,143 participants) of milk feeding, including 1 intervention trial of breastfeeding promotion, and 173 original studies (542,672 participants) of other maternal or infant dietary exposures, including 80 trials of maternal (n = 26), infant (n = 32), or combined (n = 22) interventions. Risk of bias was high in 125 (48%) milk feeding studies and 44 (25%) studies of other dietary exposures. Evidence from 19 intervention trials suggests that oral supplementation with nonpathogenic micro-organisms (probiotics) during late pregnancy and lactation may reduce risk of eczema (Risk Ratio [RR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.68-0.90; I2 = 61%; Absolute Risk Reduction 44 cases per 1,000; 95% CI 20-64), and 6 trials suggest that fish oil supplementation during pregnancy and lactation may reduce risk of allergic sensitisation to egg (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.90; I2 = 15%; Absolute Risk Reduction 31 cases per 1,000; 95% CI 10-47). GRADE certainty of these findings was moderate. We found weaker support for the hypotheses that breastfeeding promotion reduces risk of eczema during infancy (1 intervention trial), that longer exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced type 1 diabetes mellitus (28 observational studies), and that probiotics reduce risk of allergic sensitisation to cow's milk (9 intervention trials), where GRADE certainty of findings was low. We did not find that other dietary exposures-including prebiotic supplements, maternal allergenic food avoidance, and vitamin, mineral, fruit, and vegetable intake-influence risk of allergic or autoimmune disease. For many dietary exposures, data were inconclusive or inconsistent, such that we were unable to exclude the possibility of important beneficial or harmful effects. In this comprehensive systematic review, we were not able to include more recent observational studies or verify data via direct contact with authors, and we did not evaluate measures of food diversity during infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a relationship between maternal diet and risk of immune-mediated diseases in the child. Maternal probiotic and fish oil supplementation may reduce risk of eczema and allergic sensitisation to food, respectively.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Dieta , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
11.
Prenat Diagn ; 37(3): 253-265, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine association, and predictive ability, of first trimester maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHOD: Searches of Medline, Embase and CINAHL (inception September 2015) for studies including pregnant women with first trimester PAPP-A and assessment of pregnancy outcomes. Study characteristics, quality and results extracted. Meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), and likelihood ratios (LRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Thirty-two studies including 175 240 pregnancies. PAPP-A <5th centile had a moderate association with: birth weight <10th centile OR 2.08 (95% CI 1.89-2.29), <5th centile OR 2.83 (95% CI 2.52-3.18); pre-eclampsia OR 1.94 (95% CI 1.63-2.30), preterm birth <37 weeks OR 2.09 (95% CI 1.87-2.33), and composite adverse outcome OR 3.31 (95% CI 1.80-5.11). The predictive ability was poor: Birth weight <10th centile LR + ve 1.96 (95% CI 1.58-2.43), LR-ve 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.98); birth weight <5th centile LR + ve 2.65 (95% CI 2.35-2.99), LR-ve 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.98); PTB <37 weeks LR + ve 1.84 (95% CI 1.41-2.39), LR-ve 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: First trimester low maternal serum PAPP-A is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, but predictive values are poor. Further work should address PAPP-A as a continuous variable in combination with other prognostic markers as a prediction model. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/sangue , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Proteína Plasmática A Associada à Gravidez/análise
12.
Int Urogynecol J ; 27(10): 1541-5, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26992726

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this article was to use the British Society of Urogynaecology (BSUG) database to assess the impact of age on success rates and insertion complications of suburethral tapes for primary procedures using the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGII) as the primary endpoint. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of data at a national level (BSUG database) using PGII as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included improvement in stress incontinence and complications from surgery. All episodes of suburethral tapes on the database were extracted and analysis was by decade of life. RESULTS: A total of 7,600 cases were identified on the database, of which 757 were in women over 70 years of age, with 119 in women over 80. Just over 80 % of the cases on the database involved retropubic and just under 20 % transobturator tapes. Short-term follow-up was available for 54 % of the cases. The PGII remained high in all age groups, but did decrease slightly with age, with more than 90 % of women under 50 scoring highly, which reduced to 70 % in those over 80. Improvement in stress incontinence was globally high, with 98 % scoring highly in the women aged under 50 and 85 % in the 80+ group. This suggests that the suburethral tapes worked well in treating stress incontinence. Reassuringly, complications did not increase with age, although short-term voiding difficulties were higher with increasing age. CONCLUSION: Contributing to national databases gives useful information that may be difficult to ascertain from RCTs. Suburethral tapes appear to have good efficacy and low complications with increasing age.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Sistema de Registros , Slings Suburetrais , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia
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